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Plant AND Complexity

Alexandru M F Tomescu, Andrew T Groover
Secondary growth from a vascular cambium, present today only in seed plants and isoetalean lycophytes, has a 400-million-year evolutionary history that involves considerably broader taxonomic diversity, most of it hidden in the fossil record. Approaching vascular cambial growth as a complex developmental process, we review data from living plants and fossils that reveal diverse modes of secondary growth. These are consistent with a modular nature of secondary growth, when considered as a tracheophyte-wide structural feature...
December 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Geertje J Janssen, Pavlo Bielytskyi, Denis G Artiukhin, Johannes Neugebauer, Huub J M de Groot, Jörg Matysik, A Alia
The solid-state photo-CIDNP (photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) effect allows for increase of signal and sensitivity in magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The effect occurs in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) proteins upon illumination and induction of cyclic electron transfer. Here we show that the strength of the effect allows for observation of the cofactors forming the spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) in isolated proteins, in natural photosynthetic membranes as well as in entire plants...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lara Saftić, Željka Peršurić, Emilia Fornal, Tomislav Pavlešić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić
Propolis is a complex biological matrix consisting mostly of plant resins and waxes, and in a small proportion of the herbal secondary metabolites, phenols. Phenols are components that are responsible for biological activities of propolis, however, their qualitative and quantitative composition is strongly influenced by climate and vegetation. Although studies on profiling of propolis samples from different countries have been carried out for some time propolis from Croatia is still not characterized till now...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marco Landi, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Elisa Pellegrini, Damiano Remorini, Mariagrazia Tonelli, Alice Trivellini, Cristina Nali, Lucia Guidi, Rossano Massai, Paolo Vernieri, Giacomo Lorenzini
There is a lack of knowledge about the possibility that plants facing abiotic stressors, such as drought, have an altered perception of a pulse of O3 and incur in alterations of their signalling network. This poses some concerns as to whether defensive strategy to cope episodic O3 peaks in healthy plants may fail under stress. In this study, a set of saplings of two Mediterranean deciduous species, Quercus cerris and Q. pubescens, was subjected to water withholding (20% of daily evapotranspiration for 15 days) while another set was kept well-watered...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Isao T Tokuda, Ozgur E Akman, James C W Locke
A major bottleneck in the modelling of biological networks is the parameter explosion problem - the exponential increase in the number of parameters that need to be optimised to data as the size of the model increases. Here, we address this problem in the context of the plant circadian clock by applying the method of distributed delays. We show that using this approach, the system architecture can be simplified efficiently - reducing the number of parameters - whilst still preserving the core mechanistic dynamics of the gene regulatory network...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Junjie Wang, Xiangbing Meng, Xixun Hu, Tingting Sun, Jiayang Li, Kejian Wang, Hong Yu
CRISPR-Cas9 systems have been widely used in animals and plants for genome editing, epigenetic modification, etc. (Cong et al., 2013, Hilton et al., 2015). However, the accurate recognition of target sites of CRISPR/Cas9 systems depends on the single-guide RNA (sgRNA) corresponding to each target site and protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) around these sites (Anders et al., 2014). Cas9-sgRNA complexes will directly eject the DNA template if no PAMs are recognized before base pairing between target sites and sgRNA (Sternberg et al...
December 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Samuel W Flake, Peter J Weisberg
Severe drought has resulted in widespread tree die-off events in forests and woodlands globally and is forecast to become more frequent in coming decades. Tree mortality is a complex process influenced by climate, soils, characteristics of individual trees, interactions between trees, and the dynamics of pests and pathogens. The role of stand structure and stand density in mediating the resistance of trees to drought remains poorly understood, especially in semiarid woodlands, which are expected to be highly susceptible to future severe drought...
December 13, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Mitchell J L Morton, Mariam Awlia, Nadia Al-Tamimi, Stephanie Saade, Yveline Pailles, Sónia Negrão, Mark Tester
Salt stress limits the productivity of crops grown under saline conditions, leading to substantial yield losses in saline soils and under brackish and saline irrigation. Salt tolerant crops could alleviate these losses while both increasing irrigation opportunities and reducing agricultural demands on dwindling freshwater resources. However, despite significant efforts, progress towards this goal has been limited, largely because of genetic complexity of salt tolerance for agronomically important yield-related traits...
December 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hyunhee Joo, Chae Woo Lim, Sung Chul Lee
Plants have evolved complex defense mechanisms to adapt and survive under adverse growth conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays a pivotal role in the stress response, especially regulation of the stomatal aperture in response to drought. Here, we identified the pepper CaASRF1 (Capsicum annuum ABA Sensitive RING Finger E3 ligase 1) gene, which modulates drought stress tolerance via ABA-mediated signalling. CaASRF1 contains a C3H2C3 type RING finger domain, which functions as an E3 ligase by attaching ubiquitins to the target proteins...
December 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Aleksandra Słupianek, Anna Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Elżbieta Myśkow, Magdalena Turzańska, Katarzyna Sokołowska
In trees, dead and living cells of secondary xylem (wood) function collectively, rendering cell-to-cell communication challenging. Water and solutes are transported over long distances from the roots to the aboveground organs via vessels, the main component of wood, and then radially over short distances to the neighboring cells. This enables proper functioning of trees and integrates whole-plant activity. In this study, tracer loading, immunolocalization experiments, and inhibitor assays were used to decipher the mechanisms enabling transport in wood of Acer pseudoplatanus (maple), Fraxinus excelsior (ash), and Populus tremula ×tremuloides (poplar) trees...
December 12, 2018: New Phytologist
Roel F H M van Bezouw, Joost J B Keurentjes, Jeremy Harbinson, Mark G M Aarts
In recent years, developments in plant phenomic approaches and facilities have gradually caught up with genomic approaches. An opportunity lies ahead to dissect complex, quantitative traits when both genotype and phenotype can be assessed at a high level of detail. This is especially true for studying natural variation in photosynthesis efficiency, for which forward genetics studies have yielded only little progress in our understanding of the genetic layout of the trait. High through-put phenotyping, primarily from chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, should help to dissect the genetics of photosynthesis at the different levels of both plant physiology and development...
December 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
J T D Finch, S A Power, J A Welbergen, J M Cook
BACKGROUND: Obligate pollination mutualisms (OPMs) are specialized interactions in which female pollinators transport pollen between the male and female flowers of a single plant species and then lay eggs into those same flowers. The pollinator offspring hatch and feed upon some or all of the developing ovules pollinated by their mothers. Strong trait matching between plants and their pollinators in OPMs is expected to result in reciprocal partner specificity i.e., a single pollinator species using a single plant species and vice versa, and strict co-speciation...
December 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Linh Duy Nguyen, Sana Gassara, Minh Quang Bui, François Zaviska, Philippe Sistat, André Deratani
The shortage of drinking water is a major problem in the rural areas of the Mekong Delta, especially, when surface water, a main local direct drinking water source is being threatened by pesticide pollution and salinity intrusion. A hybrid process coupling electrodialysis (ED) and nanofiltration (NF) is proposed as an effective process easy to setup in a small plant to treat complex matrix with high salinity and pesticide concentration as is the Mekong Delta surface water. Performance of the ED-NF integration was evaluated with synthetic solutions based on the comparison with a single NF step generally used for pesticide removal...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Silvia Coolen, Johan A Van Pelt, Saskia C M Van Wees, Corné M J Pieterse
In this genome-wide association study, we obtained novel insights into the genetic basis of the effect of herbivory or drought stress on the level of resistance against the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In nature, plants function in complex environments where they encounter different biotic and abiotic stresses individually, sequentially or simultaneously. The adaptive response to a single stress does not always reflect how plants respond to such a stress in combination with other stresses. To identify genetic factors that contribute to the plant's ability to swiftly adapt to different stresses, we investigated the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to infection by the necrotrophic fungus B...
December 14, 2018: Planta
Justine Claverie, Suzanne Balacey, Christelle Lemaître-Guillier, Daphnée Brulé, Annick Chiltz, Lucie Granet, Elodie Noirot, Xavier Daire, Benoît Darblade, Marie-Claire Héloir, Benoit Poinssot
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous molecules that can activate the plant innate immunity. DAMPs can derive from the plant cell wall, which is composed of a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin polysaccharides. Fragments of pectin, called oligogalacturonides (OG), can be released after wounding or by pathogen-encoded cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) such as polygalacturonases (PGs). OG are known to induce innate immune responses, including the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), production of H2 O2 , defense gene activation, and callose deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tomohiro Uemura, Ryohei Thomas Nakano, Junpei Takagi, Yiming Wang, Katharina Kramer, Iris Finkemeier, Hirofumi Nakagami, Kenichi Tsuda, Takashi Ueda, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Akihiko Nakano
Spatiotemporal coordination of protein trafficking between organelles is essential for eukaryotic cells, and the post-Golgi interface, including the trans-Golgi network (TGN), is a pivotal hub for multiple trafficking pathways. The Golgi-released independent TGN (GI-TGN) is a compartment described only in plant cells, and its cellular and physiological roles remain elusive. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the SYP4 group Qa-SNARE (soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) membrane fusion proteins are shared components of TGN and GI-TGN and regulate secretory and vacuolar transport...
December 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Michael Oluwatoyin Daniyan, Oluwatoyin Tolulope Ojo
Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90) has been investigated as a potential target of antimalarial drug action using naturally occurring compounds. In this study, we performed in silico screening of 236 phytochemicals of Azadirachta indica, a plant known to possess antimalarial activity, and identified fourteen (14) potential non-carcinogenic, non-mutagenic, non-teratogenic and non-genotoxic phytochemicals. These phytochemicals were docked into the ATP-binding site of PfHsp90 using Autodock vina, and docked poses were rescored using PLANTS ChemPlp, X-Score version 1...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Erik A Lilleskov, Thomas W Kuyper, Martin I Bidartondo, Erik A Hobbie
Humans have dramatically increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition globally. At the coarsest resolution, N deposition is correlated with shifts from ectomycorrhizal (EcM) to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree dominance. At finer resolution, ectomycorrhizal fungal (EcMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities respond strongly to long-term N deposition with the disappearance of key taxa. Conifer-associated EcMF are more sensitive than other EcMF, with current estimates of critical loads at 5-6 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the former and 10-20 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the latter...
November 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ashley Ling, El Hamidi Hay, Samuel E Aggrey, Romdhane Rekaya
Ordinal categorical responses are frequently collected in survey studies, human medicine, and animal and plant improvement programs, just to mention a few. Errors in this type of data are neither rare nor easy to detect. These errors tend to bias the inference, reduce the statistical power and ultimately the efficiency of the decision-making process. Contrarily to the binary situation where misclassification occurs between two response classes, noise in ordinal categorical data is more complex due to the increased number of categories, diversity and asymmetry of errors...
2018: PloS One
Yue Zhong, Meixin Yan, Jinyan Jiang, Zhihan Zhang, Junjun Huang, Lianhui Zhang, Yinyue Deng, Xiaofan Zhou, Fei He
The morphological changes from single-cell yeast to filamentous hypha form are critical in plant pathogenic smut fungi. This dimorphic switch is tightly regulated by complex gene pathways in pathogenic development. The phytopathogenic basidiomycetes Sporisorium scitamineum displays a morphological transition from budding growth of haploid cells to filamentous growth of the dikaryon, which enables fungi to forage for nutrients and evade the host plant immune system. In searching for compounds affected dimorphic switch instead of killing the cell directly, a natural product mycophenolic acid (MPA) was purified and exhibited significant dimorphism inhibitory activities with minimum effective concentrations of 0...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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