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Diabetes glucose control

Thomas Morville, Tine Dohlmann, Anja B Kuhlman, Tine Monberg, Mimmi Torp, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Steen Larsen, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
Background Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol concentrations in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) and of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain disputed. Methods We investigated whether statin induced myalgia is coupled to impaired glucose homeostasis using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We performed a cross-sectional study of statin users without CVD (primary prevention) stratified into a statin myalgic (M; n=25) and a non-myalgic (NM; n=39) group as well as a control group (C; n=20) consisting of non-statin users...
December 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Eileen R Chasens, Charles W Atwood, Lora E Burke, Mary Korytkowski, Robert Stansbury, Patrick J Strollo, Susan M Sereika
The Diabetes Sleep Treatment Trial (DSTT) is a multi-site, double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial. The study objective is to test whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment results in improved glycemic control and diabetes self-management behavior compared to participants on a sham-CPAP (sub-therapeutic) device in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and co-morbid OSA. The purpose of this paper is to describe the premise for the DSTT, the study design, and the methodology used in this on-going trial...
December 2, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Loumaíra C Cruz, Alfredo A Teixeira-Araujo, Karoline T Passos Andrade, Thaise Camila O Gomes Rocha, Guilherme Morais Puga, Sérgio R Moreira
The study herein aimed to compare glucose concentration and hyperglycemic responses of 24-hours after resistance exercise (RE) performed in different intensities in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Twelve women with T2D (55.2±4.0 years; 70.1±11.4 kg; 155.7±3.3 cm) performed four experimental sessions divided into two blocks separated by 7 days and in randomized order: block-A (session-1: control-CONT40% and session-2: RE40% of one repetition maximum test-1RM) and block-B (session-3: CONT80% and session-4: RE80%1RM)...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
V U Nna, A B A Bakar, A Ahmad, M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Metformin has long been used for glycemic control in diabetic state. Recently, other benefits of metformin beyond blood glucose regulation have emerged. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of metformin on the expression of testicular steroidogenesis-related genes, spermatogenesis, and fertility of male diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated (300 mg/kg body weight/day) diabetic rats (D+Met)...
December 4, 2018: Andrology
Magnus O Wijkman, Mary Dena, Sofia Dahlqvist, Sheyda Sofizadeh, Irl Hirsch, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Johan Mårtensson, Ole Torffvit, Henrik Imberg, Aso Saeed, Marcus Lind
Liraglutide is associated with blood pressure reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it is not known whether this blood pressure reduction can be predicted prior to treatment initiation, and to what extent it correlates with weight loss and with improved glycemic control during follow-up. We analyzed data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which 124 insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide or placebo. We evaluated various baseline variables as potential predictors of systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction, and evaluated whether changes in SBP correlated with weight loss and with improved glycemic control...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Gaia Chiara Mannino, Francesco Andreozzi, Giorgio Sesti
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that has reached the levels of a global epidemic. In order to achieve optimal glucose control it is often necessary to rely on combination therapy of multiple drugs or insulin, because uncontrolled glucose levels result in T2DM progression and enhanced risk of complications and mortality. Several anti-hyperglycemic agents have been developed over time, and T2DM pharmacotherapy should be prescribed based on suitability for the individual patient's characteristics...
December 4, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Merhan Mamdouh Ragy, Sabreen Mahmoud Ahmed
Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors including hypertension and dyslipidemia are the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Apoptosis in pancreatic tissue is one of the major causes of diabetes type 1 progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C-peptide or l-arginine on some cardiometabolic risk factors, pancreatic morphology, function and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of their actions. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: 1-control nondiabetic, 2-diabetic (no treatment), 3-diabetic + C-peptide, and 4-diabetic +  l-arginine...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Habib Yaribeygi, Vahid Zare, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing rapidly worldwide. This metabolic disorder affects many physiological pathways and is a key underlying cause of a multitude of debilitating complications. There is, therefore, a critical need for effective diabetes management. Although many synthetic therapeutic glucose-lowering agents have been developed to control glucose homeostasis, they may have unfavorable side effects or limited efficacy. Herbal-based hypoglycemic agents present an adjunct treatment option to mitigate insulin resistance, improve glycemic control and reduce the required dose of standard antidiabetic medications...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Feiyue Deng, Anran Zhang, Catherine Chan
Developing culturally appropriate diabetes nutrition interventions for immigrants could be facilitated knowing what is successful in the home country and other relevant countries. The primary purpose of this scoping review was to identify the design and delivery methods of nutrition interventions for Chinese populations with type 2 diabetes, in their home countries and as immigrants to western countries. A total of 14 articles was retrieved and included. Overall, the approaches used in China often were modelled on intensive lifestyle programs although alternative strategies were also identified...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Joomin Lee, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jae-Joon Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mulberry leaf (ML) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, which may be related to its deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content. This study was conducted to investigate the hypoglycemic and dyslipidemic effects of rice coated with ML rich in DNJ in a type 2 diabetes mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: The mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each): non-diabetic normal control (NC); diabetic control (DM-C), fed with 10% polished rice powder (DM-R); and fed with 10% polished rice powder coated with DNJ-rich ML (DM-DNJR)...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Lakhwinder Singh, Surbhi Rana, Sidharth Mehan
The present study aimed to investigate the role of adenylyl cyclase activator in preventing diabetic nephropathy in rats. Renal function parameters, renal hypertrophy, lipid profile, markers of oxidative stress and free radical scavenging activities were assessed. Histopathology was performed to confirm Streptozotocin induced renal morphological changes in diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were used in the present study to reduce the effect of estrogen. Rats were subjected to high fat diet (HFD) for two weeks followed by low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) [35 mg/kg, i...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Constantine E Kosmas, Delia Silverio, Andreas Sourlas, Frank Garcia, Peter D Montan, Eliscer Guzman
Lipid-lowering therapy is used very commonly nowadays not only for the optimization of the lipid profile but also to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, some studies have linked the use of certain lipid-lowering agents with an increased risk for impaired glycemic control and new-onset diabetes mellitus, a condition well established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some other lipid-lowering agents have been shown to have a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism. Profound knowledge of these differences would enable the clinician to choose the right lipid-lowering medication for each individual patient, so that the benefits would outweigh the risk of side effects...
2018: Drugs in Context
Mohammed A Alshehri, Sameer R Alharthi, Ahmed A Alsuwat, Khaled A Alswat
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Recent reports have indicated that the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are also having OSA. Aim/Objective: The primary goal of the study is to assess the risk of OSA among T2D patients and its impact on T2D related control and complications. Method: A cross-sectional study for the adult patients with T2D who had a routine follow up visit from Jun 2013- Aug 2014 was asked to participate...
October 2018: Medical Archives
Rudolf A Werner, Christoph Eissler, Nobuyuki Hayakawa, Paula Arias-Loza, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Mehrbod S Javadi, Xinyu Chen, Tetsuya Shinaji, Constantin Lapa, Theo Pelzer, Takahiro Higuchi
In diabetic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest signs of cardiac involvement prior to the definitive development of heart failure (HF). We aimed to explore the LV diastolic function using electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET) imaging beyond the assessment of cardiac glucose utilization in a diabetic rat model. ECG-gated 18 F-FDG PET imaging was performed in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (ZDF fa/fa) and ZL control rats at age of 13 weeks (n = 6, respectively)...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elin Dybjer, Peter M Nilsson, Gunnar Engström, Catherine Helmer, Katarina Nägga
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for cognitive impairment, but whether there is also a link between pre-diabetes and cognitive dysfunction is not yet fully established. The aim of this observational study was to investigate associations between pre-diabetes/diabetes and cognitive test results, and also between glucose levels measured during the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: During 2007-2012, in all 2994 people (mean age 72 years), residing in Malmö, Sweden, underwent a clinical examination including the OGTT, cardiovascular measurements including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV) and two cognitive tests, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), measuring global cognitive function, and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT), measuring processing speed and executive functioning...
December 4, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Paola Simeone, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Maria Teresa Guagnano, Armando Tartaro, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Virginia Federico, Francesco Cipollone, Agostino Consoli, Francesca Santilli
Thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, as reflected in vivo by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB₂ and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α , play a key role in atherothrombosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) since the earlier stages. Thirty-five metformin-treated obese subjects with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed T2DM were randomized to the glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-RA) liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or lifestyle counseling until achieving a comparable weight loss (-7% of initial body weight), to assess whether changes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue distribution (MRI), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index) and beta-cell performance (multiple sampling OGTT beta-index), with either intervention, might affect TX-dependent platelet activation, lipid peroxidation and inflammation...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
Katarzyna Mac-Marcjanek, Andrzej Zieleniak, Monika Zurawska-Klis, Katarzyna Cypryk, Lucyna Wozniak, Marzena Wojcik
Although compelling evidence indicates that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a prominent role in type 2 diabetes, its relationship with gestational diabetes (GDM) remains elusive. This study was aimed at identifying diabetes-related genes and cellular pathways linked to changes of leukocyte SIRT1 expression at the time of GDM diagnosis. For this purpose, 122 GDM patients were screened for leukocyte SIRT1 expression, and two subgroups were distinguished, namely GDM/ SIRT1 (↑) ( n = 30, p < 0.05) and GDM/ SIRT1 (↔) ( n = 92, p > 0...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Deniz Goren Sahin, Betül N Bayraktutar, Ayşe Yıldız Taş, Olga Meltem Akay, Abdullah Ozkaya, Özlem Yalcin, Afsun Sahin
PURPOSE: To evaluate clotting dynamics by a new tool called rotational tromboelastometry (ROTEM) in retinal vein occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients who were diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion and 43 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in this study. Diabetes and use of anticoagulant therapy were exclusion criterias. All study participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic and systemic medical examination, including blood pressure measurement, hemoglobin-hematocrit levels, platelet count, coagulation parameters including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen levels, and D-dimer levels...
December 4, 2018: Current Eye Research
Ravichandra Shivalingappa Davargaon, Asha Devi Sambe, Subramanyam Muthangi V V
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including diabetes mellitus, characterized by hyperglycemia. In the present study, OS induced by hyperglycemia and the effect of trolox, a vitamin E analog, were studied in cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells exposed to 15 to 33 mM glucose (HG) for 24 to 72 hours in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium. Cells treated wirh 24 or 33 mM glucose for 24 hours or above showed decreased viability and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content with a concomitant increase in radicals of oxygen species, calcium (Ca2+ ), mitochondrial permeability transition, and oxidative markers, confirming that the cells were under stress...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Junbo Ge, Dongning Sun, Lili Teng, Baifang Su, Xinqing Niu, Wenming Luo
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the bone microstructure of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2MD). METHODS: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly selected for T2MD modeling and injected with streptozotocin solution. The rats in the control group (n=19) were fed with common feed. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was injected into rats with successful modeling results (Treatment group, n=15). The remaining rats were considered as the model group (n=16)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
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