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"Emergency Department" OR "ED" OR "ER" OR "Emergency Medicine" OR "Emergency Nursing" OR "ED" OR "ER"

Vahid Ajamein, Gilda Eslami, Salman Ahmadian, Ali Khamesipour, Mourad Elloumi
Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is treated with pentavalent antimony (SbV) as a first-line drug, while amphotericin B and paromomycin are potential alternatives in antimonial- resistant isolates. However, the mechanisms of drug resistance remain unclear. The present study analyses the gene expression of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and J-binding protein 1 (JBP1), and J-binding protein 2 (JBP2) in Leishmania major after exposure to drugs in vitro. L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were exposed to various concentrations of glucantime, paromomycin and amphotericin B for 72 hours...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Stefan Timmermans, Tanya Stivers
Much of our understanding of prognosis in clinical settings comes from end-of-life situations but prognostication is also a concern in chronic illnesses. Parents of children living with seizures wonder what the future holds: will the child outgrow their seizures, or will they remain a part of their child's life? Based on video recordings of clinic consultations between pediatric neurologists and families, we examine how clinicians convey a child's prognosis. We find that neurologists mainly communicate the prognosis indirectly through the goals they set for the child, the time frame of attaining these goals, and the uncertainties they highlight regarding the attainability of the goals...
September 18, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Silviu Sbiera, Sabine Kendl, Isabel Weigand, Iuliu Sbiera, Martin Fassnacht, Matthias Kroiss
90 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90) act as protein chaperones and play a role in modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Hsp90 inhibitors are under clinical investigation as cancer treatment. Mitotane therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has been shown to act through lipid-induced ER-stress. To explore the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors in ACC as a single agent and in combination with mitotane, we analyzed two independent gene expression data sets of adrenal tumors in silico and treated the ACC cell line model NCI-H295 with Hsp90 inhibitors BIIB021 (B) and CCT18159 (C) alone and in combination with mitotane...
October 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Jinlei Ding, Xiaonan Wang, Yuan Zhang, Xiaolin Sang, Jingyan Yi, Chongya Liu, Zundong Liu, Min Wang, Nan Zhang, Yijue Xue, Lanlin Shen, Wenzhi Zhao, Fuwen Luo, Pixu Liu, Hailing Cheng
Selective phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors are being actively tested in clinical trials for ERα-positive (ER+) breast cancer due to the presence of activating PIK3CA mutations. However, recent studies have revealed that increased ERα transcriptional activity limits the efficacy of PI3K inhibitor monotherapy for ER+ breast cancers. Herein, we report the identification of BTF3 as an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates ERα expression in luminal breast cancers. Our TCGA analysis reveals high expression levels of BTF3 in luminal/ER+ breast cancer and cell line models harboring ERα overexpression...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
Chong-Jin Zhong, Miao-Miao Chen, Ming Lu, Jian-Hua Ding, Ren-Hong Du, Gang Hu
ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels, coupling cell metabolism to cell membrane potential, are involved in brain diseases including stroke. Emerging evidence shows that astrocytes play important roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Kir6.1, a pore-forming subunit of K-ATP channel, is prominently expressed in astrocytes and participates in regulating its function. However, the exact role of astrocytic Kir6.1-containg K-ATP channel (Kir6.1/K-ATP) in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, we found that astrocytic Kir6...
October 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Min Pu, Rongjun Yu
An individual's sense of personal responsibility is crucial for adaptive functioning in ever-changing social situations. This study investigated how the sense of personal responsibility affected the neural dynamics of anticipating one's own pain and another person's pain, using EEG. Participants played a cooperation game in which either the participant (self-context) or the confederate (other-context) received a mild electric shock whenever one of them erred. At the anticipatory stage of pain, feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 were sensitive to the degree of responsibility in both contexts...
October 13, 2018: Psychophysiology
Huimin Hu, Changyuan Wang, Yue Jin, Qiang Meng, Qi Liu, Zhihao Liu, Kexin Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Huijun Sun
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and plays a vital role in the development of atherosclerosis. Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, can produce anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and dopaminergic neurons protecting effects. This study aimed to determine the protecting effects of catalpol against homocysteine (HCY)-induced injuries in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and uncover the underlying mechanisms: 1...
October 12, 2018: Inflammation
Richard Perry, George Braileanu, Thomas Palmer, Paul Stevens
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that is widespread throughout the US population and disproportionately affects children. This literature review aimed to identify recent information regarding the economic burden of pediatric asthma in the US. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, and PsycINFO databases and gray literature sources were searched from January 2012 to January 2018 to capture relevant publications. Publications reporting on healthcare resource utilization and/or healthcare costs of pediatric asthma were included (n = 8)...
October 13, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
N Tan, J Acheson, N Ali
BACKGROUND: GCA in the Indian Subcontinent (ISC) is rare. Our centre in London, UK, serves an ethnically diverse population, including a significant population of patients of ISC descent. We hypothesise that patients of ISC descent are no less likely than others to present with symptoms suggestive of GCA and therefore to undergo temporal artery biopsy (TAB). METHOD: A retrospective audit of all TABs performed at our institution over an 8 year period, to identify ethnicity (white, black, ISC, other, unknown) and biopsy result...
October 12, 2018: Eye
Roohi Vinaik, Mile Stanojcic, Marc G Jeschke
Burns result in generalized catabolism, lipolysis, and hyperinflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome, a mediator of hyperinflammation, is upregulated in burn patients' adipose tissue within 7 days post-burn. However, its role during the acute phase is unknown. Here, wild-type (WT) and NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-/- ) mice were exposed to 25% TBSA scald burn. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated greater liver macrophage infiltration in NLRP3-/- yet decreased protein expression of NLRP3 components, ER stress, and apoptosis...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Reeder M Robinson, Leticia Reyes, Ravyn M Duncan, Haiyan Bian, Allen B Reitz, Yefim Manevich, Jesse J McClure, Matthew M Champion, C James Chou, Meahgen E Sharik, Marta Chesi, P Leif Bergsagel, Nathan G Dolloff
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is highly sensitive to disruptions in cellular protein homeostasis. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are initially effective in the treatment of MM, although cures are not achievable and the emergence of resistance limits the durability of responses. New therapies are needed for refractory patients, and those that combat resistance to standard of care agents would be particularly valuable. Screening of multiple chemical libraries for PI re-sensitizing compounds identified E61 as a potent enhancer of multiple PIs and MM specific activity...
October 12, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Tatsuro Yamamoto, Chiyomi Sakamoto, Hiroaki Tachiwana, Mitsuru Kumabe, Toshiro Matsui, Tadatoshi Yamashita, Masatoshi Shinagawa, Koji Ochiai, Noriko Saitoh, Mitsuyoshi Nakao
Long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) of an estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive breast cancer cell line recapitulates cancer cells that have acquired estrogen-independent cell proliferation and endocrine therapy resistance. Previously, we have shown that a cluster of non-coding RNAs, Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating non-coding RNAs) formed RNA cloud and upregulated the ESR1 gene in the nuclei of LTED cells. Eleanors were inhibited by resveratrol through ER. Here we prepared another polyphenol, glyceollin I from stressed soybeans, and identified it as a major inhibitor of the Eleanor RNA cloud and ESR1 mRNA transcription...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katherine R Sadleir, Jelena Popovic, Robert Vassar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models that overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) form β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, a hallmark AD lesion. It has been assumed that the neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and cognitive impairment observed in these mice are caused by cerebral Aβ accumulation. However, it is also possible that accumulation of overexpressed transmembrane proteins APP and PS1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jillian Hurd, Andrea Pike, John Knight, Gary Tarrant, Kris Aubrey-Bassler, Shabnam Asghari, Marshall Godwin
OBJECTIVE: To develop a better understanding of the current health status and health care use of the population of very elderly Newfoundlanders to inform policy makers, decision makers, and health care providers about aspects of the health care system that might be in higher demand in the near future. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis using data from the Newfoundland and Labrador component of the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network database for the 2013 calendar year...
October 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Thomas R Freeman, Leslie Boisvert, Eric Wong, Stephen Wetmore, Heather Maddocks
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of services and procedures offered by family physicians who define themselves as comprehensive practitioners and compare responses across 3 generations of alumni of a single family practice program. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Western University in London, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: All graduates of the family medicine program between 1985 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported provision of the following types of care: in-office care, in-hospital care, intrapartum obstetrics, housecalls, palliative care, after-hours care, nursing home care, minor surgery, emergency department care, sport medicine, and walk-in care...
October 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Melissa A Maczis, Michael Maceyka, Michael R Waters, Jason Newton, Manjulata Singh, Madisyn F Rigsby, Tia H Turner, Mohammad A Alzubi, J Chuck Harrell, Sheldon Milstien, Sarah Spiegel
In breast cancer, 17β-estradiol (E2) plays critical roles mainly by binding to its canonical receptor, estrogen receptor (ER) α66, and eliciting genomic effects. E2 also triggers rapid, non-genomic responses. E2 activates sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), increasing sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that binds to its receptors leading to important breast cancer signaling. However, the E2 receptor responsible for SphK1 activation has not yet been identified. Here we demonstrate in triple negative breast cancer cells, which lack the canonical ERα66 but express the novel splice variant ERα36, that ERα36 is the receptor responsible for E2-induced activation of SphK1 and formation and secretion of S1P and dihydro-S1P, the ligands for S1PRs...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Sarah Croessmann, Luigi Formisano, Lisa Kinch, Paula I Gonzalez-Ericsson, Dhivya R Sudhan, Rebecca J Nagy, Aju Mathew, Eric H Bernicker, Massimo Cristofanilli, Jie He, Richard E Cutler, Alshad S Lalani, Vincent A Miller, Richard B Lanman, Nick Grishin, Carlos L Arteaga
PURPOSE: We examined the role of ERBB2 activating mutations in endocrine therapy resistance in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Design ERBB2 mutation frequency was determined from large genomic databases. Isogenic knock-in ERBB2 mutations in ER+ MCF7 cells and xenografts were used to investigate estrogen-independent growth. Structural analysis was used to determine the molecular interaction of HER L755S with HER3. Small molecules and siRNAs were used to inhibit PI3Kα, TORC1 and HER3...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Paul S Jansson, David C Leisten, Todd M Sarkisian, Susan R Wilcox, Jarone Lee
BACKGROUND: Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a commonly prescribed sulfonamide thiazide-type diuretic medication that has been associated with rare cases of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. CASE REPORT: A man in his 50s with a medical history notable for hypertension was transferred to our institution for evaluation of refractory hypoxemia. After taking an initial dose of HCTZ earlier in the day, he developed progressive respiratory failure and was intubated at a referring hospital...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Noa P Yee, Saman Kashani, Thomas Mailhot, Talib Omer
Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory condition that causes demyelination and thickening of the optic nerve leading to acute/subacute vision loss. It is frequently associated with other conditions like multiple sclerosis, but is often misdiagnosed, which can lead to a suboptimal prognosis. Ultrasound is rarely utilized to help make this diagnosis, even though it can easily detect a thickened retrobulbar optic nerve sheath diameter. We describe four cases in which ultrasonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter aided in the diagnosis of ON...
October 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Shaoqun Shu, Jiefu Zhu, Zhiwen Liu, Chengyuan Tang, Juan Cai, Zheng Dong
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) may lead to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), i.e. AKI-CKD transition, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER resulting in a cellular stress response. The role of ER stress in AKI-CKD transition remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we examined ER stress in the mouse model of AKI-CKD transition after unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (uIR)...
October 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
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