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Influenza 2017-18

Ankeet S Bhatt, Li Liang, Adam D DeVore, Gregg C Fonarow, Scott D Solomon, Orly Vardeny, Clyde W Yancy, Robert J Mentz, Yevgeniy Khariton, Paul S Chan, Roland Matsouaka, Barbara L Lytle, Ileana L Piña, Adrian F Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate and contribute to the limited data on U.S. hospital practice patterns with respect to respiratory vaccination in patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Respiratory infection is a major driver of morbidity in patients with HF, and many influenza and pneumococcal infections may be prevented by vaccination. METHODS: We evaluated patients hospitalized at centers participating in the Get With The Guidelines-HF (GWTG-HF) registry from October 2012 to March 2017...
August 7, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Annabelle de St Maurice, Natasha Halasa
The 2017-18 influenza season brought record numbers of cases in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, resulting in high rates of influenza-related hospital admission and death. Estimated efficacy of flu vaccine was low against the most common circulating strain, influenza A (H3N2). Decreased efficacy may be due to changes in circulating virus or mutations that occur in the vaccine strain during the manufacturing process.
August 3, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Hebah A Al Khatib, Asmaa A Al Thani, Hadi M Yassine
The emergence of swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in 2009 invigorated extensive surveillance programs worldwide which have resulted in the deposition of large numbers of H1N1 sequences to Genbank. In the present study, we report on global evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) protein in viruses isolated from three different continents (North America, Europe and Asia) during the period between April 2009 until April 2017. Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web-based NetNglyc to predict N-Glycosylation sites and finally, the BEAST software package to calculate evolution and substitution rates...
July 31, 2018: Archives of Virology
Felix Broecker, Sean T H Liu, Weina Sun, Florian Krammer, Viviana Simon, Peter Palese
The hemagglutinin protein of H3N2 influenza viruses is the major target of neutralizing antibodies induced by infection and vaccination. However, the virus frequently escapes antibody-mediated neutralization due to mutations in the globular head domain. Five topologically distinct antigenic sites in the head domain of H3 hemagglutinin, A-E, have been previously described by mapping the binding sites of monoclonal antibodies. Yet, little is known about the contribution of each site to the immunogenicity of modern H3 hemagglutinins, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition activity that is known to correlate with protection...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Lei Li, Andrew S Bowman, Thomas J DeLiberto, Mary L Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew M Ramey, Andrew B Reeves, David E Stallknecht, Richard J Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Wild bird-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs or avian influenza) have led to sporadic outbreaks among domestic poultry in the United States (US) and Canada, resulting in economic losses through the implementation of costly containment practices and destruction of birds. We used evolutionary analyses of virus sequence data to determine that 78 H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) isolated from domestic poultry in the US and Canada during 2001-2017 resulted from 18 independent virus introductions from wild birds...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xiaolin Ma, Tim Conrad, Maren Alchikh, Janine Reiche, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
Studies have shown that the predictive value of "clinical diagnoses" of influenza and other respiratory viral infections is low, especially in children. In routine care, pediatricians often resort to clinical diagnoses, even in the absence of robust evidence-based criteria. We used a dual approach to identify clinical characteristics that may help to differentiate infections with common pathogens including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, bocavirus-1, coronaviruses, or parainfluenza virus: (a) systematic review and meta-analysis of 47 clinical studies published in Medline (June 1996 to March 2017, PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017059557) comprising 49 858 individuals and (b) data-driven analysis of an inception cohort of 6073 children with ILI (aged 0-18 years, 56% male, December 2009 to March 2015) examined at the point of care in addition to blinded PCR testing...
July 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Kaja M Abbas, Gloria J Kang, Daniel Chen, Stephen R Werre, Achla Marathe
Objective: The study objective is to analyze influenza vaccination status by demographic factors, perceived vaccine efficacy, social influence, herd immunity, vaccine cost, health insurance status, and barriers to influenza vaccination among adults 18 years and older in the United States. Background: Influenza vaccination coverage among adults 18 years and older was 41% during 2010-2011 and has increased and plateaued at 43% during 2016-2017. This is below the target of 70% influenza vaccination coverage among adults, which is an objective of the Healthy People 2020 initiative...
2018: PeerJ
Cornelia Betsch, Constanze Rossmann, Mathias W Pletz, Horst C Vollmar, Antje Freytag, Ole Wichmann, Regina Hanke, Wolfgang Hanke, Dorothee Heinemeier, Philipp Schmid, Sarah Eitze, Winja Weber, Anne Reinhardt, Nora K Küpke, Christina Forstner, Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, Anna Mikolajetz, Josephine Römhild, Julia Neufeind, Thorsten Rieck, Kasia Suchecka, Konrad Reinhart
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination can prevent disease and potentially life-threatening complications like sepsis. Elderly people have an increased risk of severe disease and therefore constitute a major target group for vaccination. To increase vaccination coverage, targeted interventions are needed that take theory-based specific determinants of vaccination behaviour into account. Moreover, message and campaign design should consider specific age-related characteristics (e...
July 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ngai Sze Wong, Sing Lee, Shui Shan Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the influenza vaccination pattern between clinical and long term care facilities (LTCF) nurses. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2018 an annual online survey was administered on nurses after onset of Winter influenza season in Hong Kong. Factors associated with vaccination were examined separately for clinical and LTCF nurses in univariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 4675 responses collected in the 5-year period, 18% came from nurses of LTCF...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mary Patricia Nowalk, G K Balasubramani, Richard K Zimmerman, Todd M Bear, Theresa Sax Bs, Heather Eng Ba, Michael Susick, Samantha E Ford Bs
BACKGROUND: Little is known about vaccine intention behavior among patients recovering from a medically attended acute respiratory infection. METHODS: Adults ≥ 18 years old with an acute respiratory infection in the 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017 influenza seasons were tested for influenza and completed surveys. Across seasons, unvaccinated participants were grouped into those who intended to receive the influenza vaccine in the following season (vaccine intention) and those who did not (no vaccine intention)...
July 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Cornelia Adlhoch, Gavin Dabrera, Pasi Penttinen, Richard Pebody
We sought to better understand national approaches for managing potential human health risks during outbreaks of infection with avian influenza A(H5N8) virus during 2017-17. Twenty-three countries in the Union/European Economic Area and Israel participated in this study. Risk to the general public was assessed as low in 18 countries and medium in 1 country. Of 524 exposed persons identified, 274 were passively monitored and 250 were actively monitored. Of 29 persons tested, all were negative for H5N8 virus...
October 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Pia Hardelid, Melpo Kapetanstrataki, Lee Norman, Sarah J Fleming, Paula Lister, Ruth Gilbert, Roger C Parslow
Introduction: A universal childhood influenza vaccination programme was introduced in the UK in September 2013. We examine the impact of the gradual introduction of this programme on influenza-related paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission rates in England. Methods: We extracted data on all influenza-related admissions to PICUs in England in resident children aged 0-15 years old between October 2003 and March 2017 from the Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network (PICANet) database...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Zoe Kopsaftis, Richard Wood-Baker, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccinations are currently recommended in the care of people with COPD, but these recommendations are based largely on evidence from observational studies, with very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reported. Influenza infection causes excess morbidity and mortality in people with COPD, but there is also the potential for influenza vaccination to cause adverse effects, or not to be cost effective. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether influenza vaccination in people with COPD reduces respiratory illness, reduces mortality, is associated with excess adverse events, and is cost effective...
June 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Rocco Russo, Mauro Bozzola, Giovanni Corsello, Alberto Villani
BACKGROUND: High rates of vaccination coverage are important in preventing infectious diseases. Enforcing mandatory vaccinations is one of the strategies that some Countries adopted to protect the community when vaccination coverage is not satisfactory. In Italy, in 2017 vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella and varicella became compulsory in childhood. In order to contrast vaccination policies, anti-vaccination campaigns contribute to the spread of fake news...
June 14, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
H Jiang, Y Qin, J D Zheng, Z B Peng, L Z Feng, W Wang, S J Lai, H J Yu
Objective: To understand characteristics of demographic, seasonal and spatial distribution of H5N1 cases in major countries of Asia (Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, China) and Africa (Egypt). Methods: Through searching public data resource and published papers, we collected cases information in five countries from May 1st, 1997 to November 6th, 2017, including general characteristics, diagnosis, onset and exposure history, etc. Different characteristics of survived and death cases in different countries were described and χ(2) test was used to compare the differences among death cases and odds ratio ( OR ) and 95 %CI value was used to compare death risk in different countries...
June 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Rebecca Garten, Lenee Blanton, Anwar Isa Abd Elal, Noreen Alabi, John Barnes, Matthew Biggerstaff, Lynnette Brammer, Alicia P Budd, Erin Burns, Charisse N Cummings, Todd Davis, Shikha Garg, Larisa Gubareva, Yunho Jang, Krista Kniss, Natalie Kramer, Stephen Lindstrom, Desiree Mustaquim, Alissa O'Halloran, Wendy Sessions, Calli Taylor, Xiyan Xu, Vivien G Dugan, Alicia M Fry, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline Katz, Daniel Jernigan
The United States 2017-18 influenza season (October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018) was a high severity season with high levels of outpatient clinic and emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI), high influenza-related hospitalization rates, and elevated and geographically widespread influenza activity across the country for an extended period. Nationally, ILI activity began increasing in November, reaching an extended period of high activity during January-February, and remaining elevated through March...
June 8, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Lisa A Grohskopf, Leslie Z Sokolow, Alicia M Fry, Emmanuel B Walter, Daniel B Jernigan
Intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was initially licensed in the United States in 2003 as a trivalent formulation (LAIV3) (FluMist, MedImmune, LLC). Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) (FluMist Quadrivalent, MedImmune) has been licensed in the United States since 2012 and was first available during the 2013-14 influenza season, replacing LAIV3. During the 2016-17 and 2017-18 influenza seasons, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that LAIV4 not be used because of concerns about low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-like viruses circulating in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons (1,2)...
June 8, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Glen B Taksler, Elizabeth R Pfoh, Kurt C Stange, Michael B Rothberg
INTRODUCTION: The number of preventive care guidelines is rapidly increasing. It is unknown whether the number of guideline-recommended preventive services is associated with utilization. METHODS: The authors used Poisson regression of 390,778 person-years of electronic medical records data from 2008 to 2015, in 80,773 individuals aged 50-75 years. Analyses considered eligibility for 11 preventive services most closely associated with guidelines: tobacco cessation; control of obesity, hypertension, lipids, or blood glucose; influenza vaccination; and screening for breast, cervical, or colorectal cancers, abdominal aortic aneurysm, or osteoporosis...
July 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
M Barbieri, S Capri, C DE Waure, S Boccalini, D Panatto
Introduction: Nowadays, four different types of influenza vaccines are available in Italy: trivalent (TIV), quadrivalent (QIV), MF59-adjuvanted (aTIV) and intradermal TIV (idTIV) inactivated vaccines. Recently, a concept of the appropriateness (i.e. according to the age and risk factors) of the use of different vaccines has been established in Italy. We conducted a budget impact analysis of switching to a policy, in which the Italian elderly (who carry the major disease burden) received the available vaccines according to their age and risk profile...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Francesco Gilardi, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Maria Rosaria Vinci, Marta Ciofi Degli Atti, Veronica Santilli, Rita Brugaletta, Annapaola Santoro, Rosina Montanaro, Luisa Lavorato, Massimiliano Raponi, Salvatore Zaffina
Despite relevant recommendations and evidences on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in health care workers (HCWs), vaccination coverage rates in Europe and Italy currently do not exceed 25%. Aim of the study is to measure the variations in vaccination coverage rates in an Italian pediatric hospital after a promotion campaign performed in the period October⁻December 2017. The design is a pre-post intervention study. The intervention is based on a wide communication campaign and an expanded offer of easy vaccination on site...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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