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Diabetes glucose control

Alessandro Leone, Simona Bertoli, Sara Di Lello, Angela Bassoli, Stefano Ravasenghi, Gigliola Borgonovo, Fabio Forlani, Alberto Battezzati
The hypoglycemic effect in humans of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf powder has, to date, been poorly investigated. We assessed the chemical composition of MO leaf powder produced at Saharawi refugee camps, its in vitro ability to inhibit α-amylase activity, and its sensory acceptability in food. We then evaluated its effect on postprandial glucose response by randomly administering, on 2 different days, a traditional meal supplemented with 20 g of MO leaf powder (MOR20), or not (control meal, CNT), to 17 Saharawi diabetics and 10 healthy subjects...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
David Scott, Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Maximilian P J de Courten, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Recent trials do not support a role for vitamin D supplementation in prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although effects may differ in Asian populations. In this pilot secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial of overweight or obese individuals with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D<50 nmol/L), we examined whether vitamin D supplementation improved insulin sensitivity or body composition in participants of Asian ethnicity. Amongst 65 trial participants, 33 reported being of Asian descent (mean ± SD age 30 ± 7 years; 67% male)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Vasilios Karageorgiou, Theodoros G Papaioannou, Ioannis Bellos, Krystallenia Alexandraki, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Christodoulos Stefanadis, George P Chrousos, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: Artificial pancreas is a technology that minimizes user input by bridging continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump treatment, and has proven safety in the adult population. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of closed-loop (CL) systems in the glycemic control of non-adult type 1 diabetes patients in both a pairwise and network meta-analysis (NMA) context and investigate various parameters potentially affecting the outcome. METHODS: Literature was systematically searched using the MEDLINE (1966-2018), Scopus (2004-2018), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999-2018), Clinicaltrials...
October 12, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Ting Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Rui Li, Zeping Xu, Xingfeng Zhong, Gaili Jia, Yanlong Liu, Ling Xie, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of general and common complication of diabetes, which severely affects the physical and mental health of diabetic patients. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), an effective control agent of blood glucose, plays an effective treatment role on diabetes-induced renal injury. But the specific molecule mechanism underlying it is still unclear. Since induction of cellular stress is the main and common mechanism of diabetes-induced complication, we hypothesized that reduction of cellular stress is also the molecular mechanism of FGF1 treatment for DN...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Cheng Li, Xiao Miao, Yan Lou, Zhengyang Lu, Binay Kumar Adhikari, Yangwei Wang, Quan Liu, Jian Sun, Yonggang Wang
AIM: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an independent cardiac injury that can develop in diabetic individuals. Our previous study showed that C66, a curcumin analogue, protects against diabetes-induced cardiac damage. The present study sought to reveal the underlying mechanisms of C66-mediated cardioprotection. METHODS: An experimental diabetic model was established using JNK2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. C66 (5 mg/kg) was administered orally every other day for 3 months...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Shiqin Peng, Ping Wei, Qun Lu, Rui Liu, Yue Ding, Jiuliang Zhang
The effects of propolis on blood glucose regulation and the alleviation of various complications caused by diabetes have been widely studied. The main source of propolis in the northern temperate zone is poplar buds. However, there is limited research on the antidiabetic activity of poplar buds. In order to evaluate the effect of poplar buds on type-2 diabetes, crude extract and 50% fraction of poplar buds were used to feed streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic mice. The results showed that 50% fraction could increase insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin resistance, as well as decrease the levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and glycosylated serum proteins in diabetic mice...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
M Ghoddusi Johari, M H Dabaghmanesh, H Zare, A R Safaeian, Gh Abdollahifard
Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease, and its increasing prevalence is a global concern. If diabetes mellitus is left untreated, poor control of blood glucose may cause long-term complications. A big challenge encountered by clinicians is the clinical management of diabetes. Many IT-based interventions such ad CDSS have been made to improve the adherence to the standard care for chronic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to establish a decision support system of diabetes management based on diabetes care guidelines in order to reduce medical errors and increase adherence to guidelines...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Edgar Guevara, Juan Carlos Torres-Galván, Miguel G Ramírez-Elías, Claudia Luevano-Contreras, Francisco Javier González
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases worldwide and is currently screened by invasive techniques based on enzymatic assays that measure plasma glucose concentration in a laboratory setting. A promising plan of action for screening DM2 is to identify molecular signatures in a non-invasive fashion. This work describes the application of portable Raman spectroscopy coupled with several supervised machine-learning techniques, to discern between diabetic patients and healthy controls (Ctrl), with a high degree of accuracy...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Cong Xie, Xuyi Wang, Richard L Young, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
The gastrointestinal tract stores ingested nutrients in the stomach which are then delivered to the small intestine at a controlled rate to optimize their digestion and absorption. The interaction of nutrients with the small and large intestine generates feedback that slows gastric emptying, induces satiation, and reduces postprandial glycemic excursions. The mechanisms underlying these nutrient-gut interactions are complex; it has only recently been appreciated that the gut has the capacity to detect intraluminal contents in much the same way as the tongue, via activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors, and that ensuing signaling mechanisms modulate the release of an array of gut hormones that influence gastrointestinal motility, appetite and glycemia...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fang Dong, Bao-Huan Zhang, Shao-Ling Zheng, Xiu-Xia Huang, Xiu-Ben Du, Ke-Hui Zhu, Xiao-Jing Chen, Jing Wu, Dan-Dan Liu, Zi-Hao Wen, Xiao-Qian Zou, Yu-Mei Liu, Shi-Rui Dong, Fang-Fang Zeng, Guang Yang, Chun-Xia Jing
Introduction: Published data regarding the association between solute carrier family 30, member 8 ( SLC30A8 ) rs13266634 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) risks in Chinese population are in-consistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between SLC30A8 rs13266634 and T2DM/IGR in a Chinese population. Material and Methods: Three English (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) and three Chinese databases (Wanfang, CNKI, and CBMD database) were used for searching articles from January 2005 to January 2018...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Xiaofei An, Maoxiang Zhang, Sisi Zhou, Tian Lu, Yongjun Chen, Lin Yao
Hyperglycemia induces glomerular hyper-filtration, which contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a condition that remains a challenge for treatment. The present study investigated the effect of Xiao-Shen-Formula (XSF) used for treatment of renal injury in type 1 DN mice model induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and its underlying mechanism in cultured human glomerular endothelial cell (hGECs). Studies were performed using control, diabetic DN, DN treated with XSF groups (1 g/kg/d, LXSF or 3 g/kg/d, HXSF) for 6 weeks and hGECs were post-treated with mice serum containing HXSF (MS-HXSF) and arginase inhibitor (ABH, 100 μM) in high glucose medium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sohyun Jeong, Minhee Lee, Eunhee Ji
Purpose: Diabetes is a chronic lifelong condition, and adherence to medications and self-monitoring of blood glucose are challenging for diabetic patients. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes is largely due to the incidence of type 2 diabetes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIc) besides high-income countries (HIc). We aimed to evaluate whether pharmacist care (PC) service model in LMIc and HIc could improve clinical outcomes in diabetic patients by performing a meta-analysis...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Mihyun Jeong, Elizabeth Reifsnider
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of diabetes-related distress and depressive symptoms with glycemic control in Korean Americans (KAs) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The cross-sectional, correlational descriptive study explored glycemic control in KA. A total of 119 KA adults with T2DM were recruited from Korean communities in Arizona between July and November 2016. Data were collected by a finger-stick glucose test for A1C, the Diabetes Distress Scale for diabetes-related distress, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression for depressive symptoms, and sociodemographics...
October 15, 2018: Diabetes Educator
B Tutun, H Elbe, N Vardi, H Parlakpinar, A Polat, M Gunaltili, M M Guclu, E N Yasar
Hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biological active form of pantothenic acid. We investigated whether Dxp administration could decrease oxidative stress as a way to treat renal complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, Dxp, DM and DM + Dxp. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 15, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Walaa Hassan Nazmy, Eman Abdelmonem Elbassuoni, Fatma Farrag Ali, Rehab Ahmed Rifaai
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is closely associated with male infertility and sexual dysfunction. Recent data indicate that the proinsulin C-peptide (CP) exerts important physiological effects and shows the characteristics of an endogenous peptide hormone. So, this study was done to investigate the effect of C-peptide with or without insulin treatment on testicular function and architecture in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into the following groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic groups treated with either CP alone or combined with insulin...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ghasem Barati, Samad Nadri, Ramin Hajian, Ali Rahmani, Hossein Mostafavi, Yousef Mortazavi, Amir Hossein Taromchi
Tissue and stem cell encapsulation andtransplantation were considered as promising tools in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microfluidic encapsulation on the differentiation of trabecular meshwork mesenchymal stem cells (TM-MSC), into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. The presence of differentiated cells in microfibers (three dimensional [3D]) and tissue culture plates (TCPS; two dimensional [2D]) culture was evaluated by detecting mRNA and protein expression of pancreatic islet-specific markers as well as measuring insulin release of cells in response to glucose challenges...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Thiago R Araujo, Joel A da Silva, Jean F Vettorazzi, Israelle N Freitas, Camila Lubaczeuski, Emily A Magalhães, Juliana N Silva, Elane S Ribeiro, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro, Maria L Bonfleur, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro
Obesity predisposes to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is often characterized by insulin resistance, changes in insulin clearance, and β-cell dysfunction. However, studies indicate that, for T2D development, disruptions in glucagon physiology also occur. Herein, we investigated the involvement of glucagon in impaired glycemia control in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice. Male Swiss mice were subcutaneously injected daily, during the first 5 days after birth, with MSG (4 mg/g body weight [BW]) or saline (1...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nikolaos Th Ersotelos, Andrew N Margioris, Xu Zhang, Feng Dong
BACKGROUND: Several smartphone applications aim at facilitating communication between patients and healthcare providers. In this review, we evaluate and compare the most promising applications in the field of diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity. Most applications monitor body weight, fasting or postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hgb) A1c (HgbA1c), and units and types of insulin used. METHODS: Nine clinically tested applications and two Web platforms were grouped into three categories that were evaluated and compared...
October 13, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Muhammad Imtiaz Hasan, Wasim Amer, Nabeea Junaid
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the effectiveness of implementing the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2009 consensus algorithm in achieving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The prospective, observational, open label, product registry was conducted at 38 sites across 7 cities in Pakistan between July 2011 and February 2014. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes patients were either initiated on or switched to insulin glargine from other basal insulin...
September 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Max A Thorwald, Jose A Godoy-Lugo, Gema J Rodriguez, Marco Antonio Rodriguez, Mostofa Jamal, Hiroshi Kinoshita, Daisuke Nakano, Akira Nishiyama, Henry Jay Forman, Rudy M Ortiz
Diabetic hearts are susceptible to damage from inappropriate activation of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and hyperglycemic events both of which contribute to increased oxidant production. Inappropriately elevated oxidants impair mitochondrial enzyme function, further contributing to metabolic derangement. Nuclear factor erythriod-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) induces antioxidant genes including those for glutathione (GSH) synthesis following translocation to the nucleus. We hypothesized that an acute elevation in plasma glucose facilitates Nrf2 nuclear translocation and subsequent expression of Nrf2-associated genes...
October 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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