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Sarcopenia and liver disease

Yukihiro Shimizu
Gut microbiota are involved in the development or prevention of various diseases such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, and malignancy such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, atherosclerotic stroke and cardiovascular disease are major diseases associated with decreased activities of daily living (ADL), especially in elderly people. Recent analyses have revealed the importance of gut microbiota in the control of these diseases. The composition or diversity of these microbiota is different between patients with these conditions and healthy controls, and administration of probiotics or prebiotics has been shown effective in the treatment of these diseases...
November 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
C H De Fré, M A De Fré, W J Kwanten, B J Op de Beeck, L F Van Gaal, S M Francque
Sarcopenia, described as the loss of muscle mass and/or strength, is gaining importance as it can be increasingly related to many chronic diseases. It is also associated with chronic liver disease, and recently it has been more frequently linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in particular. Both sarcopenia and NAFLD are subject to complex and intermingled pathophysiological processes, of which some are in common. Furthermore, it is presently unclear if sarcopenia directly contributes to NAFLD or vice versa...
November 25, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Paulo F L da Silva, Mikolaj Ogrodnik, Olena Kucheryavenko, Julien Glibert, Satomi Miwa, Kerry Cameron, Abbas Ishaq, Gabriele Saretzki, Sushma Nagaraja-Grellscheid, Glyn Nelson, Thomas von Zglinicki
Senescent cells accumulate with age in multiple tissues and may cause age-associated disease and functional decline. In vitro, senescent cells induce senescence in bystander cells. To see how important this bystander effect may be for accumulation of senescent cells in vivo, we xenotransplanted senescent cells into skeletal muscle and skin of immunocompromised NSG mice. 3 weeks after the last transplantation, mouse dermal fibroblasts and myofibres displayed multiple senescence markers in the vicinity of transplanted senescent cells, but not where non-senescent or no cells were injected...
November 21, 2018: Aging Cell
Kana Wu, Mike Z Zhai, Erin K Weltzien, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Edward Giovannucci, Bette J Caan
PURPOSE: Liver diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and ensuing alterations to the micro-environment may affect development of liver metastasis. Mirroring the rise in obesity rates, prevalence of NAFLD is increasing globally. Our objective was to examine the association between NAFLD and mortality in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Colorectal Cancer-Sarcopenia and Near-term Survival (C-SCANS) is a retrospective cohort study which included 3,262 stage I-III patients, aged 18-80 years, and diagnosed between 2006 and 2011 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California...
November 15, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Kazuki Ohashi, Toru Ishikawa, Asami Hoshi, Mitsuyuki Suzuki, Yuta Mitobe, Etsuko Yamada, Hansani Madushika Abeywickrama, Nao Seki, Chikayo Koyama, Hagiko Aoki, Yu Koyama
Background: Sarcopenia can affect the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Exercise therapy and nutritional therapy are carried out to prevent processing sarcopenia. In addition, changing lifestyle is also important. However, there are only few reports on the physical activities (PAs) and lifestyle of chronic liver disease patients and their association with sarcopenia. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sarcopenia in patients with chronic liver disease and both PA and lifestyle...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Meiyi Song, Lu Xia, Qi Liu, Mengxue Sun, Fei Wang, Changqing Yang
Sarcopenia is a common clinical symptom in aging and patients with wasting diseases, characterized by a decreased skeletal muscle mass. As a consequence of lifestyle change, the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents a rising trend. In the past three decades, increasing evidence has proved that sarcopenia is related to NAFLD. In this chapter, we will summarize the emerging evidence of the predictive role of sarcopenia in NAFLD and review the diagnosis value, feasible mechanism, and therapy strategies of sarcopenia in NAFLD...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jeffery Chakedis, Eliza W Beal, Steven Sun, Jason Galo, Aaron Chafitz, Gail Davidson, Joshua Reardon, Mary Dillhoff, Timothy M Pawlik, Sherif Abdel-Misih, Mark Bloomston, Carl R Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic arterial infusion pump (HAIP) therapy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is beneficial in selected patients yet wide acceptance in the oncology community is lacking. METHODS: A surgeon-led team implemented a HAIP program in 2012. Pumps were placed by laparotomy for CRLM and fluorodeoxyuridine was infused via HAIP every 28 days without systemic chemotherapy supervised by the operating surgeon. RESULTS: Sixty patients were treated with HAIP, either in the adjuvant setting after liver resection or ablation of CRLM in 26 (43%) patients or with the unresectable disease in 34 (57%)...
December 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Seong Hee Kang, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Soon Koo Baik, Seung Hwan Cha, Moon Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia has been reported as a prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of sarcopenia to the conventional prognostic factors [Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)] in cirrhosis. METHODS: Overall, 452 patients with cirrhosis were stratified by MELD score (low < 15, high ≥ 15), CTP class, and HVPG [non-clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH), 6-9 mmHg; CSPH, 10-19 mmHg; extremely severe PH, ≥20 mmHg]...
October 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Rajab Idriss, Jeanette Hasse, Tiffany Wu, Fatima Khan, Giovanna Saracino, Greg McKenna, Testa Giuliano, James Trotter, Goran Klintmalm, Sumeet K Asrani
Bariatric surgery (BS) is effective in treating morbid obesity but the impact of prior BS on candidacy for liver transplantation (LT) is unclear. We examined 78 cirrhotic patients with prior BS compared with a concurrent cohort of 156 patients matched by age, MELD score, and underlying liver disease. We compared rates of transplant denial after evaluation, delisting on the waitlist (WL) and survival after LT. The median time from BS to LT evaluation was 7 years. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was the most common BS procedure performed (63% of cohort)...
October 28, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Lara Beekman, Annalisa Berzigotti, Vanessa Banz
Liver transplantation has become a highly standardized, acceptable option for selected patients with end-stage liver disease and/or hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of cirrhosis. Both conditions are associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) and physical deconditioning. Both conditions result in a dramatic decrease in the patients' quality of life, negatively impacting on the pre- and post-transplant prognosis. In this context, awareness of the advantages of physical activity in both the pre- and post-transplant setting is key...
November 2018: Advances in Therapy
Natasha H Dolgin, Andrew J Smith, Samantha G Harrington, Babak Movahedi, Paulo N A Martins, Adel Bozorgzadeh
OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence shows that frailty and functional performance predict liver transplant outcomes. The Organ Procurement and Transplant Network uses the Karnofsky Performance Status scale to adjust for transplant center case mix in assessing quality measures. This study explores the strength of the relationship between Karnofsky Performance Status scores and objective measures of frailty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study includes 136 adult, first-time liver transplant recipients at UMass Memorial (2006-2015) who had 2 abdominal computed tomography scans available (at ≤ 90 days pretransplant and ≥ 7 days before that)...
October 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Anoop Misra
Prevention of diabetes poses significant challenges; especially when applied as public health intervention. While several trials, most importantly Diabetes Prevention Program, show that intensive lifestyle modification leading to weight loss is the most important intervention, many individuals and some populations may show resistance to these interventions. Roadblocks to lifestyle intervention alone or in combination include: age, some ethnic groups (e.g., south Asians), genetic make-up, and some characteristics of body phenotype...
January 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Ke-Vin Chang, Jin-De Chen, Wei-Ting Wu, Kuo-Chin Huang, Hong-Yi Lin, Der-Sheng Han
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a major neuropsychiatric complication in advanced liver disease, is associated with poor prognosis. Sarcopenia, characterized by a decline in muscle mass, strength, and physical performance, is prevalent in liver cirrhosis. This study aims to explore whether sarcopenia is associated with HE in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant cohort and case-control studies investigating the association between sarcopenia and HE up to July 2018...
September 29, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Eun Kyung Choe, Hae Yeon Kang, Boram Park, Jong In Yang, Joo Sung Kim
A relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia has been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass measured by computed tomography (CT). The clinical records of individuals visiting our center for a routine health check-up who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to body mass index (BMI)-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, which was measured by CT (CT-measured skeletal muscle index (SMICT ))...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Maryam Ebadi, Connie W Wang, Jennifer C Lai, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Matthew R Kappus, Michael A Dunn, Elizabeth J Carey, Aldo J Montano-Loza
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass, associates with mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Skeletal muscle area in a single computed tomography image at the level of the third lumbar vertebrate (L3) is a valid representative of whole body muscle mass. Controversy remains regarding applicability of psoas muscle to identify patients at greater risk of mortality. We aimed to determine psoas muscle index (PMI) association with skeletal muscle index (SMI) and to evaluate the capacity of PMI to predict liver transplant waitlist mortality...
December 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Guido Stirnimann, Maryam Ebadi, Puneeta Tandon, Aldo J Montano-Loza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current evidence regarding the impact of sarcopenia on patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation and to determine if its presence should be considered a criterion for expedited transplantation or a contraindication for transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Sarcopenia is a negative predictor of survival in patients on a waiting list and after liver transplant. The gut-liver axis and the liver-muscle axis have been explored to understand the complex pathophysiology of sarcopenia...
September 26, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Rahima A Bhanji, Praveena Narayanan, Michael R Moynagh, Naoki Takahashi, Mounika Angirekula, Cassie C Kennedy, Kristin C Mara, Ross A Dierkhising, Kymberly D Watt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcopenia and frailty are commonly encountered in patients with end stage liver disease and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes including decompensation and waitlist mortality. The impact of these entities in patients with differing disease etiologies has not been elucidated. We aim to ascertain the change in their prevalence over time on the waitlist and determine their impact on hospitalization, delisting, and waitlist survival specifically for patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD)...
September 26, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Elizabeth S Aby, Edward Lee, Satvir S Saggi, Matthew R Viramontes, Jonathan F Grotts, Vatche G Agopian, Ronald W Busuttil, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and muscle wasting are common in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD), yet go underdiagnosed. Frequently used indices of nutritional status, such as body mass index, are inflated in patients with ESLD due to a fluid overloaded state. Previous work has demonstrated a strong association between psoas muscle area, a surrogate for sarcopenia, and worse survival following liver transplantation; however, the impact of sarcopenia on post liver transplant outcomes in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis has not been evaluated...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Kazuto Tajiri, Yukihiro Shimizu
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are involved in various bioprocess such as protein metabolism, gene expression, insulin resistance and proliferation of hepatocytes. BCAAs have also been reported to suppress the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and to be required for immune cells to perform the function. In advanced cirrhotic patients, it has been clarified that serum concentrations of BCAA are decreased, whereas those of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are increased. These alterations are thought to be the causes of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), sarcopenia and hepatocarcinogenesis and may be associated with the poor prognosis of patients with these conditions...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Satoshi Ida, Yuji Kojima, Shima Hamaoka, Naohito Urawa, Jun Araki, Ryutaro Kaneko, Kazuya Murata
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aimed to examine the validity of the Japanese version of the SARC-F questionnaire (SARC-F-J) that employs the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia established by the Japan Society of Hepatology in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: Subjects were outpatients at the Department of Hepatology at the Japanese Red Cross Ise Hospital, Japan. Evaluations were performed using the following self-administered questionnaires: SARC-F-J, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC), the Japanese version of the Falls efficacy scale (FES), and Kaigo-Yobo checklist (CL)...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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