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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234689/tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-among-hiv-tb-co-infected-children-in-the-international-epidemiology-databases-to-evaluate-aids-iedea-network
#1
James G Carlucci, Meridith Blevins, Aaron M Kipp, Mary Lou Lindegren, Quy Tuan Du, Lorna Renner, Gary Reubenson, John Ssali, Marcel Yotebieng, Anna M Mandalakas, Mary-Ann Davies, Marie Ballif, Lukas Fenner, April C Pettit
INTRODUCTION: Management of tuberculosis (TB) is challenging in HIV/TB co-infected children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nucleic acid amplification tests for TB diagnosis, a four-drug regimen including ethambutol during intensive phase of treatment (IP), and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within eight weeks of TB diagnosis. We investigated TB treatment outcomes by diagnostic modality, IP regimen, and ART status. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HIV/TB co-infected children enrolled at International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS treatment sites from 2012-2014...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234079/stool-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-at-primary-clinics-in-zimbabwe
#2
M Chipinduro, K Mateveke, B Makamure, R A Ferrand, E Gomo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Xpert® MTB/RIF on stool samples from children with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at primary care clinics. DESIGN: A cross-sectional diagnostic evaluation enrolling 5-16 year olds from whom one induced sputum (IS) sample was tested for microbiological TB confirmation. Results of a single stool sample tested using Xpert were compared against microbiologically confirmed TB, defined as a positive result on sputum microscopy and/or culture and/or IS Xpert...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233784/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-pks-genotoxin-gene-cluster-positive-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-in-taiwan
#3
Ying-Tsong Chen, Yi-Chyi Lai, Mei-Chen Tan, Li-Yun Hsieh, Jann-Tay Wang, Yih-Ru Shiau, Hui-Ying Wang, Ann-Chi Lin, Jui-Fen Lai, I-Wen Huang, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale
The pks gene cluster encodes enzymes responsible for the synthesis of colibactin, a genotoxin that has been shown to induce DNA damage and contribute to increased virulence. The present study investigated the prevalence of pks in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates from a national surveillance program in Taiwan, and identified microbiological and molecular factors associated with pks-carriage. The pks gene cluster was detected in 67 (16.7%) of 400 isolates from various specimen types. Multivariate analysis revealed that isolates of K1, K2, K20, and K62 capsular types (p < 0...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233313/effect-of-fortification-of-milk-with-omega-3-fatty-acids-phytosterols-and-soluble-fibre-on-the-sensory-physicochemical-and-microbiological-properties-of-milk
#4
N Veena, B Surendra Nath
BACKGROUND: Effect of addition of flaxseed oil (FO), phytosterols (PS) and polydextrose (PDX) on physicochemical and sensory properties of the milk was investigated as they are known to impart health benefits. RESULTS: For incorporating PS, a hydrophobic substance, FO and milk fat (MF) as an oil source, an emulsifier and PDX solution as an aqueous medium, were used for preparation of emulsion. Three emulsion formulations i.e. A (8 g PS, 8 g FO, 20 g PDX, 6 g MF), B (10 g PS, 10 g FO, 20 g PDX, 4 g MF) and C (12 g PS, 12 g FO, 20 g PDX, 2 g MF) were prepared and added individually to milk at a level of 50 g kg(-1) ...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233206/mechanical-ventilator-as-a-major-cause-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-intensive-care-unit
#5
Marwa M E Abd-Elmonsef, Dalia Elsharawy, Ayman S Abd-Elsalam
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent infection in intensive care units (ICU). It is associated with high rates of long morbidity and mortality. Management of a case of VAP is often said to add $40,000 to hospital costs USA. All these data directed our interest to study the etiology, risk factors, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of VAP in ICU of Tanta University Hospital. This study included 36 cases of VAP. Endotracheal aspirates were obtained from all cases and microbiologically analyzed...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233148/restoration-of-areas-degraded-by-alluvial-sand-mining-use-of-soil-microbiological-activity-and-plant-biomass-growth-to-assess-evolution-of-restored-riparian-vegetation
#6
Graziela R Venson, Rosemeri C Marenzi, Tito César M Almeida, Alexandre Deschamps-Schmidt, Renan C Testolin, Leonardo R Rörig, Claudemir M Radetski
River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233138/personal-life-and-working-conditions-of-trainees-and-young-specialists-in-clinical-microbiology-and-infectious-diseases-in-europe-a-questionnaire-survey
#7
A E Maraolo, D S Y Ong, J Cortez, K Dedić, D Dušek, A Martin-Quiros, P J Maver, C Skevaki, E Yusuf, M Poljak, M Sanguinetti, E Tacconelli
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the balance between the personal and professional lives of trainees and young European specialists in clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID), and determine differences according to gender, country of training, workplace and specialty. The Steering Committee of the Trainee Association of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) devised a questionnaire survey consisting, beyond the demographic questions, of nine yes/no questions, 11 Likert scale self-evaluations and one open-response item on parenthood, working conditions, quality of life, alcohol consumption and burnout...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233077/outstanding-personalities-in-german-speaking-mycology-dedicated-to-professor-dr-johannes-m%C3%A3-ller
#8
Claus Seebacher, Torello Lotti, Maria Grazia Roccia, Massimo Fioranelli, Uwe Wollina
The history of medical and veterinary mycology in general has been reviewed in the excellent monography by G.C. Ainsworth (1905-1998) published in 1986. Here, we will focus on German-speaking mycology and their outstanding personalities. We will start with the early years when medical mycology was in its infancy. Microscopy was a most valuable tool for the identification of fungi followed by cultivation and staining methods. Human pathologies became linked to fungi. After World War I, medical mycology flourished as an integral part of dermatology at universities and in private institutes...
February 23, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232587/what-s-in-a-prerequisite-a-mixed-methods-approach-to-identifying-the-impact-of-a-prerequisite-course
#9
Brian K Sato, Amanda K Lee, Usman Alam, Jennifer V Dang, Samantha J Dacanay, Pedro Morgado, Giorgia Pirino, Jo Ellen Brunner, Leanne A Castillo, Valerie W Chan, Judith H Sandholtz
Despite the ubiquity of prerequisites in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curricula, there has been minimal effort to assess their value in a data-driven manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, we examined the impact of prerequisites in the context of a microbiology lecture and lab course pairing. Through interviews and an online survey, students highlighted a number of positive attributes of prerequisites, including their role in knowledge acquisition, along with negative impacts, such as perhaps needlessly increasing time to degree and adding to the cost of education...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232504/reply-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei-challenges-for-the-clinical-microbiology-laboratory-a-response-from-the-front-line
#10
Peera Hemarajata, Romney M Humphries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232014/characteristics-of-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-serotype-a-hia-from-nunavik-canada-and-comparison-with-hia-strains-in-other-north-american-arctic-regions
#11
Raymond S W Tsang, Jean-Francois Proulx, Kristy Hayden, Michelle Shuel, Brigitte Lefebvre, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Dorothy Moore
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the microbiological characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenae serotype a (Hia) isolates from Nunavik (northern Quebec), Canada. The relationship between invasive Hia isolates from Nunavik, Nunavut, Canada, and Alaska, USA will be discussed. METHODS: Twenty invasive Hia isolates were recovered from patients in Nunavik from 2010 to 2013 and characterized by biotype, multi-locus sequence typing, IS1016-bexA deletion, antibiotic susceptibility and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231851/high-mortality-among-tuberculosis-patients-on-treatment-in-nigeria-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar A Gadanya, Isa S Abubakar, Abubakar M Jibo, Musa M Bello, Auwalu U Gajida, Musa M Babashani, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in much of sub-Saharan Africa despite available effective treatment. Prompt initiation of TB treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains vital to the success of TB control. We assessed time to mortality after treatment onset using data from a large treatment centre in Nigeria. METHODS: We analysed a retrospective cohort of TB patients that commenced treatment between January 2010 and December 2014 in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital...
February 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#13
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflicts immunocompromised hosts, but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively-assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230987/urinary-antibiotics-of-pregnant-women-in-eastern-china-and-cumulative-health-risk-assessment
#14
Hexing Wang, Na Wang, Junhua Qian, Lingyun Hu, Peixin Huang, Meifang Su, Xin Yu, Chaowei Fu, Feng Jiang, Qi Zhao, Ying Zhou, Haijiang Lin, Gengsheng He, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang
Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few bio-monitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urines by using the isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230522/multinational-outbreak-of-travel-related-salmonella-chester-infections-in-europe-summers-2014-and-2015
#15
Laure Fonteneau, Nathalie Jourdan Da Silva, Laetitia Fabre, Philip Ashton, Mia Torpdahl, Luise Müller, Brahim Bouchrif, Abdellah El Boulani, Eleni Valkanou, Wesley Mattheus, Ingrid Friesema, Silvia Herrera Leon, Carmen Varela Martínez, Joël Mossong, Ettore Severi, Kathie Grant, François-Xavier Weill, Céline M Gossner, Sophie Bertrand, Tim Dallman, Simon Le Hello
Between 2014 and 2015, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was informed of an increase in numbers of Salmonella enterica serotype Chester cases with travel to Morocco occurring in six European countries. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations were conducted. In addition to gathering information on the characteristics of cases from the different countries in 2014, the epidemiological investigation comprised a matched case-case study involving French patients with salmonellosis who travelled to Morocco that year...
February 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228491/maldi-tof-alone-versus-maldi-tof-combined-with-real-time-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions-on-time-to-optimal-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-positive-blood-cultures
#16
Maya Beganovic, Michael Costello, Sarah M Wieczorkiewicz
Introduction: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) decreases time to organism identification and improves clinical and financial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of MALDI-TOF alone vs MALDI-TOF combined with real-time, pharmacist-driven, antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention on patient outcomes.Methods: This single-center, pre-post quasi-experimental study evaluated hospitalized patients with positive blood cultures identified via MALDI-TOF combined with prospective AMS intervention, compared to a control cohort with MALDI-TOF identification without AMS intervention...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228409/clinical-and-demographic-study-of-microsporidial-keratoconjunctivitis-in-south-india-a-3-year-study-2013-2015
#17
Rohan Agashe, Naveen Radhakrishnan, Sayali Pradhan, Muthiah Srinivasan, Venkatesh N Prajna, Prajna Lalitha
AIM: To study the demographic profile, clinical features, treatment outcome and ocular morbidity of smear-positive microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis. METHODS: Retrospective case series of all patients with clinical features of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis and who were smear positive for the same on Gram stain from January 2013 to December 2015. Demographic data, predisposing factors, microbiological investigations, clinical course and visual outcome were analysed...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225917/oxacillin-magnetically-targeted-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-infection-in-rats
#18
Juliana Fernandes de Carvalho, Ítalo Medeiros de Azevedo, Keyla Borges Ferreira Rocha, Aldo Cunha Medeiros, Artur da Silva Carriço
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oxacillin bonded to magnetic nanoparticles in local infection model in rat. Methods: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 290±18g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, each) and all rats had a magnet ring sutured on their right thighs. In the biodistribution group rats 0.1mL of 99mTc-magnetite (0.66 MBq) was injected i.v and after 30 minutes, biodistribution of 99mTc-magnetite was evaluated in right and left thighs. The other groups were inoculated with MRSA in each thigh muscles...
January 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225903/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#19
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225897/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#20
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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