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Artificial Light

Bing Han, Yong-Lai Zhang, Lin Zhu, Ying Li, Zhuo-Chen Ma, Yu-Qing Liu, Xu-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Wen Cao, Qi-Dai Chen, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Hong-Bo Sun
Muscles and joints make highly coordinated motion, which can be partly mimicked to drive robots or facilitate activities. However, most cases primarily employ actuators enabling simple deformations. Therefore, a mature artificial motor system requires many actuators assembled with jointed structures to accomplish complex motions, posing limitations and challenges to the fabrication, integration, and applicability of the system. Here, a holistic artificial muscle with integrated light-addressable nodes, using one-step laser printing from a bilayer structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) and graphene oxide compounded with gold nanorods (AuNRs), is reported...
December 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hana Ševčíková, Zuzana Lhotáková, Jaromír Hamet, Helena Lipavská
Rate of photosynthesis and related plant carbohydrate status are crucial factors affecting plant vigour. Sugars providing carbon and energy sources serve also as important signalling molecules governing plant growth and development through a complex regulatory network. These facts are often neglected when mixotrophic cultivation of plants in vitro is used, where artificial exogenous sugar supply hinders studies of metabolism as well as sugar-driven developmental processes. We compared the growth, selected gas-exchange parameters and sugar metabolism characteristics in four model plants, potato (Solanum tuberosum 'Lada'), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Samsun'), rapeseed (Brassica napus 'Asgard') and strawberry (Fragaria vesca), under both photomixotrophic (PM) and photoautotrophic (PA) conditions...
December 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Giulia Bombieri, María Del Mar Delgado, Luca Francesco Russo, Pedro José Garrote, José Vicente López-Bao, José M Fedriani, Vincenzo Penteriani
Attacks by wild carnivores on humans represent an increasing problem in urban areas across North America and their frequency is expected to rise following urban expansion towards carnivore habitats. Here, we analyzed records of carnivore attacks on humans in urban areas of the U.S. and Canada between 1980 and 2016 to analyze the general patterns of the attacks, as well as describe the landscape structure and, for those attacks occurring at night, the light conditions at the site of the attacks. We found that several behavioral and landscape-related factors were recurrent elements in the attacks recorded...
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Frank A J L Scheer, Patrick Schrauwen, Susanne E la Fleur, Andries Kalsbeek
Insulin resistance is a main determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The circadian timing system consists of a central brain clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and various peripheral tissue clocks. The circadian timing system is responsible for the coordination of many daily processes, including the daily rhythm in human glucose metabolism. The central clock regulates food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity, and these actions are further fine-tuned by local peripheral clocks...
December 7, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ramprasad Misra, Tamar Eliash, Yuki Sudo, Mordechai Sheves
In microbial rhodopsins (also called retinal proteins), the retinal chromophore is used for harvesting light. A carotenoid molecule has been reported to complement the retinal as light harvesting antenna in bacterial retinal proteins, although examples are scarce. In this paper, we present the formation of a novel antenna complex between thermophilic rhodopsin (TR) and the carotenoid salinixanthin (Sal). The complex formation and its structure were studied using UV-visible absorption as well as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
James Robert Golden, Cordelia Erickson-Davis, Nicolas P Cottaris, Nikhil Parthasarathy, Fred Rieke, David Brainard, B Wandell, E J Chichilnisky
The nature of artificial vision with a retinal prosthesis, and the degree to which the brain can adapt to the unnatural input from such a device, are poorly understood. Therefore, the development of current and future devices may be aided by theory and simulations that help to infer and understand what prosthesis patients see. A biologically-informed, extensible computational framework is presented here to predict visual perception and the potential effect of learning with a subretinal prosthesis. The framework relies on linear reconstruction of the stimulus from retinal responses to infer the visual information available to the patient...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Hector Garcia Vasquez, Giovanni Zocchi
The Artificial Axon is a recently introduced synthetic assembly of supported lipid bilayers and voltage gated ion channels, displaying the basic electrophysiology of nerve cells. Here we demonstrate the use of two artificial axons as control elements to achieve a simple task. Namely, we steer a remote control car towards a light source, using the sensory input dependent firing rate of the axons as the control signal for turning left or right. We present the result in the form of the analysis of a movie of the car approaching the light source...
November 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Nature
Gabriella Guarnieri, Rosana Bizzotto, Ottorino Gottardo, Emanuela Velo, Mauro Cassaro, Stefania Vio, Maria Grazia Putzu, Federica Rossi, Paolo Zuliani, Filippo Liviero, Paola Mason, Piero Maestrelli
INTRODUCTION: Clusters of silicosis cases have been reported in the fabrication of quartz conglomerate, a new high-silica-content artificial stone for kitchen and bathroom benchtops (countertops). AIM: We describe two cases of accelerated-type silicosis with hepatic granulomas arising in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates. METHODS: A confident diagnosis of multiorgan silicosis was based on high level of respirable silica in the workplace, typical radiological alterations in chest high-resolution CT, histological findings in the lung and liver, and detection of silica crystals in both tissues by phase-contrast polarising light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy...
December 4, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Marcella Bonchio, Zois Syrgiannis, Max Burian, Nadia Marino, Erica Pizzolato, Konstantin Dirian, Francesco Rigodanza, Giulia Alice Volpato, Giuseppina La Ganga, Nicola Demitri, Serena Berardi, Heinz Amenitsch, Dirk M Guldi, Stefano Caramori, Carlo Alberto Bignozzi, Andrea Sartorel, Maurizio Prato
The oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is there primarily because of water oxidation performed by photosynthetic organisms using solar light and one specialized protein complex, photosystem II (PSII). High-resolution imaging of the PSII 'core' complex shows the ideal co-localization of multi-chromophore light-harvesting antennas with the functional reaction centre. Man-made systems are still far from replicating the complexity of PSII, as the majority of PSII mimetics have been limited to photocatalytic dyads based on a 1:1 ratio of a light absorber, generally a Ru-polypyridine complex, with a water oxidation catalyst...
December 3, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Syed Ghazi Sarwat, Nathan Youngblood, Yat-Yin Au, Jan A Mol, C David Wright, Harish Bhaskaran
Phase change materials are increasingly being explored for photonics applications, ranging from high resolution displays to artificial retinas. Surprisingly, our understanding of the underlying mechanism of light-matter interaction in these materials has been limited to photothermal crystallization, because of its relevance in applications such as re-writable optical discs. Here we report a photoconductivity study of nanoscale thin films of phase change materials. We identify strong photoconductive behaviour in phase change materials, which we show to be a complex interplay of three independent mechanisms: photoconductive, photo induced-crystallization and photo-induced-thermoelectric effects...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Isaac Monroy, Germán Buitrón
This study presents the use of a machine learning method from the artificial intelligence area, such as the support vector machines, applied to the construction of data-based classification models for diagnosing undesired scenarios in the hydrogen production process by photo-fermentation, which was carried out by an immobilized photo-bacteria consortium. The diagnosis models were constructed with data obtained from simulations run with a mechanistic model of the process and assessed on both modelled and experimental batches...
November 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ross A Clark, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Emma Hough, Yong Hao Pua
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional camera systems that integrate depth assessment with traditional two-dimensional images, such as the Microsoft Kinect, Intel Realsense, StereoLabs Zed and Orbecc, hold great promise as physical function assessment tools. When combined with point cloud and skeleton pose tracking software they can be used to assess many different aspects of physical function and anatomy. These assessments have received great interest over the past decade, and will likely receive further study as the integration of depth sensing and augmented reality smartphone cameras occurs more in everyday life...
November 22, 2018: Gait & Posture
Pornanong Aramwit, Natthanej Luplertlop, Tapanee Kanjanapruthipong, Sumate Ampawong
BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation disorders such as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are major concerns not only in light-skinned people but also in Asian populations with darker skin. The anti-tyrosinase and immunomodulatory effects of sericin have been known for decades. However, the therapeutic effects of sericin on hyperpigmentation disorders have not been well documented. METHODS: In this study, we used an in vitro model to study the anti-tyrosinase, tolerogenic, and anti-melanogenic effects of sericin on Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan (PEG)-stimulated melanocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and artificial skin (MelanoDerm™)...
November 29, 2018: Biological Research
V Marek, A Potey, A Réaux-Le-Goazigo, E Reboussin, A Charbonnier, T Villette, C Baudouin, W Rostène, A Denoyer, S Mélik Parsadaniantz
Today the noxiousness of blue light from natural and particularly artificial (fluorescent tubes, LED panels, visual displays) sources is actively discussed in the context of various ocular diseases. Many of them have an important neurologic component and are associated with ocular pain. This neuropathic signal is provided by nociceptive neurons from trigeminal ganglia. However, the phototoxicity of blue light on trigeminal neurons has not been explored so far. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the cytotoxic impact of various wavebands of visible light (410-630nm) on primary cell culture of mouse trigeminal neural and glial cells...
November 26, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Konstantin N Belosludtsev, Nikita V Penkov, Kirill S Tenkov, Eugeny Yu Talanov, Natalia V Belosludtseva, Alexey V Agafonov, Anastasia E Stepanova, Vlada S Starinets, Olga V Vashchenko, Sergey V Gudkov, Mikhail V Dubinin
Bedaquiline (BDQ) is a new drug from the family of diarylquinolines, which has a potent bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This paper has examined the interaction of BDQ with model membranes (liposomes and BLM) and rat erythrocytes. It was shown that BDQ (1-10 mol%) changed the thermotropic phase behavior of DMPC liposomes, leading to the lateral phase separation in the lipid bilayer and the formation of membrane microdomains. BDQ (10-50 μM) was also demonstrated to cause permeabilization of lecithin liposomes loaded with the fluorescent dye sulforhodamine B...
November 26, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Wen-Hao Li, Qiu-Li Ning, Xiao-Tong Xi, Bao-Hua Hou, Jin-Zhi Guo, Yang Yang, Bin Chen, Xing-Long Wu
Conventional ion batteries utilizing metallic ions as the single charge carriers are limited by the insufficient abundance of metal resources. Although supercapacitors apply both cations and anions to store energy through absorption and/or Faradic reactions occurring at the interfaces of the electrode/electrolyte, the inherent low energy density hinders its application. The graphite-cathode-based dual-ion battery possesses a higher energy density due to its high working potential of nearly 5 V. However, such a battery configuration suffers from severe electrolyte decomposition and exfoliation of the graphite cathode, rendering an inferior cycle life...
November 29, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nina Milosavljevic, Riccardo Storchi, Cyril G Eleftheriou, Andrea Colins, Rasmus S Petersen, Robert J Lucas
Information transfer in the brain relies upon energetically expensive spiking activity of neurons. Rates of information flow should therefore be carefully optimized, but mechanisms to control this parameter are poorly understood. We address this deficit in the visual system, where ambient light (irradiance) is predictive of the amount of information reaching the eye and ask whether a neural measure of irradiance can therefore be used to proactively control information flow along the optic nerve. We first show that firing rates for the retina's output neurons [retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)] scale with irradiance and are positively correlated with rates of information and the gain of visual responses...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhiqing Zhang, Maozhou He, Shimeng Bai, Feng Zhang, Jie Jiang, Qingbing Zheng, Shuangquan Gao, Xiaodong Yan, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
The HIV-1 mature capsid (CA) assumes an amorphous, fullerene conical configuration due to its high flexibility. How native CA self-assembles is still unclear despite having well-defined structures of its pentamer and hexamer building blocks. Here we explored the self-assembly of an engineered capsid protein built through artificial disulfide bonding (CA N21C/A22C) and determined the structure of one fraction of the globular particles. CA N21C/A22C was found to self-assemble into particles in relatively high ionic solutions...
November 26, 2018: Viruses
Wenqiang Wu, Xiandi Wang, Xun Han, Zheng Yang, Guoyun Gao, Yufei Zhang, Jufang Hu, Yongwen Tan, Anlian Pan, Caofeng Pan
The quest for novel deformable image sensors with outstanding optoelectronic properties and large-scale integration becomes a great impetus to exploit more advanced flexible photodetector (PD) arrays. Here, 10 × 10 flexible PD arrays with a resolution of 63.5 dpi are demonstrated based on as-prepared perovskite arrays for photosensing and imaging. Large-scale growth controllable CH3 NH3 PbI3- x Clx arrays are synthesized on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate by using a two-step sequential deposition method with the developed Al2 O3 -assisted hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface treatment process...
November 28, 2018: Advanced Materials
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