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Plant AND Complexity

Maren Dubbert, Christiane Werner
Plants mediate water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. This water transfer in soils, through plants, into the atmosphere can be effectively traced by stable isotopologues of water. However, rapid dynamic processes only recently gained attention, such as adaptations in root water uptake depths (within hours to days) or the imprint of transpirational fluxes on atmospheric moisture, particularly promoted by the development of real-time in situ water vapour stable isotope observation techniques...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Shuguang Bao, Guangshuang Shen, Guichen Li, Zhikang Liu, Muhammad Arif, Qingqing Wei, Shuzhen Men
Loss-of-function of nucleoporin NUP1 in Arabidopsis causes defect in both male and female gametogenesis. Its ovules are arrested during meiosis, and its pollen grains are aborted at mitosis I. Nuclear pore complex (NPC) plays crucial roles in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNAs. The NPC contains approximately 30 different proteins termed nucleoporins (NUPs). So far, only a few of plant NUPs have been characterized. The Arabidopsis NUP1 was identified as an ortholog of the yeast NUP1 and animal NUP153...
October 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Simon G Krattinger
The large and complex genomes of many cereals hindered cloning efforts in the past. Advances in genomics now allow the rapid cloning of genes from humanity's most valuable crops. The past two decades were characterized by a genomics revolution that entailed profound changes to crop research, plant breeding, and agriculture. Today, high-quality reference sequences are available for all major cereal crop species. Large resequencing and pan-genome projects start to reveal a more comprehensive picture of the genetic makeup and the diversity among domesticated cereals and their wild relatives...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Marion E Fraunhofer, Andreas J Geißler, Jürgen Behr, Rudi F Vogel
Lactobacillus (L.) brevis represents a versatile, ubiquitistic species of lactic acid bacteria, occurring in various foods, as well as plants and intestinal tracts. The ability to deal with considerably differing environmental conditions in the respective ecological niches implies a genomic adaptation to the particular requirements to use it as a habitat beyond a transient state. Given the isolation source, 24 L. brevis genomes were analyzed via comparative genomics to get a broad view of the genomic complexity and ecological versatility of this species...
October 19, 2018: Current Microbiology
Joanne K Hobbs, Andrew G Hettle, Chelsea Vickers, Alisdair B Boraston
Pectin is a complex uronic acid-containing polysaccharide typically found in plant cell walls, though forms of pectin are also found in marine diatoms and seagrasses. Genetic loci that target pectin have recently been identified in two phyla of marine bacteria. These loci appear to encode for a pectin saccharification pathway that is distinct from the canonical pathway typically associated with phytopathogenic terrestrial bacteria. However, very few components of the marine pectin metabolism pathway have been experimentally validated...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Masahiko Okumura, Sebastien Kerisit, Ian C Bourg, Laura N Lammers, Takashi Ikeda, Michel Sassi, Kevin M Rosso, Masahiko Machida
Insights at the microscopic level of the process of radiocesium adsorption and interaction with clay mineral particles have improved substantially over the past several years, triggered by pressing social issues such as management of huge amounts of waste soil accumulated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In particular, computer-based molecular modeling supported by advanced hardware and algorithms has proven to be a powerful approach. Its application can now generally encompass the full complexity of clay particle adsorption sites from basal surfaces to interlayers with inserted water molecules, to edges including fresh and weathered frayed ones...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Vasco M N C S Vieira, Inês E Lopes, Joel C Creed
BACKGROUND: Biomass-density relations have been at the centre of a search for an index which describes the health of seagrass meadows. However, this search has been complicated by the intricacy of seagrass demographics and their complex biomass-density relations, a consequence mainly of their modular growth and clonality. Concomitantly, biomass-density upper boundaries have been determined for terrestrial plants and algae, reflecting their asymptotic maximum efficiencies of space occupation...
October 19, 2018: BMC Ecology
Barbara Wrzesińska, Lam Dai Vu, Kris Gevaert, Ive De Smet, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska
Signaling in host plants is an integral part of a successful infection by pathogenic RNA viruses. Therefore, identifying early signaling events in host plants that play an important role in establishing the infection process will help our understanding of the disease process. In this context, phosphorylation constitutes one of the most important post-translational protein modifications, regulating many cellular signaling processes. In this study, we aimed to identify the processes affected by infection with Peanut stunt virus (PSV) and its satellite RNA (satRNA) in Nicotiana benthamiana at the early stage of pathogenesis...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ajay Kumar Mishra, Atul Kumar, Deepti Mishra, Vishnu Sukumari Nath, Jernej Jakše, Tomáš Kocábek, Uday Kumar Killi, Filis Morina, Jaroslav Matoušek
Viroids are smallest known pathogen that consist of non-capsidated, single-stranded non-coding RNA replicons and they exploits host factors for their replication and propagation. The severe stunting disease caused by Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) is a serious threat, which spreads rapidly within hop gardens. In this study, we employed comprehensive transcriptome analyses to dissect host-viroid interactions and identify gene expression changes that are associated with disease development in hop. Our analysis revealed that CBCVd-infection resulted in the massive modulation of activity of over 2000 genes...
October 18, 2018: Viruses
Paulo A Augusto, Teresa Castelo-Grande, Leticia Merchan, Angel M Estevez, Xavier Quintero, Domingos Barbosa
Leachates are still an open issue in environmental protection. Many of the applied methods for their treatment present low efficiency and thus need to be used collectively. In practice reverse osmosis is mostly used, as it is the most effective option, regardless of its cost. Magnetic methods to treat effluents have been used for water and wastewater treatment by the use of magnetic particles together with magnetic separation for the removal of contaminants. However, large-scale applications are few or even non-existent when we deal with complex contaminated media such as landfill leachates, for which not even research studies at laboratorial scale with real samples have been done yet...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Pawel Krzeminski, Maria Concetta Tomei, Popi Karaolia, Alette Langenhoff, C Marisa R Almeida, Ewa Felis, Fanny Gritten, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, Telma Fernandes, Celia M Manaia, Luigi Rizzo, Despo Fatta-Kassinos
Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) discharged in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), not specifically designed for their removal, pose serious hazards to human health and ecosystems. Their impact is of particular relevance to wastewater disposal and re-use in agricultural settings due to CEC uptake and accumulation in food crops and consequent diffusion into the food-chain. This is the reason why the chemical CEC discussed in this review have been selected considering, besides recalcitrance, frequency of detection and entity of potential hazards, their relevance for crop uptake...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
A B Cunningham, Xingchao Long
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Worldwide, one of the drivers of substitution and adulteration is the cost of the natural resources (plants, animals, fungi) that are ingredients of traditional medicines. Relatively few studies have been done that link prices of traditional medicine ingredients to what drives changes in price, yet this is an important topic. Theoretically, prices have been widely considered as an economic indicator of resource scarcity. Rare, slow growing medicinal plants sell for high prices and common, less popular species for low prices...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Simone Fatichi, Christoforos Pappas, Jakob Zscheischler, Sebastian Leuzinger
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Discrepancy in predicting the effects of rising [CO2 ] on the terrestrial C sink III. Carbon and nutrient storage in plants and its modelling IV. Modelling the source and the sink: a plant perspective V. Plant-scale water and Carbon flux models VI. Challenges for the future Acknowledgements Authors contributions References SUMMARY: The increase in atmospheric CO2 in the future is one of the most certain projections in environmental sciences. Understanding whether vegetation carbon assimilation, growth, and changes in vegetation carbon stocks are affected by higher atmospheric CO2 and translating this understanding in mechanistic vegetation models is of utmost importance...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Charles Pouchon, Angel Fernández, Jafet M Nassar, Frédéric Boyer, Serge Aubert, Sébastien Lavergne, Jesús Mavárez
The subtribe Espeletiinae (Asteraceae), endemic to the high-elevations in the Northern Andes, exhibits an exceptional diversity of species, growth-forms, and reproductive strategies. This complex of 140 species includes large trees, dichotomous trees, shrubs and the extraordinary giant caulescent rosettes, considered as a classic example of adaptation in tropical high-elevation ecosystems. The subtribe has also long been recognized as a prominent case of adaptive radiation, but the understanding of its evolution has been hampered by a lack of phylogenetic resolution...
November 1, 2018: Systematic Biology
Yujiao Qu, Julia Legen, Jürgen Arndt, Stephanie Henkel, Galina Hoppe, Christopher Thieme, Giovanna Ranzini, Jose M Muino, Andreas Weihe, Uwe Ohler, Gert Weber, Oren Ostersetzer, Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
Chloroplasts (and other plastids) harbor their own genetic material, with a bacterial-like gene-expression systems. Chloroplast RNA metabolism is complex and is predominantly mediated by nuclear-encoded RNA-binding proteins. In addition to these nuclear factors, the chloroplast-encoded intron maturase MatK has been suggested to perform as a splicing factor for a subset of chloroplast introns. MatK is essential for plant cell survival in tobacco, and thus null mutants have not yet been isolated. We therefore attempted to over-express MatK from a neutral site in the chloroplast, placing it under the control of a theophylline-inducible riboswitch...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaofeng Su, Guoqing Lu, Huiming Guo, Kaixuan Zhang, Xiaokang Li, Hongmei Cheng
Verticillium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is a common, devastating plant vascular disease notorious for causing economic losses. Despite considerable research on plant resistance genes, there has been little progress in modeling the effects of this fungus owing to its complicated pathogenesis. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional and metabolic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to V. dahliae inoculation by Illumina-based RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nunzio D'Agostino, Rachele Tamburino, Concita Cantarella, Valentina De Carluccio, Lorenza Sannino, Salvatore Cozzolino, Teodoro Cardi, Nunzia Scotti
Members of the genus Capsicum are of great economic importance, including both wild forms and cultivars of peppers and chilies. The high number of potentially informative characteristics that can be identified through next-generation sequencing technologies gave a huge boost to evolutionary and comparative genomic research in higher plants. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the plastomes of eight Capsicum species (eleven genotypes), representing the three main taxonomic groups in the genus and estimated molecular diversity...
October 17, 2018: Genes
Lingyu Li, Haomeng Yang, Peng Liu, Weibo Ren, Xinhong Wu, Fang Huang
Global climate warming has a crucial impact on many terrestrial ecosystems, including temperate steppe. In addition, phosphate deficiency is known to be the common deficiency in soils worldwide due to the low availability of the phosphate nutrient in the form of inorganic phosphate anions (Pi). Consequently, in the future, land plants are likely to simultaneously encounter heat stress and phosphate deficiency more frequently. Sheepgrass 〔Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel〕is a dominant perennial forage plant highly significant to grass productivity of Eurasian temperate grasslands...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jiashu Chu, Zhong Chen
Histone is the core component of nucleosome and modification of amino acid residues on histone tails is one of the most pivotal epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Histone acetylation or deacetylation is carried out by two groups of proteins: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs), and has been proven to be tightly linked to regulation of gene expression in animals and vascular plants. The biological functions of HATs and HDACs in non-flowering plants remain largely unknown. We found that there are seven MpHAT genes and twelve MpHDAC genes present in the Marchantia genome, and the comprehensive protein sequence analysis of the HAT and HDAC families was introduced to investigate their potential functions...
October 11, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sung-Hee Seo, Min-Hui Son, Eun-Su Shin, Sung-Deuk Choi, Yoon-Seok Chang
This study investigated perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in multimedia environments to confirm the effects of emission sources of PFASs and to elucidate their spatial distribution. The highest PFAS levels were detected from the samples of air (272.30 pg/m3 ) and surface water (36.54 ng/L) in an industrial complex area, meanwhile high PFAS levels were found from the samples of soil (8.80 ng/g) and sediment (84.98 ng/g) in urban areas and near wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was primarily detected in water, influent and effluent, whereas long chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were dominant in dust, soil, sediment and sludge...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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