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Plant AND Complexity

Mariana Del M Chanampa, Raquel M Gleiser, Carlos L Hoyos, Griselda N Copa, Carolina Mangudo, Julio R Nasser, José F Gil
The sand fly fauna in Hipólito Yrigoyen, Argentina, a locality where cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur, was surveyed with zones of higher abundance of sand flies correlated to vegetation cover estimated through normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Sand flies were collected with 10 CDC traps during six nights, from December 2009 to January 2010. A map was built of expected sand flies abundance in which levels of NDVI were categorized. In total, 1,392 Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) specimens were collected, comprised of the following species: Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926), Migonemyia migonei (França 1920), species of the cortelezzii complex (Brèthes 1923), Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho 1940), and Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar 1929)...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Yukun Chen, Xiaoping Xu, Xiaohui Chen, Yan Chen, Zihao Zhang, Xu Xuhan, Yuling Lin, Zhongxiong Lai
Mother of FT and TFL1 ( MFT ) belongs to phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, which plays an important role in flowering time regulation, seed development, and germination. To gain insight into the molecular function of DlMFT in Dimocarpus longan Lour., we isolated DlMFT and its promoter sequence from longan embryogenic callus (EC). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the promoter contained multiphytohormones and light responsive regulatory elements. Subcellular localization showed that the given the DlMFT signal localized in the nucleus, expression profiling implied that DlMFT showed significant upregulation during somatic embryogenesis (SE) and zygotic embryogenesis (ZE), and particular highly expressed in late or maturation stages...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Miroslav Glasa, Katarína Šoltys, Lukáš Predajňa, Nina Sihelská, Slavomíra Nováková, Zdeno Šubr, Ján Kraic, Daniel Mihálik
In recent years, the accumulated molecular data of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates from various hosts originating from different parts of the world considerably helped to understand the genetic complexity and evolutionary history of the virus. In this work, four complete TuMV genomes (HC9, PK1, MS04, MS15) were characterised from naturally infected cultivated and wild-growing Papaver spp., hosts from which only very scarce data were available previously. Phylogenetic analyses showed the affiliation of Slovak Papaver isolates to the world-B and basal-B groups...
August 14, 2018: Viruses
Rafael Sebastián Fort, Juan M Trinidad Barnech, Juliette Dourron, Marcos Colazzo, Francisco J Aguirre-Crespo, María Ana Duhagon, Guzmán Álvarez
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men around the world. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease in which androgens and their receptors play a crucial role in the progression and development. The current treatment for prostate cancer is a combination of surgery, hormone therapy, radiation and chemotherapy. Therapeutic agents commonly used in the clinic include steroidal and non-steroidal anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, bicalutamide and enzalutamide. These few agents have multiple adverse effects and are not 100% effective...
August 14, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Tariq Shah, Jinsong Xu, Xiling Zou, Yong Cheng, Mubasher Nasir, Xuekun Zhang
Abiotic stresses greatly influenced wheat productivity executed by environmental factors such as drought, salt, water submergence and heavy metals. The effective management at the molecular level is mandatory for a thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stress. Understanding the molecular mechanism of stress tolerance is complex and requires information at the omic level. In the areas of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics enormous progress has been made in the omics field. The rising field of ionomics is also being utilized for examining abiotic stress resilience in wheat...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Clément Patacq, Nicolas Chaudet, Fabien Letisse
Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) play a central role in the adaptation of bacterial and plant cells to nutritional and environmental stresses, and in bacterial resistance to antibiotics. These compounds have historically been detected and quantified by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography of 32 P radiolabeled nucleotides. We report a new method to quantify ppGpp and pppGpp in complex biochemical matrix using ion-chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry...
August 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Polina Turova, Elena Stekolshchikova, Timur Baygildiev, Oleg Shpigun, Igor Rodin, Andrey Stavrianidi
Evaluation of safety, quality and composition of herbal products and food supplements based on botanical ingredients is a matter of serious concern. For screening of botanicals in herbal products multi-targeted and group-targeted approaches may be applied. In the group-targeted approach botanicals are characterized by means of appropriate group of structurally related biomarkers instead of multi-targeted approach where the number of selected analytes are monitored based on multiple reaction monitoring survey...
August 15, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Yangyang Xu, Hao Cai, Gang Cao, Yu Duan, Ke Pei, Jia Zhou, Li Xie, Jiayu Zhao, Jing Liu, Xiaoqi Wang, Lin Shen
To characterize the chemical differences of volatile components between crude and processed Baizhu Shaoyao San (BSS), a classical Chinese herbal formula that is widely applied in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based needle trap device combined with multivariate data analysis to globally profile volatile components and rapidly identify differentiating chemical markers. Using a triple-bed needle packed with Carbopack X, DVB and Carboxen 1000 sorbents, we identified 121 and 123 compounds, respectively, in crude and processed BSS...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tamas Panda, Dilip K Maiti, Manas K Panda
Development of a novel organic luminescent material for inkless writing, and self-erasing application is a remarkable solution to reduce paper waste, recycling cost in the printing industry. These innovative materials also offer to reduce global warming due to the lower consumption of paper made from plants. To this endeavor, herein we report the design, synthesis and simple material fabrication of a donor-acceptor type (Z)-1,2-diarylacrylonitrile (1) compound, which in solid state displayed highly contrast and reversible vapochromism under the visible light as well as UV light...
August 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ivanna Rivera, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega, Georgina Sandoval
Carica papaya latex is one of the most studied sources of plant lipases. However, the complexity of the matrix composition makes it difficult to isolate and purify the lipolytic enzymes present in Carica papaya latex. Therefore, diverse strategies have been developed to study the catalytic properties of these enzymes.Recently the first lipase from Carica papaya latex (CpLip1) has been successfully cloned and expressed in order to study their catalytic properties. In order to improve the catalytic properties and increase the potential for its use at industrial scale...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shabir H Wani, Prateek Tripathi, Abbu Zaid, Ghana S Challa, Anuj Kumar, Vinay Kumar, Jyoti Upadhyay, Rohit Joshi, Manoj Bhatt
The current review provides an updated, new insights into the regulation of transcription mediated underlying mechanisms of wheat plants to osmotic stress perturbations. Osmotic stress tolerance mechanisms being complex are governed by multiple factors at physiological, biochemical and at the molecular level, hence approaches like "OMICS" that can underpin mechanisms behind osmotic tolerance in wheat is of paramount importance. The transcription factors (TFs) are a class of molecular proteins, which are involved in regulation, modulation and orchestrating the responses of plants to a variety of environmental stresses...
August 14, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Hannaneh Tashackori, Mohsen Sharifi, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Naser Safaie
Elicitation of Linum album hairy roots by Piriformospora indica cell wall induced the target genes and specific metabolites in phenylpropanoid pathway and shifted the amino acid metabolism toward the phenolic compound production. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to defend themselves against various biotic stresses. One of these responses is the production of metabolites that act as defense compounds. Manipulation of plant cell cultures by biotic elicitors is a useful strategy for improving the production of valuable secondary metabolites...
August 14, 2018: Planta
Richard Acland
Cannabis use in medicine continues to confound practitioners. There is confusing interpretation of the efficacy and adverse event data, highlighting the complexity of this unique plant. Cannabis may have a neuroprotective role in SCI.
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Marika Cordaro, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are an important public health challenge. In addition, subsequent events at TBI can compromise the quality of life of these patients. In fact, TBI is associated with several complications for both long and short term, some evidence shows how TBI is associated with a decline in cognitive functions such as the risk of developing dementia, cerebral atrophy, and Parkinson disease. After the direct damage from TBI, a key role in TBI injury is played by the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, that contributes to tissue damage and to neurodegenerative processes, typical of secondary injury, after TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
E Argiriadis, D Battistel, D B McWethy, M Vecchiato, T Kirchgeorg, N M Kehrwald, C Whitlock, J M Wilmshurst, C Barbante
Deforestation associated with the initial settlement of New Zealand is a dramatic example of how humans can alter landscapes through fire. However, evidence linking early human presence and land-cover change is inferential in most continental sites. We employed a multi-proxy approach to reconstruct anthropogenic land use in New Zealand's South Island over the last millennium using fecal and plant sterols as indicators of human activity and monosaccharide anhydrides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, charcoal and pollen as tracers of fire and vegetation change in lake-sediment cores...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gopal P Dahal, Ronald E Viola
The aspartate pathway, uniquely found in plants and microorganisms, offers novel potential targets for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes production of a key intermediate at the first branch point in this pathway. Several fungal ASADH structures have been determined, but the prior crystallization conditions had precluded complex formation with enzyme inhibitors. The first inhibitor-bound and cofactor-bound structures of ASADH from the pathogenic fungi Blastomyces dermatitidis have now been determined, along with a structural and functional comparison to other ASADH family members...
August 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Pilar Soengas, M Elena Cartea, Pablo Velasco, Marta Francisco
Coordination of plant circadian rhythms with the external environment provides growth and reproductive advantages to plants as well as enhanced resistance to insects and pathogens. Since glucosinolates (GLSs) play a major role as plant defensive compounds and could affect the palatability and health value of edible crops, the aim of this study was to investigate the species-specific patterns in circadian rhythmicity of these plant phytochemicals. Five different GLS-containing cultivars, from three Brassica crop species were studied...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Robert VanBuren, Ching Man Wai, Marivi Colle, Jie Wang, Shawn Sullivan, Jill M Bushakra, Ivan Liachko, Kelly J Vining, Michael Dossett, Chad E Finn, Rubina Jibran, David Chagné, Kevin Childs, Patrick P Edger, Todd C Mockler, Nahla V Bassil
Background: The fragmented nature of most draft plant genomes has hindered downstream gene discovery, trait mapping for breeding, and other functional genomics applications. There is a pressing need to improve or finish draft plant genome assemblies. Findings: Here we present a chromosome-scale assembly of the black raspberry genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) PacBio sequencing and Hi-C genome scaffolding. The updated V3 assembly has a contig N50 of 5...
August 9, 2018: GigaScience
Waleed M Hussein, Daniel Feder, Gerhard Schenk, Luke W Guddat, Ross P McGeary
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are metalloenzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphate esters under acidic conditions. Their active site contains a Fe(III)Fe(II) metal centre in mammals and a Fe(III)Zn(II) or Fe(III)Mn(II) metal centre in plants. In humans, elevated PAP levels in serum strongly correlate with the progression of osteoporosis and metabolic bone malignancies, which make PAP a target suitable for the development of chemotherapeutics to combat bone ailments. Due to difficulties in obtaining the human enzyme, the corresponding enzymes from red kidney bean and pig have been used previously to develop specific PAP inhibitors...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Charles T Anderson
Assembly of polysaccharide-based walls by plant cells involves the rapid synthesis, trafficking, and deposition of complex biopolymers, but how these events are controlled and coordinated to achieve a strong, resilient extracellular matrix has remained obscure for decades. Recent quantitative analyses of fluorescence microscopy data have revealed details of the trafficking and synthetic activity of cellulose synthases, and new methods for labeling matrix polymers have unveiled aspects of their regulated deposition in the wall...
August 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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