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Hamza Nasir, Syed Ibaad Ali, Naeem Haque, Stefan K Grebe, Salman Kirmani
We present a family with 2 members who received long-term steroid treatment for presumed classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, until molecular testing revealed nonclassic CAH, not necessarily requiring treatment. A 17-year-old male presented to our clinic on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment for classic CAH. He was diagnosed at 4 years of age based on mild-moderate elevations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but without evidence of precocious adrenarche/puberty...
September 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Dongdong Wang, Jiahui Wang, Tong Tong, Qing Yang
BACKGROUND: 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11OHD) is extremely rare, and reports of non-classical 11OHD are even rarer. Non-classical 11OHD usually presents as premature adrenarche, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, and hypertension. Because the symptoms of non-classical 11OHD are mild, delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis as polycystic ovary syndrome or primary hypertension is common. CASE PRESENTATION: This paper introduces a case of a young female patient presenting hypertension and menstrual disorders...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Carolina Barbosa, Julian G Simmons, Nandita Vijayakumar, Paul Dudgeon, George C Patton, Lisa K Mundy, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle
OBJECTIVE: Parenting and pubertal timing have consistently been associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and there is some evidence that the interaction between these factors may be important in conferring risk. However, few studies have investigated whether neurobiological factors mediate these relationships. The current study examined whether interactions between adrenarcheal timing and parenting styles were associated with affective brain function and, in turn, mental health difficulties...
September 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Juilee Rege, Adina F Turcu, Josephine Z Kasa-Vubu, Antonio M Lerario, Gabriela C Auchus, Richard J Auchus, Joshua M Smith, Perrin C White, William E Rainey
Context: Adrenarche refers to the rise of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) associated with the development of a functional adrenal zona reticularis. Clinical features of adrenarche include onset of body odor, axillary hair, and pubic hair, which reflect increased androgen action. An early rise in adrenal androgens, or premature adrenarche (PremA), is a risk factor for adverse metabolic profiles in adolescence and adulthood. The bioactive androgens associated with adrenarche and PremA remain poorly understood...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Onur Akın, Aysun Bideci, Esra Döğer, Emine Demet Akbaş, Aylin Kilinç Uğurlu, Süleyman Tolga Yavuz, Şehri Elbeğ, Orhun Çamurdan, Peyami Cinaz
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, an important factor in calcium-phosphate homeostasis, has recently been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic conditions such as hyperandrogenism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and premature adrenarche (PA). METHODS: A total of 71 girls with PA and 52 healthy girls, as the control group, were recruited. Axillary and/or pubic hair development before the age of 8 years was defined as PA...
October 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Elizabeth K Hughes, Lisa K Mundy, Helena Romaniuk, Susan M Sawyer, Melissa Wake, Joanne Williams, Timothy Olds, Nicholas B Allen, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Puberty marks a transition in risk for body image disturbance and disordered eating. Yet few studies have examined these symptoms across puberty and none have examined links with adrenarche, the earliest phase in the pubertal hormonal cascade. METHOD: Levels of adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and testosterone) were measured in a population-based study of 8- to 9-year-old children (516 males and 621 females)...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Joan E Foley, Nilam Ram, Elizabeth J Susman, Marsha Weinraub
We examined relations between sleep-wake behaviors and pubertal development from age 8.5 through 15.5 years in a US-based sample of 488 boys (75% White) and 478 girls (78% White). Applying conditional nonlinear growth models to 7-waves of longitudinal data, we examined how sleep-wake behaviors are related to individual differences in the developmental timing and tempo of secondary sex characteristics. For girls, results supported the hypothesis that circadian changes in bedtimes, wake times, sleep duration, and eveningness preference were uniquely related to development of discrete aspects of secondary sex characteristics...
October 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Gamze Kaya, Zehra Yavas Abali, Firdevs Bas, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Feyza Darendeliler
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between premature adrenarche (PA) and metabolic syndrome (MeS) parameters at presentation and during puberty. This study comprised 47 girls with PA. Age- and puberty-matched 22 healthy girls without PA were the control group. Patients were evaluated at admission (first evaluation) and later in puberty (second evaluation). Anthropometric measurements, lipid levels, and hormonal parameters were studied and oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Indices for insulin resistance (IR) were calculated...
November 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Jani Liimatta, Pauliina Utriainen, Raimo Voutilainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen
Background: It has been speculated that premature adrenarche (PA) could lead to unfavorable outcome, including shorter adult stature, but longitudinal follow-up data are insufficient. Methods: This prospective case-control study included 30 PA and 42 control females who were born mostly full-term and appropriate for gestational age. They were examined first at the median age of 7.6 years and now at 18.1 years. Main outcome measures were height, body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marjolein E A Barendse, Julian G Simmons, Michelle L Byrne, George Patton, Lisa Mundy, Craig A Olsson, Marc L Seal, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle
OBJECTIVE: The transition from childhood to adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of anxiety symptoms. There is some evidence that hormonal changes occurring during adrenarche, an early pubertal phase, might play a role in this increased vulnerability. Little is known about underlying brain mechanisms. Given the role of the amygdala-based fear circuit in anxiety, the current study aimed to investigate whether children's adrenarcheal hormone levels were associated with functional connectivity of the amygdala while processing fearful facial expressions, and how this in turn related to anxiety symptoms...
November 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Maria Sonia Baquedano, Gabriela Guercio, Mariana Costanzo, Roxana Marino, Marco A Rivarola, Alicia Belgorosky
3βHSD2 enzyme is crucial for adrenal and gonad steroid biosynthesis. In enzyme deficiency states, due to recessive loss-of-function HSD3B2 mutations, steroid flux is altered and clinical manifestations result. Deficiency of 3βHSD2 activity in the adrenals precludes normal aldosterone and cortisol synthesis and the alternative backdoor and 11-oxygenated C19 steroid pathways and the flooding of cortisol precursors along the Δ5 pathway with a marked rise in DHEA and DHEAS production. In gonads, it precludes normal T and estrogen synthesis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Tracey Quinn, Ronda Greaves, Emilio Badoer, David Walker
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated congener (DHEAS) are the principal C19 steroid produced by the adrenal gland in many mammals, including humans. It is secreted in high concentrations during fetal life, but synthesis decreases after birth until, in humans and some other primates, there is a prepubertal surge of DHEA production by the adrenal gland-a phenomenon known as adrenarche. There remains considerable uncertainty about the physiological role of DHEA and DHEAS. Moreover, the origin of the trophic drives that determine the waxing and waning of DHEA synthesis are poorly understood...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Chrisanthi Marakaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George Mastorakos, Ze'ev Hochberg, George Chrousos, Anastasios Papadimitriou
Concerns over anxiety and depressive symptoms in children with premature adrenarche (PA) have been recently raised. However, to date, most relevant studies are on a small number of girls. In this cross-sectional study, 82 pre-pubertal children (66 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with PA, were compared to 63 control children regarding their psychological characteristics and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as assessed by salivary cortisol measurement. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by child self-report (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Depression self-rating scale for Children (DSRS)) and parent-report (Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)) tests validated for the Greek population...
June 19, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Timothy S McHale, Wai-Chi Chee, Ka-Chun Chan, David T Zava, Peter B Gray
A large body of research links testosterone and cortisol to male-male competition. Yet, little work has explored acute steroid hormone responses to coalitional, physical competition during middle childhood. Here, we investigate testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol release among ethnically Chinese boys in Hong Kong (N = 102), aged 8-11 years, during a soccer match (n = 84) and an intrasquad soccer scrimmage (n = 81), with 63 participants competing in both treatments. The soccer match and intrasquad soccer scrimmage represented out-group and in-group treatments, respectively...
June 16, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Joseph A Majzoub, Lisa Swartz Topor
We propose that the normal adrenarche-related rise in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion is ultimately caused by the rise in cortisol production occurring during childhood and adolescent growth, by the following mechanisms. (1) The onset of childhood growth leads to a slight fall in serum cortisol concentration due to growth-induced dilution and a decrease in the negative feedback of cortisol upon ACTH secretion. (2) In response, ACTH rises and stimulates increased cortisol synthesis and secretion in the growing body to restore the serum cortisol concentration to normal...
2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Aino Mäntyselkä, Virpi Lindi, Anna Viitasalo, Aino-Maija Eloranta, Jyrki Ågren, Sari Väisänen, Raimo Voutilainen, Tomi Laitinen, Timo A Lakka, Jarmo Jääskeläinen
Context: Premature adrenarche (PA) has been associated with overweight and insulin resistance, but the associations of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentration with other cardiometabolic risk factors are uncertain. Objective: To examine the associations of serum DHEAS concentration with several cardiometabolic risk factors in children. Design: Cross-sectional data from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
María Luisa Sancho Rodríguez, Gloria Bueno Lozano, José Ignacio Labarta Aizpún, Antonio de Arriba Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Premature pubarche (PP) is generally thought to be a benign condition, but it can also be the first sign of underlying disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the aetiology and the evolution of the anthropometric, analytical and metabolic risk parameters of a group of patients with PP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of 92 patients affected by PP. Anthropometry, analyses, bone age and indicators of lipid metabolism were all evaluated...
October 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Typhanie Dumontet, Isabelle Sahut-Barnola, Amandine Septier, Nathanaëlle Montanier, Ingrid Plotton, Florence Roucher-Boulez, Véronique Ducros, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Jean-Christophe Pointud, Mohamad Zubair, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, David T Breault, Pierre Val, Antoine Martinez
The adrenocortical gland undergoes structural and functional remodelling in the fetal and postnatal periods. After birth, the fetal zone of the gland undergoes rapid involution in favor of the definitive cortex, which reaches maturity with the emergence of the zona reticularis(zR) at the adrenarche. The mechanisms underlying the adrenarche, the process leading to pre-puberty elevation of plasma androgens in higher primates, remain unknown, largely due to lack of any experimental model. By following up fetal and definitive cortex cell lines in mice, we showed that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mainly impacts the adult cortex by stimulating centripetal regeneration, with differentiation and then conversion of the zona fasciculata into a functional zR...
June 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Jennifer Kotler, David Haig
Relative to the life history of other great apes, that of humans is characterized by early weaning and short interbirth intervals (IBIs). We propose that in modern humans, birth until adrenarche, or the rise in adrenal androgens, developmentally corresponds to the period from birth until weaning in great apes and ancestral hominins. According to this hypothesis, humans achieved short IBIs by subdividing ancestral infancy into a nurseling phase, during which offspring fed at the breast, and a weanling phase, during which offspring fed specially prepared foods...
March 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
Jani Liimatta, Harri Sintonen, Pauliina Utriainen, Raimo Voutilainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Children with premature adrenarche (PA) are taller and more overweight than their healthy peers, and PA girls have a slightly accelerated pubertal development. There is some evidence that early exposure to androgens may have an influence on psychosocial development. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PA children at the age of 12 years. METHODS: The HRQoL was assessed for 43 PA (36 girls) and 63 control children (52 girls) at the median age of 12...
2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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