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BACKGROUND: A body of empirical work demonstrates that wide fluctuations in a person's blood pressure across consecutive measures, known as blood pressure variability (BPV), hold prognostic value to predict stroke and transient ischemic attack. However, the magnitude of association between BPV and other neurological outcomes remains less clear. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding BPV with respect to incident dementia, cognitive impairment, and cognitive function...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Xingsheng Zhao, Yu Ren, Hui Li, Yun Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most common chronic disease, and most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) gene -250G/A (rs2070895) and -514C/T (rs1800588) polymorphisms and the susceptibility to hypertension. METHODS: Published studies were searched using the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of the included studies...
October 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Louise K Hoeffding, Lisette Kogelman, Thilde Marie Haspang, Henrik Ullum, Erik Sørensen, Christian Erikstrup, Ole Birger Pedersen, Kaspar René Nielsen, Henrik Hjalgrim, Helene M Paarup, Thomas Werge, Kristoffer Burgdorf
BACKGROUND: Migraine and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been found to be associated in child and adolescent cohorts; however, the association has not been assessed in adults or otherwise healthy population. Assessing the comorbidity between ADHD and migraine may clarify the etiopathology of both diseases. Thus, the objective is to assess whether migraine (with and without visual disturbances) and ADHD are comorbid disorders. METHODS: Participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study (N = 26,456, age 18-65, 46% female) were assessed for migraine and ADHD using the ASRS ver 1...
October 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
Xiaomin Xing, Chun-Fang Wu
GCaMP imaging is widely employed for investigating neuronal Ca2+ dynamics. The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) consists of three distinct types of motor terminals (type Ib, Is and II). We investigated whether variability in synaptic bouton sizes and GCaMP expression levels confound interpretations of GCaMP readouts, in inferring the intrinsic Ca2+ handling properties among these functionally distinct synapses. Analysis of large data sets accumulated over years established the wide ranges of bouton sizes and GCaMP baseline fluorescence, with large overlaps among synaptic categories...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
Kazuhiro Sugawara, Noriyuki Iesato, Masaki Katayose
Study Design: Retrospective study. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether segmental lumbar hyperlordosis of the affected vertebra in patients with spondylolysis occurs only at L5 or also occurs at L4. Overview of Literature: To the best of our knowledge, increase in segmental lordosis of the spondylolytic vertebrae has only been investigated in bilateral L5 spondylolysis; it has not been examined at different levels of bilateral spondylolysis...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Mélanie Lambert, Véronique Capuano, Andrea Olschewski, Jessica Sabourin, Chandran Nagaraj, Barbara Girerd, Jason Weatherald, Marc Humbert, Fabrice Antigny
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial and severe disease without curative therapies. PAH pathobiology involves altered pulmonary arterial tone, endothelial dysfunction, distal pulmonary vessel remodeling, and inflammation, which could all depend on ion channel activities (K⁺, Ca2+ , Na⁺ and Cl- ). This review focuses on ion channels in the pulmonary vasculature and discusses their pathophysiological contribution to PAH as well as their therapeutic potential in PAH.
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Silvia Moreno-Fernández, Marta Garcés-Rimón, Gema Vera, Julien Astier, Jean François Landrier, Marta Miguel
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a constellation of many metabolic disorders such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and obesity, being this last disorder a key factor in the etiology of the syndrome. The widespread of MetS in actual society, mainly in developed countries, is becoming an important health problem and is increasing the need to develop new treatments against this pathology is increasing fast. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the MetS-associated alterations developed in a new glucose diet-induced-obesity (DIO) rodent model...
October 14, 2018: Nutrients
Bo-Ram Jin, Hyo-Jung Kim, Sang-Kyun Park, Myoung-Seok Kim, Kwang-Ho Lee, Il-Joo Yoon, Hyo-Jin An
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an age-dependent disorder with a prevalence percentage of 60% in the 60s, has been found to involve an androgenic hormone imbalance that causes confusion between cell apoptosis and proliferation. Because general medications for BPH treatment have undesirable side effects, the development of effective alternative medicines has been considered. HBX-5 is a newly developed formula with the aim of improving BPH, and is composed of nine medicinal herbs. BPH was induced in the rats by intramuscular injection of testosterone propionate after castration...
October 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chien-Cheng Huang, Chung-Han Ho, Yi-Chen Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Yi-Fong Wang, Hung-Jung Lin, Jhi-Joung Wang, How-Ran Guo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on reducing neurological sequelae (NS) in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). Using a nationwide database of insurance claims in Taiwan, we conducted a population-based cohort study to identify 24,046 patients with COP diagnosed between 1999 and 2012, including 6793 (28.2%) patients who received HBOT and 17,253 (71.8%) patients who did not. We followed the two cohorts of patients and compared the occurrence of NS...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Barbara Tóthová, Mária Kovalská, Dagmar Kalenská, Anna Tomašcová, Ján Lehotský
Epigenetic regulations play an important role in both normal and pathological conditions of an organism, and are influenced by various exogenous and endogenous factors. Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy), as a risk factor for several pathological conditions affecting the central nervous system, is supposed to alter the epigenetic signature of the given tissue, which therefore worsens the subsequent damage. To investigate the effect of hHcy in combination with ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and histone acetylation, we used the hHcy animal model of global forebrain ischemia in rats...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva, Ligia Vizeu Barrozo, Clea Rodrigues Leone, Marcelo Antunes Failla, Eliana de Aquino Bonilha, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal, Regiani Carvalho de Oliveira, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva
Premature birth is the result of a complex interaction among genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. We evaluated the possible associations between air pollution and the incidence of prematurity in spatial clusters of high and low prevalence in the municipality of São Paulo. It is a spatial case-control study. The residential addresses of mothers with live births that occurred in 2012 and 2013 were geo-coded. A spatial scan statistical test performed to identify possible low-prevalence and high-prevalence clusters of premature births...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tawfik Addi, Laetitia Dou, Stéphane Burtey
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) display an elevated risk of thrombosis. Thrombosis occurs in cardiovascular events, such as venous thromboembolism, stroke, and acute coronary syndrome, and is a cause of hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction. CKD leads to the accumulation of uremic toxins, which exerts toxic effects on blood and the vessel wall. Some uremic toxins result from tryptophan metabolization in the gut through the indolic and the kynurenine pathways. An increasing number of studies are highlighting the link between such uremic toxins and thrombosis in CKD...
October 12, 2018: Toxins
Mario Fuiano, Massimiliano Mosca, Silvio Caravelli, Simone Massimi, Maria Grazia Benedetti, Francesco Di Caprio, Salvatore Mosca, Stefano Zaffagnini
BACKGROUND: Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a benign and hyperproliferative disease of the plantar aponeurosis. There have been described different therapeutic options regarding plantar fibromatosis, both conservative and surgical. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze conservative and operative treatments of plantar fibromatosis described in literature, evaluating which procedure shows the highest success rate and best functional outcome. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane reviews computerized database was performed focusing on the different types of treatments for plantar fibromatosis...
June 11, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Natalie C Wheeler, Sadhana Murali, Justin A Sattin
There are ethical aspects to each of the three phases of cerebrovascular disease: hyperacute management, acute prognostication and management of early complications, and long-term recovery and reintegration with the community. This article addresses ethical concerns pertinent to each phase. First, we discuss ethical issues regarding consent for thrombolysis and endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke, including a review of considerations regarding the provision of acute stroke treatment advice over the telephone...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
C Capittini, A De Silvestri, M Terzaghi, V Scotti, C Rebuffi, A Pasi, R Manni, M Martinetti, C Tinelli
STUDY OBJECTIVES: we performed a meta-analysis to assess the usefulness of HLA testing for Narcolepsy diagnosis in four major ethnical groups: Asians, Afro-Americans, Amerindians and Caucasians. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched for articles in English and French published before October 2017 on HLA class II alleles in Narcolepsy. We included case-control studies, cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with patients diagnosed following the International classifications of sleep disorders (1990-2012) and ethnically matched controls...
September 20, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Yafei Tan, Dan Zhang, Hui Mei, Hong Mei, Zhengmin Qian, Katherine A Stamatakis, Savannah S Jordan, Yan Yang, Shaoping Yang, Bin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether specific perinatal factors are associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. All cases of OSAS were obtained from a tertiary pediatric hospital between April 2013 and April 2016. A total of 823 children who had been diagnosed with OSAS were designated as the case group, and 823 children without OSAS were selected with strict criteria to match with the case group by age, gender and body mass index...
September 17, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Hafeez Mohammed, Manoj Kumar Goyal, Pinaki Dutta, Kusum Sharma, Manish Modi, Faisal Shah, Ritu Shree, Anumiti Jain, Gourav Jain, Niranjan Khandelwal, Navneet Sharma, Vivek Lal
INTRODUCTION: Current literature is poor with respect to well conducted prospective studies of hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction in tubercular meningitis (TBM). As hormonal deficiencies are associated with poor clinical outcome in various neurological and non-neurological disorders, we prospectively evaluated the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction in TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Present study included newly diagnosed drug naive TBM patients (n = 63) at a tertiary care centre in Northern India...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
G J Edelman, M C Aalders
Photogrammetry is a method for obtaining virtual 3D models of objects and scenes. The technique is increasingly used to record the crime scene in its original, undisturbed state for mapping, analytical and reconstruction purposes. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to visualize and/or chemically analyze latent traces by using advanced cameras which either operate in wavelength ranges beyond the visible range, and/or are able to obtain spectrally resolved images. The combination of these advanced cameras and photogrammetric techniques enables the 3D registration of valuable information...
September 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
Antonella Tramutola, Giulia Abate, Chiara Lanzillotta, Francesca Triani, Eugenio Barone, Federica Iavarone, Federica Vincenzoni, Massimo Castagnola, Mariagrazia Marziano, Maurizio Memo, Emirena Garrafa, D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi, Fabio Di Domenico, Daniela Uberti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive form of dementia characterized by increased production of amyloid-β plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, mitochondrial dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, reduced protein clearance, among other. Several studies showed systemic modifications of immune and inflammatory systems due, in part, to decreased levels of CD3+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood in AD. Considering that oxidative stress, both in the brain and in the periphery, can influence the activation and differentiation of T-cells, we investigated the 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) proteome of blood T-cells derived from AD patients compared to non-demented (ND) subjects by using a proteomic approach...
October 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jacob K Dey, Jamie J Van Gompel, John I Lane, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the fallopian canal is extremely rare, with only fourteen cases reported in the extant literature. We present a case of spontaneous CSF otorrhea from a fallopian canal meningocele involving the geniculate fossa. We also reviewed all cases of fallopian canal CSF leak reported in the literature with discussion of their management and outcomes. PATIENT: A 53-year-old woman with history of morbid obesity and hypertension presented to a tertiary care referral center with unilateral high volume CSF otorrhea...
October 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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