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Low income country

Shela Akbar Ali Hirani, Solina Richter, Bukola Oladunni Salami, Helen Vallianatos
Breastfeeding is the safest mode of infant feeding during disasters and displacement. Although challenges associated with breastfeeding during humanitarian emergencies are global, they are particularly problematic in low- and middle-income countries such as Pakistan. To examine the factors that affect breastfeeding practices of displaced mothers in disaster relief camps, an integrative review of literature was undertaken. The review suggests that the breastfeeding experiences, behaviors, and practices of displaced mothers are shaped by a combination of gender-based, sociocultural, economic, and geopolitical factors...
October 13, 2018: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Jacob Hill, Coleman Mills, Quefeng Li, Jennifer S Smith
The use of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) for cancer may influence the delivery or effectiveness of conventional cancer treatment. In this systematic review, we aimed to (1) summarise the available prevalence data on traditional medicine use by cancer patients in less developed countries (LDCs), and (2) stratify the prevalence data by world region and country income level. A literature search for cancer, TCAM, and low income (LI) and lower-middle income (LMI) countries was conducted across 5 databases...
October 16, 2018: Global Public Health
Tanja A J Houweling, David van Klaveren, Sushmita Das, Kishwar Azad, Prasanta Tripathy, Dharma Manandhar, Melissa Neuman, Erik de Jonge, Jasper V Been, Ewout Steyerberg, Anthony Costello
Background: In poor settings, where many births and neonatal deaths occur at home, prediction models of neonatal mortality in the general population can aid public-health policy-making. No such models are available in the international literature. We developed and validated a prediction model for neonatal mortality in the general population in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Methods: Using data (49 632 live births, 1742 neonatal deaths) from rural and urban surveillance sites in South Asia, we developed regression models to predict the risk of neonatal death with characteristics known at (i) the start of pregnancy, (ii) start of delivery and (iii) 5 minutes post partum...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sarah Barber, Graham Thornicroft
This mini-review considers the mortality gap in persons with severe mental disorder (SMD) globally. Current estimates of 10-20 years of potential life lost may be too conservative, both in high (HIC) and low and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is an emerging consensus that natural causes account for the majority of deaths in persons with SMD in both resource settings. In HICs, cardiovascular causes predominate, and can be attributed to individual, health-system and societal level risk factors. Psychosocial lifestyle interventions target behavior specific risk factors for physical ill-health...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
J P Agarwal, R Krishnatry, G Panda, R Pathak, C Vartak, R A Kinhikar, S James, S V Khobrekar, S K Shrivastava, A K D'Cruz, D D Deshpande
AIMS: To report the findings of an audit for radiotherapy errors from a low-middle-income country (LMICs) centre. This would serve as baseline data for radiotherapy error rates, their severity and causes, in such centres where modern error reporting and learning processes still do not exist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A planned cross-sectional weekly audit of electronic radiotherapy charts at the radiotherapy planning and delivery step for all patients treated with curative intent was conducted...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Catherine Arsenault, Keely Jordan, Dennis Lee, Girmaye Dinsa, Fatuma Manzi, Tanya Marchant, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: Emerging data show that many low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems struggle to consistently provide good-quality care. Although monitoring of inequalities in access to health services has been the focus of major international efforts, inequalities in health-care quality have not been systematically examined. METHODS: Using the most recent (2007-16) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 91 LMICs, we described antenatal care quality based on receipt of three essential services (blood pressure monitoring and urine and blood testing) among women who had at least one visit with a skilled antenatal-care provider...
November 2018: Lancet Global Health
Erlyn K Macarayan, Anna D Gage, Svetlana V Doubova, Frederico Guanais, Ephrem T Lemango, Youssoupha Ndiaye, Peter Waiswa, Margaret E Kruk
BACKGROUND: Primary care has the potential to address a large proportion of people's health needs, promote equity, and contain costs, but only if it provides high-quality health services that people want to use. 40 years after the Declaration of Alma-Ata, little is known about the quality of primary care in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed whether existing facility surveys capture relevant aspects of primary care performance and summarised the quality of primary care in ten low-income and middle-income countries...
November 2018: Lancet Global Health
Adolfo Rubinstein, Mariela Barani, Analía S Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Lancet Global Health
Ana Pilar Betrán, Marleen Temmerman, Carol Kingdon, Abdu Mohiddin, Newton Opiyo, Maria Regina Torloni, Jun Zhang, Othiniel Musana, Sikolia Z Wanyonyi, Ahmet Metin Gülmezoglu, Soo Downe
Optimising the use of caesarean section (CS) is of global concern. Underuse leads to maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Conversely, overuse of CS has not shown benefits and can create harm. Worldwide, the frequency of CS continues to increase, and interventions to reduce unnecessary CSs have shown little success. Identifying the underlying factors for the continuing increase in CS use could improve the efficacy of interventions. In this Series paper, we describe the factors for CS use that are associated with women, families, health professionals, and health-care organisations and systems, and we examine behavioural, psychosocial, health system, and financial factors...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans, Dessalegn Y Melesse, Aluisio J D Barros, Fernando C Barros, Liang Juan, Ann-Beth Moller, Lale Say, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Mu Yi, Dácio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Marleen Temmerman
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
Tanusha Ramdin, Daynia Ballot, David Rakotsoane, Lethile Madzudzo, Nicolette Brown, Tobias Chirwa, Peter Cooper, Victor Davies
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants, previously considered low risk, have been identified to be at risk of developmental problems in infancy and early childhood. There is limited information on the outcome of these infants in low and middle income countries. METHODS: Bayley scales of infant and toddler development, version III, were done on a group of late preterm infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. The mean composite cognitive, language and motor sub-scales were compared to those obtained from a group of typically developed control infants...
October 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Waqar Imtiaz, Ahrar Khan, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Asim Shahzad, Jianbao Dong, Riaz Hussain, Meiyan Shen, Xiaoxia Du
Brucellosis is a highly contagious and zoonotic disease and has a considerable impact on animal health and economy of a country, principally in Pakistan, where rural income largely depends upon livestock farming and dairy products. The disease burden is more in underdeveloped/developing countries due to the low economy and limited access to the diagnostic facilities. In Pakistan, the prevalence of Brucella abortus is very high, so it is the need of the hour to control this disease through more advanced methods...
October 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Trishnee Bhurosy, Velarie Ansu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maud Hanappe, Lowell T Nicholson, Shekinah N C Elmore, Alexandra E Fehr, Jean Bosco Bigirimana, Ryan C Borg, John Butonzi, Cyprien Shyirambere, Egide Mpanumusingo, Marie O Benewe, Dan M Kanyike, Scott Triedman, Lawrence N Shulman, Christian Rusangwa, Paul H Park
PURPOSE: Low- and middle-income countries disproportionately comprise 65% of cancer deaths. Cancer care delivery in resource-limited settings, especially low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is exceedingly complex, requiring multiple modalities of diagnosis and treatment. Given the vast human, technical, and financial resources required, access to radiotherapy remains limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Through 2017, Rwanda has not had in-country radiotherapy services. The aim of this study was to describe the implementation and early outcomes of the radiotherapy referral program at the Butaro Cancer Centre of Excellence and to identify both successful pathways and barriers to care...
October 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Sri Y Irda Sari, Deni K Sunjaya, Hana Shimizu-Furusawa, Chiho Watanabe, Ardini S Raksanagara
Fecal contamination in water sources is still found globally, especially in urban slum areas of mid-low income countries. Fecal contamination as an indicator of low levels of hygiene and sanitation practices as well as poor management of drinking water supply might increase the risk of waterborne diseases in developing countries like Indonesia. This study aimed to assess quality of all water sources in one of the urban slum settlements along a contaminated river basin in Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during the period of August to October 2015...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Sohyun Jeong, Minhee Lee, Eunhee Ji
Purpose: Diabetes is a chronic lifelong condition, and adherence to medications and self-monitoring of blood glucose are challenging for diabetic patients. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes is largely due to the incidence of type 2 diabetes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIc) besides high-income countries (HIc). We aimed to evaluate whether pharmacist care (PC) service model in LMIc and HIc could improve clinical outcomes in diabetic patients by performing a meta-analysis...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Jeyaraj D Pandian, Seana L Gall, Mahesh P Kate, Gisele S Silva, Rufus O Akinyemi, Bruce I Ovbiagele, Pablo M Lavados, Dorcas B C Gandhi, Amanda G Thrift
Along with the rising global burden of disability attributed to stroke, costs of stroke care are rising, providing the impetus to direct our research focus towards effective measures of stroke prevention. In this Series paper, we discuss strategies for reducing the risk of the emergence of disease (primordial prevention), preventing the onset of disease (primary prevention), and preventing the recurrence of disease (secondary prevention). Our focus includes global strategies and campaigns, and measurements of the effectiveness of worldwide preventive interventions, with an emphasis on low-income and middle-income countries...
October 6, 2018: Lancet
Kelemu Tilahun Kibret, Catherine Chojenta, Ellie Gresham, Teketo K Tegegne, Deborah Loxton
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have indicated that dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). However, the results of these studies are varied and inconsistent. The present study aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns and the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
October 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Marco Springmann, Keith Wiebe, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Timothy B Sulser, Mike Rayner, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: Sustainable diets are intended to address the increasing health and environmental concerns related to food production and consumption. Although many candidates for sustainable diets have emerged, a consistent and joint environmental and health analysis of these diets has not been done at a regional level. Using an integrated health and environmental modelling framework for more than 150 countries, we examined three different approaches to sustainable diets motivated by environmental, food security, and public health objectives...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Anne Vinkel Hansen, Laust Hvas Mortensen, Rudi Westendorp
While existing research on regions with high prevalence of centenarians has focused on selected candidate geographical regions, we explore the existence of hotspots in the whole of Denmark.We performed a Kulldorff spatial scan, searching for regions of birth, and of residence at age 71, where an increased percentage of the cohort born 1906-1915 became centenarians. We then compared mortality hazards for these regions to the rest of the country.We found a birth hotspot of 222 centenarians, 1.37 times more than expected, centered on a group of rural islands...
October 13, 2018: Aging
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