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Artificial Light

Lingjie Du, Sheng Wang, Diego Scarabelli, Loren N Pfeiffer, Ken W West, Saeed Fallahi, Geoff C Gardner, Michael J Manfra, Vittorio Pellegrini, Shalom J Wind, Aron Pinczuk
The interplay between electron-electron interactions and the honeycomb topology is expected to produce exotic quantum phenomena and find applications in advanced devices. Semiconductor-based artificial graphene (AG) is an ideal system for these studies that combines high-mobility electron gases with AG topology. However, to date, low-disorder conditions that reveal the interplay of electron-electron interaction with AG symmetry have not been achieved. Here, we report the creation of low-disorder AG that preserves the near-perfection of the pristine electron layer by fabricating small period triangular antidot lattices on high-quality quantum wells...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Huanyu Pei, Yunjie Zhang, Shujin Guo, Lixia Ren, Hong Yan, Bingcheng Luo, Chang-Le Chen, Kexin Jin
The optical magneto-electric effect has been widely investigated, but how to obtain the large and tunable optical magneto-electric effect at room temperature is still a big challenge. We here design ferroelectric/ferromagnetic hetero-structures with various orientations, which are composed of titanate BaTiO3 and manganese oxide La0.67 Sr0.33 MnO3 . This artificial bilayer structure presents room-temperature ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. After patterning a 4 μm grating structure on the bilayer thin film, the optical magneto-electric effect for near-infrared light is investigated systematically through the Bragg diffraction method...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alexander G Luchinin, Lev S Dolin, Mikhail Yu Kirillin
Characteristics of different underwater imaging systems are compared based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of light transport in the sea water. The consideration includes systems with continuous-wave illumination, modulated illumination, pulsed systems with time gating detection, and hybrid systems with probing pulse modulated at high frequency. To generalize the study, the ratio of SNRs of different systems when imaging a sinusoidal test pattern is analyzed. Pulsed systems are demonstrated to provide higher SNR as compared to continuous-wave systems for typical imaging distances varying in the range 35-60 m, while systems with modulated illumination provide a SNR comparable to that for continuous-wave systems...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Pascal Berto, Marc Guillon, Pierre Bon
Numerical refocusing in any plane is one powerful feature granted by measuring both the amplitude and the phase of a coherent light beam. Here, we introduce a method based on the first Rytov approximation of scalar electromagnetic fields that (i) allows numerical propagation without requiring phase unwrapping after propagation and (ii) limits the effect of artificial phase singularities that appear upon numerical defocusing when the measurement noise is mixing with the signal. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method with both scalar electromagnetic field simulations and real acquisitions of microscopic biological samples imaged at high numerical aperture...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Samer Khalaf, Jawad H Shoqeir, Laura Scrano, Rafik Karaman, Sabino A Bufo
This study examines the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) semiconductor supported on borosilicate tubes (cut-off 290 nm) towards removal of a mix of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. For this purpose, two widely used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ibuprofen (IBU) and mefenamic acid, along with MCPA sodium monohydrate, which is a common herbicide frequently used in the agricultural activities, were selected as a case study. Borosilicate tubes were coated with titanium oxide through two different approaches: sol-gel dip-coating and a hybrid nanoparticle dip-coating and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D Vestler, I Shishkin, E A Gurvitz, M E Nasir, A Ben-Moshe, A P Slobozhanyuk, A V Krasavin, T Levi-Belenkova, A S Shalin, P Ginzburg, G Markovich, A V Zayats
Optical activity is a fundamental phenomenon originating from the chiral nature of crystals and molecules. While intrinsic chiroptical responses of ordinary chiral materials to circularly polarized light are relatively weak, they can be enhanced by specially tailored nanostructures. Here, nanorod metamaterials, comprising a dense array of vertically aligned gold nanorods, is shown to provide a significant enhancement of the circular dichroism response of an embedded material. A nanorod composite, acting as an artificial uniaxial crystal, is filled with chiral mercury sulfide nanocrystals embedded in a transparent polymer...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Faisal Mahmood, Richard Chen, Sandra Sudarsky, Daphne Yu, Nicholas J Durr
Deep learning has emerged as a powerful artificial intelligence tool to interpret medical images for a growing variety of applications. However, the paucity of medical imaging data with high-quality annotations that is necessary for training such methods ultimately limits their performance. Medical data is challenging to acquire due to privacy issues, shortage of experts available for annotation, limited representation of rare conditions and cost. This problem has previously been addressed by using synthetically generated data...
August 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Wen-Tian Su, Yue-Jun Liu, Yan-Feng Jiang, Jian-Qiu Xie, Xin-He Pan, Jing-Jing Liu, Jin-Ping Si
Field surveys and literatures show that Polygonati Rhizome (Huangjing) was firstly recorded in Shen Nong&s Herbal Classic, and widely used as a medicinal and edible plant. It has a long history of cultivation, and the researches on chemistry have made some progress. The future development is prospected on health market. But the Polygonati Rhizome industry has faced a lot of problems, including the resource depletion, unstable quality, low-tech in cultivation and germplasm confusion, unclear of functional composition, decentralized, small scaled and primary processing products...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
HyeJung Jang, JinSook Yoon, Yoon-Jung Kim, YungKyung Park
Objectives: The iris is the part of the eye that is colored, and it is an important feature in making an artificial eye. To address the lack of information about the brown Korean irises, we classified the colors and patterns of the irises of 100 Korean eyes. Methods: The iris colors were extracted from 100 different digital photographs of each eye using K-mean clustering image analysis. The RGB data of the extracted colors were converted to CIELAB color space data and analyzed to determine the representative color of the iris in each photograph...
July 2018: Healthcare Informatics Research
Florian Drawitsch, Ali Karimi, Kevin M Boergens, Moritz Helmstaedter
The labeling and identification of long-range axonal inputs from multiple sources within densely reconstructed EM datasets from mammalian brains has been notoriously difficult because of the limited color label space of EM. Here, we report FluoEM for the identification of multi-color fluorescently labeled axons in dense EM data without the need for artificial fiducial marks or chemical label conversion. The approach is based on correlated tissue imaging and computational matching of neurite reconstructions, amounting to a virtual color labeling of axons in dense EM circuit data...
August 14, 2018: ELife
Joah R Madden, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Christine E Beardsworth, Jayden O van Horik
Cognitive abilities probably evolve through natural selection if they provide individuals with fitness benefits. A growing number of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between performance in psychometric tasks and (proxy) measures of fitness. We assayed the performance of 154 common pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ) chicks on tests of acquisition and reversal learning, using a different set of chicks and different set of cue types (spatial location and colour) in each of two years and then followed their fates after release into the wild...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Janine S Cardoso-Rurr, Juliana Patrão de Paiva, Ivan G Paulino-Lima, Tatiana A M de Alencar, Claudia A S Lage, Alvaro C Leitão
Rational use of water is a major challenge for governments and global organizations, with easy and inexpensive interventions being sought by communities that are not supplied with drinking water. In this context, solar disinfection (SODIS) has shown great efficiency for water disinfection. To speed up the process and improve inactivation, we studied the effects of methylene blue (MB) as a photodynamic agent because of its ability to absorb visible light (red wavelength) and generate singlet oxygen as a reactive species, thereby inactivating bacteria and viruses present in water...
August 13, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Shukun Le, Wenjing Li, Yue Li, Burenbayaer Borjigin, Guangshe Li, Xiaojing Wang
Ag3 VO4 /mpg-C3 N4 (mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride) heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by anchoring tiny Ag3 VO4 particles on the nanosheet of mpg-C3 N4 . The prepared Ag3 VO4 /mpg-C3 N4 heterojunctions were used to removal tetracycline (TC), a kind of antibiotics widely released into the aquatic environment under solar irradiation. Compared with pure mpg-C3 N4 and Ag3 VO4 , Ag3 VO4 /mpg-C3 N4 displayed much higher photocatalytic activity (83.2% removal rate within 90 min under visible-light irradiation)...
August 13, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
J González-Camejo, R Barat, M V Ruano, A Seco, J Ferrer
As microalgae have the ability to simultaneously remove nutrients from wastewater streams while producing valuable biomass, microalgae-based wastewater treatment is a win-win strategy. Although recent advances have been made in this field in lab conditions, the transition to outdoor conditions on an industrial scale must be further investigated. In this work an outdoor pilot-scale membrane photobioreactor plant was operated for tertiary sewage treatment. The effects of different parameters on microalgae performance were studied including: temperature, light irradiance (solar and artificial irradiance), hydraulic retention time (HRT), biomass retention time (BRT), air sparging system and influent nutrient concentration...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Masashi Ryo, Takafumi Yamashino, Hisanori Yamakawa, Yuichi Fujita, Setsuyuki Aoki
Two-component systems, versatile signaling mechanisms based on phosphate transfer between component proteins, must have played important roles in adaptation and diversification processes in land plant evolution. We previously demonstrated that two Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-histidine kinases, PHK1 and PHK2, repress gametophore formation in the moss Physcomitrella patens under aerobic conditions, and that, in eukaryotes, the presence of their homologs is restricted to early-diverging streptophyte linages. We assessed here whether or not PHKs play a role in oxygen signaling...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ramesh Ghosh, Joydip Ghosh, Ruma Das, Larionette P L Mawlong, Kamal Kumar Paul, P K Giri
We report on the fabrication of Ag nanoparticle (NP) decorated mesoporous Si nanowire (NW) heterostructure (HS) by a simple and low cost chemical process. The as-grown Si NWs are mesoporous in nature and the Ag NP decorated Si NWs (Ag@Si NWs) exhibit broadband light emission, ultralow reflectance, efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and excellent sensitivity for the detection of organic molecules over a wide range of concentration. The broadband white light photoluminescence emission from the bare Si NWs is explained on the basis of quantum confinement effect in Si NCs/NWs and the nonbridging oxygen hole center defects in the SiSiOx interface...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dat Tien Nguyen, Tuyen Danh Pham, Young Won Lee, Kang Ryoung Park
Iris recognition systems have been used in high-security-level applications because of their high recognition rate and the distinctiveness of iris patterns. However, as reported by recent studies, an iris recognition system can be fooled by the use of artificial iris patterns and lead to a reduction in its security level. The accuracies of previous presentation attack detection research are limited because they used only features extracted from global iris region image. To overcome this problem, we propose a new presentation attack detection method for iris recognition by combining features extracted from both local and global iris regions, using convolutional neural networks and support vector machines based on a near-infrared (NIR) light camera sensor...
August 8, 2018: Sensors
Arpit Bhargava, Vikram Pareek, Subhasree Roy Choudhury, Jitendra Panwar, Surajit Karmakar
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium is a notorious pathogen causing chronic infections. Its ability to form antibiotic resistant biofilm has raised the need for the development of alternative treatment approaches. An ideal alternate can be silver nanoparticles known for their strong yet tuneable bactericidal activity. However, their use in the commercial in vivo medicine could not see the light of the day because of the unwanted toxicity of silver in the host cells at higher concentrations...
August 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Garry A Luke, Martin D Ryan
Oligopeptide "2A" and "2A-like" sequences ("2As"; 18-25aa) are found in a range of RNA virus genomes controlling protein biogenesis through "recoding" of the host-cell translational apparatus. Insertion of multiple 2As within a single open reading frame (ORF) produces multiple proteins; hence, 2As have been used in a very wide range of biotechnological and biomedical applications. During translation, these 2A peptide sequences mediate a eukaryote-specific, self-"cleaving" event, termed "ribosome skipping" with very high efficiency...
August 9, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Hao Li, Chengliang Mao, Huan Shang, Zhiping Yang, Zhihui Ai, Lizhi Zhang
Catalytic ammonia synthesis from dinitrogen (N2) under mild conditions has been considered to be the "holy grail" of N2 fixation, which is one of the most important chemical processes in the agriculture, biological and industrial fields. Given that current artificial N2 fixation is still dominated by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, solar N2 fixation represents an encouraging and fascinating route for carbon-free and energy-saving N2 fixation. However, its practical application is seriously hampered by surface sluggish reaction kinetics...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale
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