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Influenza 2017-18

Helio S Sader, Robert K Flamm, Jennifer M Streit, Cecilia G Carvalhaes, Rodrigo E Mendes
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the potency and spectrum of ceftaroline and comparator agents tested against contemporary bacteria isolated from patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in Europe (EUR), Asia-Pacific (APAC), and Latin America (LATAM). METHODS: A total of 4,321 bacterial isolates were consecutively collected by the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in 2015-2017 from 65 medical centres located in western EUR (W-EUR; 21 centres in 10 nations), eastern EUR and the Mediterranean region (E-EUR; 15 centres in 11 nations), APAC (18 centres in 9 nations), and LATAM (11 centres in 9 nations)...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Gaston De Serres, Suzana Sabaiduc, Anne-Luise Winter, James A Dickinson, Jonathan B Gubbay, Steven J Drews, Kevin Fonseca, Hugues Charest, Christine Martineau, Rebecca Hickman, Tracy Chan, Agatha Jassem, Martin Petric, Caren Rose, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li, Mel Krajden
Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was derived separately for Victoria and Yamagata lineages across eight seasons (2010-11 to 2017-18) in Canada when trivalent influenza vaccine was predominantly used. VE was ≥50% regardless of lineage match to circulating viruses, except when the vaccine strain was unchanged from the prior season.
October 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Katherine E Kahn, Carla L Black, Helen Ding, Walter W Williams, Peng-Jun Lu, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Fiona Havers, Denise V D'Angelo, Sarah Ball, Rebecca V Fink, Rebecca Devlin
Vaccinating pregnant women with influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines can reduce the risk for influenza and pertussis for themselves and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be administered any time during pregnancy (1). The ACIP also recommends that women receive Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably from 27 through 36 weeks' gestation (2)...
September 28, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Carla L Black, Xin Yue, Sarah W Ball, Rebecca V Fink, Marie A de Perio, A Scott Laney, Walter W Williams, Samuel B Graitcer, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Peng-Jun Lu, Rebecca Devlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all health care personnel receive an annual influenza vaccination to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among health care personnel and their patients and to reduce absenteeism among health care personnel (1-4). CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 2,265 U.S. health care personnel to estimate influenza vaccination coverage among these persons during the 2017-18 influenza season. Overall, 78.4% of health care personnel reported receiving influenza vaccination during the 2017-18 season, similar to reported coverage in the previous four influenza seasons (5)...
September 28, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Alia M Alkalbani, Afaf Alblooshi, Junu George, Ghaya Albadi, Salwa M Kamal, Hassib Narchi, Abdul-Kader Souid
Introduction: Respiratory infections have significant effects on childhood asthma. Viral respiratory infections, such as rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus are likely to be important in the development and exacerbation of asthma. In this study, we investigated the nasopharyngeal colonization in children with asthma to determine the prevalence of pathogens and their contribution to respiratory symptoms and airway resistance during winter. Methods: From December 2016 to March 2017, 50 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 18 patients (age, 5...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Fatimah S Dawood, Danielle Hunt, Archana Patel, Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Yeny Tinoco, Kunal Kurhe, Giselle Soto, Danielle Hombroek, Shikha Garg, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Oswaldo Gonzales, Savita Bhargav, Mark G Thompson, Bajaree Chotpitayasunondh, Richard Florian, Amber Prakash, Sofia Arriola, Louis Macareo, Prabir Das, Santiago Cabrera, Sayda La Rosa, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identifies pregnant women as at high-risk for severe influenza, but influenza vaccines are underutilized among pregnant women. Data on influenza burden during pregnancy are largely limited to high-income countries and data on the impact of influenza on birth and perinatal outcomes are scarce. METHODS/DESIGN: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women in middle-income countries is designed to address three primary objectives: 1) to evaluate the effect of laboratory-confirmed influenza during pregnancy on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes; 2) to estimate the incidences of all-cause acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza during pregnancy; and 3) to examine the clinical spectrum of illness associated with influenza viruses...
September 21, 2018: Reproductive Health
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Sol Jeong, Dong-Hun Lee, David E Swayne, Yu-Jin Kim, Sun-Hak Lee, Jin-Yong Noh, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Chang-Seon Song
We isolated new reassortant avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses from feces of wild waterfowl in South Korea during 2017-18. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that reassortment occurred between clade H5N8 and Eurasian low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds. Dissemination to South Korea during the 2017 fall migratory season followed.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Diana Vilar-Compte, Daniel de-la-Rosa-Martinez, Samuel Ponce de León
BACKGROUND: Proper immunization and knowledge in infection prevention are key factors in protecting medical students. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the status on vaccination recommended for healthcare workers (HCW) and infection prevention knowledge. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on medical students at clinical years of medical school from a public University in Mexico. RESULTS: A total of 1,824 medical students responded the survey...
September 5, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Christopher F Lowe, Victor Leung, Loretta Karakas, Linda Merrick, Tanya Lawson, Marc G Romney, Gordon Ritchie, Michael Payne
During the 2017/18 influenza season, our virology laboratory implemented the cobas® Influenza A/B & RSV (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA) for influenza outbreak management in 2 scenarios: initial outbreak investigation or at outbreak conclusion to avoid prolonged measures. Twenty-seven investigations were conducted, including declaration of 11 influenza A/B outbreaks. 30% of investigations would have missed the standard batched daily laboratory-developed respiratory PCR, and delayed outbreak confirmation until the following day...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Yung-Wai Desmond Chan, Miu-Ling Wong, Ka-Wing Au, Shuk-Kwan Chuang
The 2017/18 winter influenza season in Hong Kong SAR started in early January 2018, predominated by influenza B/Yamagata. We collaborated with private medical practitioners of our sentinel surveillance system to collect respiratory specimens and clinical information from patients with influenza-like illness for estimation of the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) using the test-negative case-control design. We found that the overall VE was 59.1% (95%CI 41.1 to 71.8%) against all influenza and 53.5% (95%CI 35...
August 27, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Lisa A Grohskopf, Leslie Z Sokolow, Karen R Broder, Emmanuel B Walter, Alicia M Fry, Daniel B Jernigan
This report updates the 2017-18 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the United States (MMWR Recomm Rep 2017;66[No. RR-2]). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. A licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate vaccine should be used. Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are expected to be available for the 2018-19 season...
August 24, 2018: MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
Slimane Allali, Martin Chalumeau, Odile Launay, Samir K Ballas, Mariane de Montalembert
BACKGROUND: People affected with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at high risk of infection from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Before the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination in high-income countries, this was responsible for a high mortality rate in children under five years of age. In African countries, where coverage of this vaccination is still extremely low, Hib remains one of the most common causes of bacteraemias in children with SCD. The increased uptake of this conjugate vaccination may substantially improve the survival of children with SCD...
August 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ankeet S Bhatt, Li Liang, Adam D DeVore, Gregg C Fonarow, Scott D Solomon, Orly Vardeny, Clyde W Yancy, Robert J Mentz, Yevgeniy Khariton, Paul S Chan, Roland Matsouaka, Barbara L Lytle, Ileana L Piña, Adrian F Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate and contribute to the limited data on U.S. hospital practice patterns with respect to respiratory vaccination in patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Respiratory infection is a major driver of morbidity in patients with HF, and many influenza and pneumococcal infections may be prevented by vaccination. METHODS: We evaluated patients hospitalized at centers participating in the Get With The Guidelines-HF (GWTG-HF) registry from October 2012 to March 2017...
August 7, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Annabelle de St Maurice, Natasha Halasa
The 2017-18 influenza season brought record numbers of cases in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, resulting in high rates of influenza-related hospital admission and death. Estimated efficacy of flu vaccine was low against the most common circulating strain, influenza A (H3N2). Decreased efficacy may be due to changes in circulating virus or mutations that occur in the vaccine strain during the manufacturing process.
August 3, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Hebah A Al Khatib, Asmaa A Al Thani, Hadi M Yassine
The emergence of swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in 2009 invigorated extensive surveillance programs worldwide which have resulted in the deposition of large numbers of H1N1 sequences to Genbank. In the present study, we report on global evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) protein in viruses isolated from three different continents (North America, Europe and Asia) during the period between April 2009 until April 2017. Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web-based NetNglyc to predict N-Glycosylation sites and finally, the BEAST software package to calculate evolution and substitution rates...
July 31, 2018: Archives of Virology
Felix Broecker, Sean T H Liu, Weina Sun, Florian Krammer, Viviana Simon, Peter Palese
The hemagglutinin protein of H3N2 influenza viruses is the major target of neutralizing antibodies induced by infection and vaccination. However, the virus frequently escapes antibody-mediated neutralization due to mutations in the globular head domain. Five topologically distinct antigenic sites in the head domain of H3 hemagglutinin, A to E, have been previously described by mapping the binding sites of monoclonal antibodies, yet little is known about the contribution of each site to the immunogenicity of modern H3 hemagglutinins, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition activity, which is known to correlate with protection...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Lei Li, Andrew S Bowman, Thomas J DeLiberto, Mary L Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew M Ramey, Andrew B Reeves, David E Stallknecht, Richard J Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Wild-bird origin influenza A viruses (IAVs or avian influenza) have led to sporadic outbreaks among domestic poultry in the United States and Canada, resulting in economic losses through the implementation of costly containment practices and destruction of birds. We used evolutionary analyses of virus sequence data to determine that 78 H5 low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) isolated from domestic poultry in the United States and Canada during 2001 to 2017 resulted from 18 independent virus introductions from wild birds...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xiaolin Ma, Tim Conrad, Maren Alchikh, Janine Reiche, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
Studies have shown that the predictive value of "clinical diagnoses" of influenza and other respiratory viral infections is low, especially in children. In routine care, pediatricians often resort to clinical diagnoses, even in the absence of robust evidence-based criteria. We used a dual approach to identify clinical characteristics that may help to differentiate infections with common pathogens including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, bocavirus-1, coronaviruses, or parainfluenza virus: (a) systematic review and meta-analysis of 47 clinical studies published in Medline (June 1996 to March 2017, PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017059557) comprising 49 858 individuals and (b) data-driven analysis of an inception cohort of 6073 children with ILI (aged 0-18 years, 56% male, December 2009 to March 2015) examined at the point of care in addition to blinded PCR testing...
September 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Kaja M Abbas, Gloria J Kang, Daniel Chen, Stephen R Werre, Achla Marathe
Objective: The study objective is to analyze influenza vaccination status by demographic factors, perceived vaccine efficacy, social influence, herd immunity, vaccine cost, health insurance status, and barriers to influenza vaccination among adults 18 years and older in the United States. Background: Influenza vaccination coverage among adults 18 years and older was 41% during 2010-2011 and has increased and plateaued at 43% during 2016-2017. This is below the target of 70% influenza vaccination coverage among adults, which is an objective of the Healthy People 2020 initiative...
2018: PeerJ
Cornelia Betsch, Constanze Rossmann, Mathias W Pletz, Horst C Vollmar, Antje Freytag, Ole Wichmann, Regina Hanke, Wolfgang Hanke, Dorothee Heinemeier, Philipp Schmid, Sarah Eitze, Winja Weber, Anne Reinhardt, Nora K Küpke, Christina Forstner, Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, Anna Mikolajetz, Josephine Römhild, Julia Neufeind, Thorsten Rieck, Kasia Suchecka, Konrad Reinhart
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination can prevent disease and potentially life-threatening complications like sepsis. Elderly people have an increased risk of severe disease and therefore constitute a major target group for vaccination. To increase vaccination coverage, targeted interventions are needed that take theory-based specific determinants of vaccination behaviour into account. Moreover, message and campaign design should consider specific age-related characteristics (e...
July 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
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