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"Advanced Life Support" OR "ALS" OR "ACLS"

Yong Woo An, Andrea DiTrani Lobacz, Tim Lehmann, Jochen Baumeister, William C Rose, Jill S Higginson, Jeffrey Rosen, Charles Buz Swanik
The purpose of this study was to identify how the brain simultaneously perceives proprioceptive input during joint loading in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients, when compared to healthy controls. Seventeen ACLR patients (ACLR) and seventeen controls (CONT) were tested for the somatosensory cortical activation using electroencephalography (EEG) while measuring knee laxity using a knee arthrometer. The relationship between cortical activation and joint laxity within group was also examined...
October 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Joshua Petimar, Éilis O'Reilly, Hans-Olov Adami, Piet A van den Brandt, Julie Buring, Dallas R English, D Michal Freedman, Graham G Giles, Niclas Håkansson, Tobias Kurth, Susanna C Larsson, Kim Robien, Leo J Schouten, Elisabete Weiderpass, Alicja Wolk, Stephanie A Smith-Warner
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is associated with a lower risk of some neurological diseases, but few prospective studies have investigated caffeine intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality. We therefore determined associations between coffee, tea, and caffeine intake and risk of ALS mortality. METHODS: We conducted pooled analyses of eight international, prospective cohort studies, including 351,565 individuals (120,688 men and 230,877 women). We assessed coffee, tea, and caffeine intake using validated food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Matthew W McClure, Elina Berliba, Tengiz Tsertsvadze, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Leen Vijgen, Béatrice Astruc, Alain Patat, Christopher Westland, Sushmita Chanda, Qingling Zhang, Thomas N Kakuda, Jennifer Vuong, Nick Khorlin, Leonid Beigelman, Lawrence M Blatt, John Fry
BACKGROUND: The nucleotide analog AL-335 is a pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS)5B inhibitor being evaluated as treatment for chronic HCV infection. METHODS: This three-part randomized, double-blind study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending oral doses of AL-335. Healthy volunteers (HVs) received single doses of AL-335 (100-1,200 mg) or placebo in a fasted or fed (400 mg) state. Non-cirrhotic subjects (HCV genotype [GT]1-4) and GT1-infected subjects with Child Pugh A cirrhosis received multiple doses of AL-335 (400, 800, 1,200 mg) or placebo once daily (QD) for 7 days...
2018: PloS One
Tatsuya Osaki, Sebastien G M Uzel, Roger D Kamm
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving loss of motor neurons (MNs) and muscle atrophy, still has no effective treatment, despite much research effort. To provide a platform for testing drug candidates and investigating the pathogenesis of ALS, we developed an ALS-on-a-chip technology (i.e., an ALS motor unit) using three-dimensional skeletal muscle bundles along with induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived and light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2-induced MN spheroids from a patient with sporadic ALS...
October 2018: Science Advances
Chen-Wei Pan, Ou Zhang, Dan-Ning Hu, Rong-Kun Wu, Jun Li, Hua Zhong, Min Hu
Purpose: We aimed to determine the association of iris color with lens thickness (LT) in a school-based sample of Chinese teenagers. Methods: In total, 2346 grade 7 students, from 10 middle schools, aged 13 to 14 years in Mojiang located in Southwestern China were included in the analysis. A grading system was developed to assess iris color based on standardized slit-lamp photographs. LT was measured by the LenStar LS900. Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor and ocular biometric parameters, including axial length (AL), were measured using an IOL Master...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Rosemary M Clark, Mariana Brizuela, Catherine A Blizzard, Tracey C Dickson
Cortical interneurons play a crucial role in regulating inhibitory-excitatory balance in brain circuits, filtering synaptic information and dictating the activity of pyramidal cells through the release of GABA. In the fatal motor neuron (MN) disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an imbalance between excitation and inhibition is an early event in the motor cortex, preceding the development of overt clinical symptoms. Patients with both sporadic and familial forms of the disease exhibit reduced cortical inhibition, including patients with mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide-dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jessica R Morrice, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans, Christopher A Shaw
Animal models are necessary to investigate the pathogenic features underlying motor neuron degeneration and for therapeutic development in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Measures of model validity allow for a critical interpretation of results from each model and caution from over-interpretation of experimental models. Face and construct validity refer to the similarity in phenotype and the proposed causal factor to the human disease, respectively. More recently developed models are restricted by limited phenotype characterization, yet new models hold promise for novel disease insights, thus highlighting their importance...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Monica Consonni, Stefano F Cappa, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Valeria Elisa Contarino, Giuseppe Lauria
BACKGROUND: Behavioural changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are heterogeneous. The study aim was to identify the behavioural profiles of non-demented patients with ALS and their neuroimaging correlates and to elucidate if they are comparable to those reported in studies of the behavioural-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: Behavioural changes of 102 non-demented patients with ALS were assessed through the Frontal Behavioural Inventory (FBI), a 24-item scale assessing different behavioural modifications, mainly chosen from the core clinical features of FTD...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Enda King, Chris Richter, Andy Franklyn-Miller, Katherine Daniels, Ross Wadey, Mark Jackson, Ray Moran, Siobhan Strike
Whilst anterior cruciate ligament injury commonly occurs during change of direction (CoD) tasks, there is little research on how athletes execute CoD after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aims of this study were to determine between-limb and between-test differences in performance (time) and joint kinematics and kinetics during planned and unplanned CoD. One hundred and fifty-six male subjects carried out 90° maximal effort, planned and unplanned CoD tests in a 3D motion capture laboratory 9 months after ACLR...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Ismail Shaik, Shekhar Yeshwant Bhojraj, Gautam Prasad, Premik Bhupendra Nagad, Priyank Mangaldas Patel, Aaditya Dattatreya Kashikar, Nishant Kumar
Study Design: This retrospective study was conducted including 18 patients who underwent posterior-only stabilization and fusion procedure for pseudoarthrosis in the ankylosed spine from October 2007 to May 2015. Purpose: This study aimed to describe the treatment outcomes in 18 patients with Andersson lesion (AL) who were managed using the posterior-only approach. Literature Review: AL is an unstable, localized, vertebral, or discovertebral lesion of the spine...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Bebiana Conde, Natália Martins, Inês Rodrigues, Ana Claúdia Pimenta, João Carlos Winck
(1) Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition, whose bulbar involvement compromises language, swallowing, and airway protection. When oral nutrition is no longer adequate, percutaneous endoscopic gastroscopy (PEG) may be indicated. However, as exact timing is still debatable, we tried to find it. (2) Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed using fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), functional evaluation scales (ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and bulbar sub-score (ALSFRS-R-B)), lung function tests (like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Cough Peak Flow (CPF)) and anthropometric data...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Anna Konopka, Julie D Atkin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons, and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a behavioural disorder resulting in early-onset dementia. Hexanucleotide (G4C2) repeat expansions in the gene encoding chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 ( C9orf72 ) are the major cause of familial forms of both ALS (~40%) and FTD (~20%) worldwide. The C9orf72 repeat expansion is known to form abnormal nuclei acid structures, such as hairpins, G-quadruplexes, and R-loops, which are increasingly associated with human diseases involving microsatellite repeats...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Theo Jaspers, Jan Taeymans, Anja Hirschmüller, Heiner Baur, Roger Hilfiker, Slavko Rogan
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the results of empirical studies on the effects of CPM on rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. The research question was: what are the effects of CPM on ROM, swelling and pain after ACL reconstruction? PATIENTS/MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane and PEDro up to January 2018. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were expressed as Hedges' g, in order to correct for overestimation of the true effect in small study samples...
October 15, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Roman Frederik Karkosch, Max Ettinger, Samuel Bachmaier, Coen A Wijdicks, Tomas Smith
BACKGROUND: This biomechanical cadaveric in vitro study aimed to evaluate and compare the dynamic elongation behavior and ultimate failure strength of tibial adjustable-length loop cortical button versus interference screw fixation in quadriceps tendon-based anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Sixteen human quadriceps tendons were harvested and fixed into porcine tibiae using either biodegradable interference screw (n = 8) or adjustable loop device (n = 8) fixation...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Yan-Ming Wei, Bo Han
Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are characterised by the intracellular appearance of protein aggregates or insoluble materials. Accelerated removal of related toxic proteins might be beneficial for these diseases. Here we describe an inducible role of Beclin1, an essential regulator for autophagy, in degradation of the familial ALS-linked Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant. We confirmed that the SOD1 mutant exhibited an increased RIPA (radioimmune precipitation assay buffer, containing NP40 and sodium deoxycholate)-insolubility compared with SOD1 wild-type (WT)...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Andrew N Pike, Jeanne C Patzkowski, Craig R Bottoni
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are commonly associated with meniscal and articular cartilage injuries, and the presence of these defects influences both short- and long-term outcomes. Multiple variables are predictive of this pathology including time from injury, age, and sex. Revision ACL reconstructions demonstrate higher rates of chondral injury than primary reconstructions. Menisci are important secondary stabilizers of the knee in the setting of ACL deficiency, and specific tear types are more consistently associated with ACL injury...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Éric Martineau, Adriana Di Polo, Christine Vande Velde, Richard Robitaille
Despite being an early event in ALS, it remains unclear whether the denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) is simply the first manifestation of a globally degenerating motor neuron. Using in vivo imaging of single axons and their NMJs over a three-month period, we identify that single motor-units are dismantled asynchronously in SOD1G37R mice. We reveal that weeks prior to complete axonal degeneration, the dismantling of axonal branches is accompanied by contemporaneous new axonal sprouting resulting in synapse formation onto nearby NMJs...
October 15, 2018: ELife
Rae Richardson, Jeffrey M Todd, Leslie C Sharkey, Robert J Washabau, Kevin D Williams, Kim J Little, Aaron Rendahl
OBJECTIVE: To characterize disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), liver failure (LF), post-hepatic cholestasis (PHC), and anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication (ROD) in dogs using an immunoturbidimetric coagulation analyzer and to characterize the relationship between clinical bleeding and bleeding parameters. DESIGN: Retrospective study (August 2014-July 2015). SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Forty-seven client-owned dogs diagnosed with DIC (n = 24), LF (n = 9), PHC (n = 5), or ROD (n = 9) based on history, clinical pathology, cytology, histopathology...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Giovanna Morello, Antonio Gianmaria Spampinato, Francesca Luisa Conforti, Sebastiano Cavallaro
Recent landmark publications from our research group outline a transformative approach to defining, studying and treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Rather than approaching ALS as a single entity, we advocate targeting therapies to distinct "clusters" of patients based on their specific genomic and molecular features. Our findings point to the existence of a molecular taxonomy for ALS, bringing us a step closer to the establishment of a precision medicine approach in neurology practice.
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek
Neuropathological studies revealed the propagation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a sequence of four separate disease-related regional patterns. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based analysis was established for the individual mapping of sequential disease spreading in ALS as the in vivo transfer to neuroimaging. The aim of this review is to summarize cross-sectional and longitudinal results of these technical approaches in ALS as an in vivo tool to image ALS propagation stages. This concept was also applied to restricted phenotypes of ALS, e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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