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"Airway" OR "Difficult Airway" OR "Surgical Airway"

Bora İrer, Aylin Çelikhisar, Hakan Çelikhisar, Ozan Bozkurt, Ömer Demir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), nocturia, sexual dysfunction (SD) and the status of quality of life (QOL) in men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, the changes in the presence of these conditions and the improvements of QOL. MATERIEL AND METHODS: In this study, 126 patients with suspicious diagnosis of OSAS were enrolled prospectively. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Male LUTS (ICIQ-MLUTS), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABS-V8), Nocturia Quality of Life (Nqol), voiding diary, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) questionnaire and Short form 36 (SF-36) to assess the presence of SD, LUTS, nocturia and the status of QOL were filled by patients before polysomnography...
August 14, 2018: Urology
Lindsay J Caverly, John J LiPuma
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by chronic cycles of pulmonary infection, inflammation, and mucus obstruction, beginning early in life, and eventually leading to progressive lung damage and early mortality. During the past ~15 years, culture-independent analyses of CF respiratory samples have identified diverse bacterial communities in CF airways, and relationships between respiratory microbiota and clinical outcomes. Areas covered: This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the relationships between respiratory microbiota and CF lung disease...
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Alex Dobzanski, Syed Muaz Khalil, Andrew P Lane
BACKGROUND: While essential to the normal differentiation of ciliated airway epithelial cells, upregulated Wnt signaling in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has been proposed to result in abnormal epithelial morphology and dysfunctional mucociliary clearance. The mechanism of epithelial Wnt signaling dysregulation in CRSwNP is unknown, and importantly cellular sources of Wnt ligands in CRSwNP have not yet been investigated. METHODS: Human sinonasal epithelial cells (hSNECs) and human sinonasal fibroblasts (hSNFs) were collected from 34 human subjects (25 control and 9 CRSwNP) and differentiated as primary air-liquid interface (ALI) and organoid co-cultures...
August 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Asghar Tabatabaei Balaei, Kate Sutherland, Peter Cistulli, Philip de Chazal
Collapsibility of the upper airway has a known anatomical basis that is mediated by an interaction of obesity and craniofacial abnormalities. The pattern of these abnormalities, if detected in a subject's facial image, can help predict the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). 
 We utilized facial photographs (front and profile) from 376 patients who had undergone an overnight polysomnogram to identify those with and without OSA. 
 Processing the images had 3 steps: landmark identification, feature generation, and automatic classification...
August 17, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Lukas Schroeder, Heiko Reutter, Ullrich Gembruch, Christoph Berg, Andreas Mueller, Florian Kipfmueller
INTRODUCTION: Infants after surgical correction of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are at high risk for extubation failure, but little is known about contributing factors. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze clinical and echocardiographic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 34 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated at our department (July 2013-December 2015) were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were: presence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and echocardiography performed within 48 hours before the first, and, in case of reintubation, the final extubation attempt...
August 16, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Bethany A Weiler, Thomas V Colby, Timothy J Floreth, Stella E Hines
Constrictive Bronchiolitis (CB) has been reported in US Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) deployers but not in those from prior US conflicts. A 62-year old presented with progressive dyspnea 13 years after deployment to the Persian Gulf in 1991-1992, where he was exposed to burning oil well fire emissions, dust storms, and other potential airborne hazards. In 2014, after a chest computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated diffuse mosaic attenuation, he underwent surgical lung biopsy, which revealed CB...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Bo Zhou, Guohu Weng, Zhengxin Huang, Tao Liu, Feiyue Dai
Arctiin is a lignin isolated from Arctium lappa which has been known to have anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study is to explore the protective effect of arctiin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI) model of mice. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with commercial arctiin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) 1 h prior to LPS challenge. Twelve hours later, airway inflammation was assessed. We assessed the effects of arctiin on the LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)...
August 16, 2018: Inflammation
A Moeser, M Lerche, H Wirtz, A Stallmach
The incidence of pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) appears to be much higher than previously assumed. In prospective studies, subclinical pulmonary interstitial infiltrates or pathological lung function were found in 40%-60% of IBD patients, both in children and adults. Pulmonary disorders can affect any part of the respiratory system, the most frequent pattern being inflammation of the large airways often associated with bronchiectasis. The differential diagnosis should include drug-related pulmonary disease and infectious causes when receiving immunosuppressive therapy...
August 16, 2018: Der Internist
Neeta Kulkarni, Ahmad Kantar, Silvia Costella, Vincenzo Ragazzo, Giorgio Piacentini, Attilio Boner, Christopher O'Callaghan
Background and Objective: Airway macrophages perform the crucial functions of presenting antigens, clearing pathogens, and apoptotic cells. Macrophage phagocytosis is increased in adults with mild asthma and allergen exposure is known to activate macrophages. However, it is not clear whether the mechanism behind this is due to a primary defect or environmental factors such as allergen or lipopolysaccaride (LPS) exposure. Our aim was to assess the phagocytic function of airway macrophages in children with mild to moderate asthma after residence in a low allergen\LPS environment at high altitude...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Juthaporn Cowan, Sunita Mulpuru, Shawn Aaron, Gonzalo Alvarez, Antonio Giulivi, Vicente Corrales-Medina, Venkatesh Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Kednapa Thavorn, Ranjeeta Mallick, D William Cameron
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the airways, associated with frailty, disability, co-morbidity, and mortality. Individuals with COPD experience increased risk and rates of acute exacerbation as their lung disease worsens. Current treatments to prevent acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) are only modestly effective. New therapies are needed to improve the quality of life and clinical outcomes for individuals living with COPD and especially for those prone to frequent recurrent AECOPD...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Sara Toraldo, Luana Conte
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disorder affecting more than 200 million people around the world, resulting in three million deaths per year. COPD is characterized by the loss of lung tissue and airway remodelling, with chronic inflammation of the airways and progressive destruction of lung parenchyma. The use of stem cells may lead to regenerative processes that address biological damage. However, this approach raises ethical issues that need to be considered in clinical trials using stem cell therapy, such as informed consent, patient recruitment and harm minimization, as well as the inherent uncertainty of these medical procedures on human beings...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Yun Zhang, Lingyun Shao
The abnormal expression of miRNAs (miRs) has previously been reported in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, the expression of miR-140-5p in patients with an RSV infection has never been explored. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the level of miR-140-5p in the blood and nasopharyngeal airway samples. ELISAs were performed to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Fatemeh Roodneshin, Mahtab Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Pooya Rostami, Hamed Tanghatari
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder, characterized by leptomeningeal angiomas involving the oral cavity, trachea, larynx, and face. Herein, we present a case of vitrectomy in a seven-year-old boy with SWS. The patient showed hemangioma on the left side of his face, as well as mental retardation and epilepsy. Preoperative examination revealed no apparent hemangioma in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or trachea. However, he was predicted to have difficult airway intubation, as the oral cavity was smaller than the normal size...
January 2018: Tanaffos
Gholamreza Bayazian, Shirin Sayyahfar, Mahdi Safdarian, Farbood Kalantari
Aim: To evaluate the association of the presence and extent of adenoid biofilms and the frequency of upper airway infections in children with upper airway obstruction. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 on pediatric patients who were candidates for adenoidectomy due to obstructive sleep apnea. After removal of the adenoid tissue and fixation in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, the samples were sent to the electron microscopy unit...
June 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Gopinath Kasetty, Praveen Papareddy, Ravi K V Bhongir, Mohamad N Ali, Michiko Mori, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Jonas S Erjefält, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Lena Palmberg, Heiko Herwald, Arne Egesten
Extracellular histones are present in the airways because of cell death occurring during inflammation. They promote inflammation and cause tissue damage due to their cationic nature. The anionic phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is expressed at high levels during airway inflammation and has been ascribed both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles. In this study, it was hypothesized that OPN may neutralize the harmful activities of extracellular histones at the airway mucosal surface. In a model of histone-induced acute lung injury, OPN-/- mice showed increased inflammation and tissue injury, and succumbed within 24 h, whereas wild-type mice showed lower degrees of inflammation and no mortality...
August 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Micah D Dunlap, Nicole Howard, Shibali Das, Ninecia Scott, Mushtaq Ahmed, Oliver Prince, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Bruce A Rosa, John Martin, Deepak Kaushal, Gilla Kaplan, Makedonka Mitreva, Ki-Wook Kim, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Shabaana A Khader
C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is a major chemokine axis that recruits myeloid cells including monocytes and macrophages. Thus far, CCR2-/- mice have not been found to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here, using a prototype W-Beijing family lineage 2 Mtb strain, HN878, we show that CCR2-/- mice exhibit increased susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Following exposure to Mtb HN878, alveolar macrophages (AMs) are amongst the earliest cells infected. We show that AMs accumulate early in the airways following infection and express CCR2...
August 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Thibaut Naninck, Loïc Coutte, Céline Mayet, Vanessa Contreras, Camille Locht, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
Recent whooping cough (pertussis) outbreaks in many countries highlight the crucial need for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis infection of the respiratory tract. The baboon is a recently described preclinical model for the study of B. pertussis infection and may be ideal for the evaluation of new pertussis vaccines. However, many pathophysiological aspects, including bacterial localization and interactions, have yet to be described in this model. Here, we used a baboon model of infection with a fluorescent GFP-expressing B...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Youngwoo Choi, Duy Le Pham, Dong-Hyun Lee, So-Hee Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
Eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs), a complex of DNA fibers and cytotoxic granule proteins, are implicated in the development of asthma; however, the pathophysiological function of EETs in immune responses has not been fully determined. The present study investigated the characteristics of EETs from patients with non-severe asthma (NSA, n = 20) and severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA, n = 20) and evaluated EET function. The percentage of EET-forming peripheral blood eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 and LPS was significantly higher in patients with SEA than in those with NSA (P = 0...
August 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Elliott C Fox, Venkata Manchala
BACKGROUND Retropharyngeal hematoma is a relatively rare diagnosis that requires a high clinical suspicion and stabilization of the airway to prevent rapid deterioration. We report a case of a spontaneous retropharyngeal hematoma in an elderly patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and associated thrombocytopenia. CASE REPORT A 90-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome was brought to the Emergency Department with complaints of difficulty swallowing and muffled voice for 24 hours. Upon arrival, his vital signs and physical exam were unremarkable, except that when he was asked to take a sip of water, he could not swallow it...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Reinoud Gosens, Nicholas Gross
Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors to play a key role in the pathophysiology of asthma, leading to bronchoconstriction, increased mucus secretion, inflammation and airway remodelling. Anticholinergics are muscarinic receptor antagonists that are used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Recent in vivo and in vitro data have increased our understanding of how acetylcholine contributes to the disease manifestations of asthma, as well as elucidating the mechanism of action of anticholinergics...
August 16, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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