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Low income country

Pélagie Babakazo, Léopold Lubula, Wally Disasuani, Léonie Kitoko Manya, Edith Nkwembe, Naomi Mitongo, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Jean-Claude Changachanga, Saleh Muhemedi, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Joelle Kabamba-Tshilobo, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated outpatient consultations and hospitalizations are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. METHODS: We conducted active prospective surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 5 healthcare facilities situated in Kinshasa Province during 2013-2015. We tested upper respiratory tract samples for influenza viruses using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay...
August 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Natalie C Wu, Wendy Wong, Kenneth E Ho, Victor C Chu, Annaliza Rizo, Simon Davenport, Devon Kelly, Rosemary Makar, Jacek Jassem, Renata Duchnowska, Wojciech Biernat, Barbara Radecka, Tomoyuki Fujita, Jonathan L Klein, Mark Stonecypher, Shoichiro Ohta, Hartmut Juhl, Jodi M Weidler, Michael Bates, Michael F Press
PURPOSE: The methods (IHC/FISH) typically used to assess ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 in FFPE specimens from breast cancer patients are difficult to set up, perform, and standardize for use in low and middle-income countries. Use of an automated diagnostic platform (GeneXpert®) and assay (Xpert® Breast Cancer STRAT4) that employs RT-qPCR to quantitate ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and MKi67 mRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues facilitates analyses in less than 3 h. This study compares breast cancer biomarker analyses using an RT-qPCR-based platform with analyses using standard IHC and FISH for assessment of the same biomarkers...
August 17, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Hatzipanagiotou Maria, Holzinger Dana, Millogo Françoise, Pawlita Michael, Wacker Jürgen
PURPOSE: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in low income countries. Certain oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses are causally associated with the cervical cancer. To ensure effective primary prevention through the introduction of a national vaccination program in Burkina Faso, information about the disease burden of HPV infection in the country is of great importance. METHODS: In the present work the prevalence of 54 different HPV types and 18 other sexually transmitted infection as well as the predominant risk factors for the development of cervical cancer were investigated in Ouagadougou...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
M Ballon, J Botton, M A Charles, S Carles, B de Lauzon-Guillain, A Forhan, A J Cameron, B Heude, S Lioret
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Studies in high-income countries show that despite the positive association of weight with socioeconomic position at birth, an inverse socioeconomic gradient in overweight (OW) appears later in childhood. The objectives were to understand the natural history of socioeconomic inequalities in weight, height and body mass index (BMI), by investigating their associations with maternal educational level between birth and 5 years, separately in boys and girls. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A published work of growth modelling between birth and 5 years allowed us to calculate predicted weight, height and BMI at 1 month, 6 months, 1, 3 and 5 years for 1735 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Annalijn I Conklin, Adel Daoud, Riti Shimkhada, Ninez A Ponce
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether changes in food prices are associated with changes in obesity prevalence among women in developing countries, and assess effect modification by individual socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: Longitudinal study of country-level food price inflation temporally and geographically linked to anthropometric data on non-pregnant adult women (n = 295,984) in 31 low-income and middle-income countries over the 2000-2014 time period, using separate multivariable multilevel growth models of five SES indicators...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Bolajoko O Olusanya, Michael Kaplan, Thor W R Hansen
Hyperbilirubinaemia, presenting as jaundice, is a ubiquitous and frequently benign condition in newborn babies but is a leading cause of hospitalisation in the first week of life. In some infants jaundice can become severe, progressing to acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus with a substantial risk of neonatal mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia and its sequelae continue to occur in industrialised countries with functioning medical systems and a disproportionately high burden also persists in low-income and middle-income countries due primarily to delays in delivering effective treatments that are routinely available in high-income countries...
August 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Awoke Kebede, Hadgu Gerensea, Freweyni Amare, Yared Tesfay, Girmay Teklay
OBJECTIVE: Anemia is a widespread health problem among pregnant women causing maternal/infant morbidity and mortality mainly in low-income countries. Understanding of the magnitude of anemia and related socio-demographic variables in a specific setting would help scale-up preventive and therapeutic measures in a locality. So that this study focuses on the magnitude of anemia and its associated factor among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals of shire town and using institution based cross-sectional study design on 480 randomly selected study subjects...
August 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Silvestro Ojja, Stevens Kisaka, Michael Ediau, Doreen Tuhebwe, Angela N Kisakye, Abdullah A Halage, Richard K Mugambe, Joan N Mutyoba
BACKGROUND: Over 80% of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) occurs in low-income countries. Children under 5 account for 20-30% of the burden in endemic areas. This study assessed the prevalence, intensity and factors associated with STH infections among preschool-age children (PSAC) in Hoima district, Uganda. The PSAC are particularly vulnerable because the chronicity of this condition usually affects their physical and mental growth and development. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 562 PSAC (1-5 years old) in 6 counties of Hoima district using Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) method...
August 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Beniamino Cislaghi, Lori Heise
BACKGROUND: Recently, Global Health practitioners, scholars, and donors have expressed increased interest in "changing social norms" as a strategy to promote health and well-being in low and mid-income countries (LMIC). Despite this burgeoning interest, the ability of practitioners to use social norm theory to inform health interventions varies widely. MAIN BODY: Here, we identify eight pitfalls that practitioners must avoid as they plan to integrate a social norms perspective in their interventions, as well as eight learnings...
August 17, 2018: Globalization and Health
Devika Nadkarni, Sara Gravelyn, Monica Brova, Sarem Rashid, Randy Yee, Donovan Guttieres, Katie Clifford, Darash Desai, Muhammad Zaman
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to estimate the effects of therapeutic oxytocin supply chain factors and social determinants of health on patient access to oxytocin in low-income settings using system dynamics modeling. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), a major cause of maternal mortality disproportionately affects women in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization recommends therapeutic oxytocin as the frontline uterotonic for PPH management and prevention. However, lack of access to quality therapeutic oxytocin in Tanzania, and throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, continues to result in a high number of preventable maternal deaths...
August 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mónica Ruiz-Casares, José Ignacio Nazif-Muñoz
Researchers have paid little attention to non-adult child supervision and the prevalence and factors influencing this practice in low-income countries. A better understanding of this phenomenon is needed to inform the development and implementation of policies and interventions to enhance child supervision in those settings. This study explores the prevalence and factors associated with young children being home alone or under the care of another young child in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Using the 2011-2012 Lao Social Indicator Survey (N = 10,740 for the subsample of 'child was home alone' and N = 10,539 for the subsample of 'child cared by another child < 10 years of age'), multi-level Poisson regressions were performed to determine the number of days children under five years of age were home alone or under the care of another child younger than 10 years of age...
August 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tadesse Dagget Tesfaye, Worku Animaw Temesgen, Ayele Semachew Kasa
BACKGROUND: Full vaccination coverage has been identified as the foundation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality from the childhood illnesses. However, a significant number of children do not get recommended vaccinations. The problem is much worse in low-income countries with varied figures and evidence gap. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess vaccination coverage and its predicting factors in one of the low-income country Ethiopia, particularly in northwest Ethiopia...
August 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Theresa E Gildner, J Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans, Paul Kowal
BACKGROUND: Physical function is positively associated with subjective well-being in older adults from high-income nations. This study tests whether this association is evident in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Study on global AGEing and adult health, using nationally-representative samples of individuals over 50 years old from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. Participant interviews measured well-being (quality of life, mood, happiness) and physical function (grip strength, usual and rapid gait speed)...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Noah Kojima, Jeffrey D Klausner
Purpose of Review: Syphilis continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. While syphilis infection is easily identifiable and treatable, rates of syphilis infection continue to increase among select populations in high-income countries and remain at endemic levels in low- and middle-income counties. Recent findings: World Health Organization recommended strategies have led to the dual elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV in several countries, however outbreaks among select populations need to be adequately addressed...
March 2018: Current Epidemiology Reports
Yitayal Ayalew Goshu, Tewachew Muche Liyeh, Amare Simegn Ayele, Liknaw Bewket Zeleke, Yohannes Tesfahun Kassie
Introduction: Preconception folic acid supplementation is the provision of folate for reproductive age group women who have a plan to be pregnant. According to different studies, in African countries, there is poor utilization of preconception folic supplementation. So this study aimed at assessing women's awareness on preconception care and its associated factors in Adet, Northwestern Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 1, 2016, among 422 reproductive age group women...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Poojan Shrestha, Ben S Cooper, Joanna Coast, Raymond Oppong, Nga Do Thi Thuy, Tuangrat Phodha, Olivier Celhay, Philippe J Guerin, Heiman Wertheim, Yoel Lubell
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a colossal threat to global health and incurs high economic costs to society. Economic evaluations of antimicrobials and interventions such as diagnostics and vaccines that affect their consumption rarely include the costs of AMR, resulting in sub-optimal policy recommendations. We estimate the economic cost of AMR per antibiotic consumed, stratified by drug class and national income level. Methods: The model is comprised of three components: correlation coefficients between human antibiotic consumption and subsequent resistance; the economic costs of AMR for five key pathogens; and consumption data for antibiotic classes driving resistance in these organisms...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Milan Mahesh, Munish Sharma, Daniel An Mascarenhas
Background: Medical recycling and reutilization of cardiovascular implantableelectronic devices (CIEDs) have a significant impact not only in patientsof low-income countries but may also in certain patients in the UnitedStates who do not have sufficient medical insurance coverage. Themain determining factor for future utility and popularity of recycledmedical devices is thorough understanding about this topic amongstpublic and healthcare professional. To the best of our knowledge,there has been no study conducted so far at a community level to determinethe understanding in public and healthcare personnel about recyclingof medical devices including CIEDs...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Vivian Alividza, Victor Mariano, Raheelah Ahmad, Esmita Charani, Timothy M Rawson, Alison H Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Poverty increases the risk of contracting infectious diseases and therefore exposure to antibiotics. Yet there is lacking evidence on the relationship between income and non-income dimensions of poverty and antimicrobial resistance. Investigating such relationship would strengthen antimicrobial stewardship interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
August 17, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
F A Olatona, O O Onabanjo, R N Ugbaja, K E Nnoaham, D A Adelekan
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with metabolic changes and increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), but these associations have not been investigated in representative populations of university undergraduates in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This study was conducted in the three universities in Lagos State, Nigeria to assess the dietary pattern and metabolic risk factors of NCDs among university undergraduate population...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Kerry Scott, S W Beckham, Margaret Gross, George Pariyo, Krishna D Rao, Giorgio Cometto, Henry B Perry
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize current understanding of how community-based health worker (CHW) programs can best be designed and operated in health systems. METHODS: We searched 11 databases for review articles published between 1 January 2005 and 15 June 2017. Review articles on CHWs, defined as non-professional paid or volunteer health workers based in communities, with less than 2 years of training, were included. We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews according to AMSTAR criteria, and we report our findings based on PRISMA standards...
August 16, 2018: Human Resources for Health
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