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Symptom clusters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693495/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-nicotine-preloading-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Eric A Dedert, Paul A Dennis, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether augmenting standard smoking cessation treatment by wearing an active nicotine patch before the smoking quit date improves rates of smoking cessation in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to explore mechanisms of treatment response such as decreased cigarette craving and symptom relief from smoking. METHODS: Double-blind parallel randomized controlled trial in 81 people with PTSD who smoked cigarettes. Participants were recruited from Veterans Affairs outpatient clinics and flyers in the community...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692312/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-in-immunocompetent-children-from-a-remote-area-of-french-guiana
#2
Emilie Mosnier, Noémie Martin, Romy Razakandrainibe, Frédéric Dalle, Guillaume Roux, Arnaud Buteux, Loïc Favennec, Paul Brousse, Basma Guarmit, Denis Blanchet, Loïc Epelboin, Camille Girouin, Elise Martin, Félix Djossou, Mathieu Nacher, Magalie Demar
In September 2014, an increase in the number of Cryptosporidium spp. gastrointestinal tract infections was reported over a 6-month period among children living in a remote area along the Maroni River in French Guiana. Children presented gastroenteritis symptoms with Cryptosporidium -positive stools. Questionnaires were administered and stool examinations were controlled 3 months after the onset of symptoms. Data collection included demographics, food consumption, river behavior, symptoms, and outcome. Stool specimens were tested using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689700/physical-health-conditions-associated-with-full-and-subthreshold-ptsd-in-u-s-military-veterans-results-from-the-national-health-and-resilience-in-veterans-study
#3
Renée El-Gabalawy, Caitlin Blaney, Jack Tsai, Jennifer A Sumner, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: While both full and subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be linked to physical conditions, contemporary population-based data on these associations in military veterans are scarce. Further, little is known about how component aspects of PTSD, which is a heterogeneous disorder, may relate to physical conditions in this population. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a population-based sample of 3157 U.S. military veterans who participated in the 2011 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688876/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#4
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688529/personality-pathology-and-schizophrenia
#5
Erik Simonsen, Giles Newton-Howes
The interaction of personality pathology and schizophrenia has conceptually been a topic of considerable interest in psychiatry. Recent advances in taxonomy and assessment of relevance to the clinician and researcher is presented. Cluster A and avoidant personality disorders are regarded as risk factors or antecedents for the development of schizophrenia. Some features of borderline personality disorder may resemble schizophrenia. With both a hierarchical structure and symptom-focused classification systems, personality pathology and personality disorder comorbidities can be overlooked...
April 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687958/genetic-diversity-of-bcov-in-brazilian-cattle-herds
#6
Adeline de Mira Fernandes, Paulo E Brandão, Michele Dos Santos Lima, Maira de Souza Nunes Martins, Thais G da Silva, Vivian da Silva Cardoso Pinto, Larissa T de Paula, Marta Elisabete S Vicente, Liria H Okuda, Edviges M Pituco
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is one of the main aetiological agents of gastroenteritis in calves, causing significant economic damage to livestock. This study aims to characterise BCoV genetically on the basis of the N gene. A total of 114 faecal samples from beef and dairy calves with or without clinical symptoms of diarrhoea from five Brazilian states (São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso and Bahia) were evaluated between 2008 and 2015 by technique of Semi-nested RT-PCR for gene N and genealogical analysis...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686817/the-role-of-individual-and-social-variables-in-predicting-body-dissatisfaction-and-eating-disorder-symptoms-among-iranian-adolescent-girls-an-expanding-of-the-tripartite-influence-mode
#7
Shima Shahyad, Shahla Pakdaman, Omid Shokri, Seyed Hassan Saadat
The aim of the present study was to examine the causal relationships between psychological and social factors, being independent variables and body image dissatisfaction plus symptoms of eating disorders as dependent variables through the mediation of social comparison and thin-ideal internalization. To conduct the study, 477 high-school students from Tehran were recruited by method of cluster sampling. Next, they filled out Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS), Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), Appearance Perfectionism Scale (APS), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) and Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-4)...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686658/gut-microbiota-profiling-and-gut-brain-crosstalk-in-children-affected-by-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-and-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections
#8
Andrea Quagliariello, Federica Del Chierico, Alessandra Russo, Sofia Reddel, Giulia Conte, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Francesco Cardona, Antonio Gasbarrini, Lorenza Putignani
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685855/molecular-epidemiologic-study-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-university-hospitals-results-of-a-nationwide-study-in-japan
#9
Issei Tokimatsu, Katsumi Shigemura, Kayo Osawa, Shinya Kinugawa, Koichi Kitagawa, Noriko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
We conducted a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan investigated the correlation between the presence of binary toxin genes and CDI severity. This is the first report on molecular epidemiological analyses for CDI in multiple university hospitals in Japan, to our knowledge. We examined 124,484 hospitalized patients in 25 national and public university hospitals in Japan between December 2013 and March 2014, investigating antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin-related genes for C...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684487/isolation-and-sequence-characterization-of-dna-a-genome-of-a-new-begomovirus-strain-associated-with-severe-leaf-curling-symptoms-of-jatropha-curcas-l
#10
Sushma Chauhan, Hifzur Rahman, Shaik G Mastan, Pamidimarri D V N Sudheer, Muppala P Reddy
Begomoviruses belong to the family Geminiviridae are associated with several disease symptoms, such as mosaic and leaf curling in Jatropha curcas. The molecular characterization of these viral strains will help in developing management strategies to control the disease. In this study, J. curcas that was infected with begomovirus and showed acute leaf curling symptoms were identified. DNA-A segment from pathogenic viral strain was isolated and sequenced. The sequenced genome was assembled and characterized in detail...
April 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683702/changes-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-depressive-symptoms-over-the-course-of-prolonged-exposure
#11
Lily A Brown, Alissa Jerud, Anu Asnaani, Julie Petersen, Yinyin Zang, Edna B Foa
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies of prolonged exposure therapy (PE) suggested that reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) precedes reduction in depression, yet no research has collapsed data across multiple studies to examine whether the directionality of reduction remains consistent in larger and diagnostically diverse samples. Thus, the objective of this study is to conduct an evaluation of bidirectional associations between PTSD and depression in PE. METHOD: Participants (n = 216) from three randomized controlled trials of PE alone, PE + alcohol use disorder treatment, and PE + nicotine use disorder treatment completed weekly PTSD and depression severity measures...
May 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683118/searching-for-simplicity-in-the-complexity-of-symptom-clusters
#12
Lanell M Bellury, Jane C Clark
Occam's razor proposes that the simplest solution is preferable; however, in the science of cancer and cancer symptoms, simple solutions have been elusive. Understanding individual symptoms continues to confound the science community, and symptom cluster science appears to be an incredibly complex schema of individual symptoms co-occurring and interacting with one another. The simplest explanation for symptom clusters would be a common underlying mechanism at the human genome level. Such a finding could greatly simplify and perhaps revolutionize symptom management...
May 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681975/mind-body-therapies-for-african-american-women-at-risk-for-cardiometabolic-disease-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Candace C Johnson, Karen M Sheffield, Roy E Brown
Background: A major determinant in cardiometabolic health is metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of symptoms that portend the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As mind-body therapies are thought to help in lowering physiological and environmental CVD risk factors including blood pressure and psychological stress, they may also be beneficial for the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives: To synthesize and summarize existing knowledge on the effectiveness of mind-body therapies on MetS outcomes in African-American (AA) women, a US subpopulation at high risk for CVD...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681827/hemicrania-continua-associated-with-classic-scintillating-scotoma
#14
Eva Auffenberg, Friedemann Bender, Tobias Freilinger
Hemicrania continua (HC) is a rare primary headache disorder, characterized by persistent unilateral pain associated with cranial autonomic symptoms and prompt response to indomethacin. While migrainous features (including aura) have been recognized in cluster headache, there have been only single reports of HC with aura. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old man with constant right-sided headache and superimposed exacerbations to severe pain lasting for several hours. Secondary etiologies were excluded, and a diagnosis of HC was established after prompt and complete response to treatment with indomethacin...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681427/incidence-and-characteristics-of-norovirus-associated-benign-convulsions-with-mild-gastroenteritis-in-comparison-with-rotavirus-ones
#15
Bo Ram Kim, Ga Eun Choi, Young Ok Kim, Min Ji Kim, Eun Song Song, Young Jong Woo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rotavirus was detected in 40-50% of patients with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) before the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in late 2000. However, the rate of rotavirus positivity has decreased since 2010 while the prevalence of norovirus has gradually increased. We investigated the incidence of norovirus-associated CwG during a recent 3-year period and additionally compared the characteristics of norovirus-associated CwG with those of rotavirus-associated CwG...
April 19, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680796/cluster-of-exertional-rhabdomyolysis-in-three-young-women
#16
Fiona Mitchell, Hazel J Henderson, Faith Gardner
Three young women, aged 18-24 years, presented to general practice with signs and symptoms of exertional rhabdomyolysis in 2016. All attended the same gym and had undertaken an intensive physical workout. Presenting symptoms were severe muscle pain and swelling, significantly reduced range of motion in affected muscles and, in two cases, dark-coloured urine. One case had presented to the out-of-hours service 4 months previously with similar symptoms but rhabdomyolysis was not considered, although retrospective history taking suggests that was the likely diagnosis...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680728/respiratory-subtype-of-panic-disorder-can-serum-phosphate-levels-be-a-possible-outcome-to-group-cognitive-behavior-therapy
#17
Pedro Beria, Ana Cristina W Viana, Andressa Behenck, Elizeth Heldt, Gisele Gus Manfro, Carolina Blaya Dreher
OBJECTIVE: Panic disorder (PD) respiratory subtype (RS) was described in order to cluster patients according to their symptoms. These patients are characterized by experiencing a relatively high number of noticeable respiratory symptoms during a panic attack (PA) and a higher reactivity to CO2 . In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical relevance of this diagnostic category, evaluating if there are different responses to cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with panic disorder RS as compared to those with the non-respiratory subtype (NRS), using serum phosphate as a biological marker...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679991/empirical-evidence-for-discrete-neurocognitive-subgroups-in-patients-with-non-psychotic-major-depressive-disorder-clinical-implications
#18
Shenghong Pu, Takamasa Noda, Shiori Setoyama, Kazuyuki Nakagome
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological deficits are present across various cognitive domains in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, a consistent and specific profile of neuropsychological abnormalities has not yet been established. METHODS: We assessed cognition in 170 patients with non-psychotic MDD using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and the scores were compared with those of 42 patients with schizophrenia as a reference for severity of cognitive impairment...
April 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678679/formal-thought-disorders-from-phenomenology-to-neurobiology
#19
REVIEW
Tilo Kircher, Henrike Bröhl, Felicitas Meier, Jennifer Engelen
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is present in most psychiatric disorders and in some healthy individuals. In this Review, we present a comprehensive, integrative, and multilevel account of what is known about FTD, covering genetic, cellular, and neurotransmitter effects, environmental influences, experimental psychology and neuropsychology, brain imaging, phenomenology, linguistics, and treatment. FTD is a dimensional, phenomenologically defined construct, which can be clinically subdivided into positive versus negative and objective versus subjective symptom clusters...
April 17, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675463/caregiver-burden-and-caregiver-appraisal-of-psychiatric-symptoms-are-not-modulated-by-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Philip E Mosley, Michael Breakspear, Terry Coyne, Peter Silburn, David Smith
Subthalamic deep brain stimulation is an advanced therapy that typically improves quality of life for persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect on caregiver burden is unclear. We recruited 64 persons with PD and their caregivers from a movement disorders clinic during the assessment of eligibility for subthalamic DBS. We used clinician-, patient- and caregiver-rated instruments to follow the patient-caregiver dyad from pre- to postoperative status, sampling repeatedly in the postoperative period to ascertain fluctuations in phenotypic variables...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
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