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fractionation of plant extract

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556957/hptlc-autography-based-screening-and-isolation-of-mushroom-tyrosinase-inhibitors-of-european-plant-species
#1
Silvia Revoltella, Bettina Rainer, Birgit Waltenberger, Konrad Pagitz, Stefan Schwaiger, Hermann Stuppner
In the course of this project 133 plants were evaluated on their ability to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanogenesis. The screening was performed by means of a HPTLC autographic assay resulting in the selection of three plants, Asplenium trichomanes, Pinus uncinata subsp. uncinata, and Scutellaria altissima, with promising tyrosinase inhibiting activities. With the aid of the HPTLC assay, it was not only possible to select the most interesting plant extracts, but also to monitor the activity-guided fractionation which - in a relatively short time period - led to the isolation of active principals...
December 17, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543915/antibacterial-activity-of-discaria-americana-gillies-ex-hook-rhamnaceae
#2
Janice Dahmer, Gabriele do Carmo, Marco Aurélio Mostardeiro, Alexandre Tibursky Neto, Ubiratan Flores da Silva, Ionara Irion Dalcol, Ademir Farias Morel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Discaria americana Gillies ex Hook (sin. Discaria febrifuga and Discaria longispina) (Rhamnaceae) is a plant native from Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil), Uruguay and Argentine, and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine as antipyretic agent, and for stomach disorders. In Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and Argentine, the roots, in decoction, are used as tonic and febrifuge. Although it is a plant widely used by the population, there are no studies proving this popular use...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537650/prediction-of-organic-contaminant-uptake-by-plants-modified-partition-limited-model-based-on-a-sequential-ultrasonic-extraction-procedure
#3
Xiang Wu, Lizhong Zhu
Predicting the translocation of organic contaminants to plants is crucial to ensure the quality of agricultural goods and assess the risk of human exposure through the food web. In this study, the performance of a modified plant uptake model was evaluated considering a number of chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with a range of physicochemical properties; different plant species (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (swamp morning glory), Chrysanthemum coronarium L...
November 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534178/a-phenolic-fraction-from-catharanthus-roseus-l-stems-decreases-glycemia-and-stimulates-insulin-secretion
#4
Janet Alejandra Espejel-Nava, Elisa Vega-Avila, Francisco Alarcon-Aguilar, Alejandra Contreras-Ramos, Guadalupe Díaz-Rosas, Gloria Trejo-Aguilar, Clara Ortega-Camarillo
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. ( C. roseus ) is a medicinal plant used traditionally for diabetes mellitus control. Several compounds of an alkaloidal nature have been proposed as hypoglycemic principles. However, little attention has been paid to other compounds in this plant that could also participate in this hypoglycemic activity. This study aimed to analyze the hypoglycemic effect of a polyphenolic fraction from C. roseus , as well as its action on insulin secretion and expression in RINm5F cells. Methods ...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530280/vanadium-and-chromium-contaminated-soil-remediation-using-vfas-derived-from-food-waste-as-soil-washing-agents-a-case-study
#5
Quan Zou, Honglin Xiang, Jianguo Jiang, Dean Li, Aikelaimu Aihemaiti, Feng Yan, Nuo Liu
Food waste (FW) is environmentally unfriendly and decays easily under ambient conditions. Vanadium (V) and chromium (Cr) contamination in soils has become an increasing concern due to risks to human health and environmental conservation. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from FW was applied as soil washing agent to treat V and Cr-contaminated soil collected from a former V smelter site in this work. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to identify geochemical fractions of V and Cr influencing their mobility and biological toxicity...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529767/cytotoxicity-and-selectiveness-of-brazilian-piper-species-towards-oral-carcinoma-cells
#6
Arthur L Macedo, Diego P D da Silva, Davyson L Moreira, Lucas N de Queiroz, Thatyana R A Vasconcelos, Geisoellen F Araujo, Maria Auxiliadora C Kaplan, Suiane S C Pereira, Elan C P de Almeida, Alessandra L Valverde, Bruno K Robbs
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the ten most common types of cancer worldwide. Plants of the genusPiper are used in traditional medicine to treat cancer, and they have a vast diversity of phytochemicals with cytotoxic potential. Purpose and Study Design: In this work, we analyzed the cytotoxic and selective potential of extracts and semipurified fractions of Piper mollicomum (PM), Piper truncatum (PT), Piper cernuum (PC), Piper arboreum (PA), and Piper cabralanum (PCa) using three different OSCC cell lines (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25), and we measured their in vivo toxicities and conducted chemical analyses of their active fractions...
December 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529445/growth-disrupting-murraya-koenigii-leaf-extracts-on-anopheles-gambiae-larvae-and-identification-of-associated-candidate-bioactive-constituents
#7
Clarence Maikuri Mang'era, Ahmed Hassanali, Fathiya M Khamis, Martin K Rono, Wilber Lwande, Charles Mbogo, Paul O Mireji
Plant-based constituents have been proposed as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides for control of mosquito vectors of malaria. In this study, we first screened the effects of methanolic leaf extracts of curry tree (Murraya koenigii) growing in tropical (Mombasa, Malindi) and semi-arid (Kibwezi, and Makindu) ecological zones of Kenya on third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae. Extracts of the plant from the semi-arid region, and particularly from Kibwezi, led to high mortality of the larvae. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plants from Kibwezi was then undertaken and the most active fraction (20 fold more potent than the crude extract) was then analyzed by Liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-QtoF-MS) and a number of constituents were identified, including a major alkaloid constituent, Neplanocin A (5)...
December 7, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528637/toxicity-of-phenolic-compounds-to-entomopathogenic-nematodes-a-case-study-with-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora-exposed-to-lentisk-pistacia-lentiscus-extracts-and-their-chemical-components
#8
Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi, Liora Salame, Hussein Muklada, Hassan Azaizeh, Manal Haj-Zaroubi, Safaa Awwad, Serge Yan Landau, Itamar Glazer
Insects show adaptive plasticity by ingesting plant secondary compounds, such as phenolic compounds, that are noxious to parasites. This work examined whether exposure to phenolic compounds affects the development of insect parasitic nematodes. As a model system for parasitic life cycle, we used Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorhabditiade) grown with Photorhabdita luminescens supplemented with different concentrations of plant phenolic extracts (0, 600, 1200, 2400 ppm): a crude ethanol extract of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) or lentisk extract fractionated along a scale of hydrophobicity with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate; and flavonoids (myricetin, catechin), flavanol-glycoside (rutin) or phenolic acids (chlorogenic and gallic acids)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521605/anthocyanins-from-cornus-kousa-ethanolic-extract-attenuate-obesity-in-association-with-anti-angiogenic-activities-in-3t3-l1-cells-by-down-regulating-adipogeneses-and-lipogenesis
#9
Muhammad Imran Khan, Jin Hyuk Shin, Tai Sun Shin, Min Yong Kim, Nam Jun Cho, Jong Deog Kim
Cornus kousa the Korean dogwood has been traditionally used in East Asia as therapeutic traditional medicine however biological activities of Cornus kousa have not been investigated previously. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-obesity activities coupled with anti-angiogenic activities of anthocyanins rich fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of Cornus kousa (ELECk) in HUVECs and 3T3- L1 cells. Dried plants leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol and anthocyanin fraction (AnT Fr) was obtained by eluting the ethanolic extract through non-polar macroporous resin and further purification by HPLC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514474/protaetia-brevitarsis-larvae-can-efficiently-convert-herbaceous-and-ligneous-plant-residues-to-humic-acids
#10
Yimei Li, Tong Fu, Lili Geng, Yu Shi, Haiyan Chu, Fushun Liu, Chunqin Liu, Fuping Song, Jie Zhang, Changlong Shu
Utilization of the organic residues produced after crop harvesting is currently an important issue across the world. The edible insect Protaetia brevitarsis larvae can feed various organic matters. In this paper, we investigated the potential to utilize the insect to convert herbaceous and ligneous plant residues. We feed the insect larvae with maize straw and sawdust and analyzed the produced insect manure. P. brevitarsis larval was found to be able to digest both herbaceous and ligneous straw and insect manure extract shown no phytotoxicity...
January 2019: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510616/-anacardium-microcarpum-promotes-neuroprotection-dependently-of-akt-and-erk-phosphorylation-but-does-not-prevent-mitochondrial-damage-by-6-ohda
#11
Illana Kemmerich Martins, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Cynthia Camila Ziech, Lúcia Vinadé, Valter Menezes Barbosa Filho, Irwin Alencar Menezes, Jeferson Franco, Thaís Posser
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative and progressive illness characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a widespread model for induction of molecular and behavioral alterations similar to Parkinson and has contributed for testing of compounds with neuroprotective potential. The Brazilian plant Anacardium microcarpum is used in folk medicine for treatment of several illnesses; however, the knowledge about toxicology and biological effects for this plant is very rare...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510137/modeling-the-bioconversion-of-polysaccharides-in-a-continuous-reactor-a-case-study-of-the-production-of-oligo-galacturonates-by-dickeya-dadantii
#12
Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre, Sylvie Reverchon, Jean-Luc Gouzé, William Nasser
In the quest for a sustainable economy of the earth resources and for renewable sources of energy, a promising avenue is to exploit the vast quantity of polysaccharide molecules contained in green wastes.To that end, the decomposition of pectin appears to be an interesting target because this polymeric carbohydrate is abundant in many fruit pulps and soft vegetables.To quantitatively study this degradation process, here we designed a bioreactor that is continuously fed with de-esterified pectin (PGA). Thanks to the pectate lyases produced by bacteria cultivated in the vessel, the PGA is depolymerized into oligo-galacturonates (UGA) which is continuously extracted from the tank...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502763/phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-genus-ephedra
#13
Ben-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Ping Xin, Qiu-Hong Wang, He Bu, Hai-Xue Kuang
The genus Ephedra of the Ephedraceae family contains more than 60 species of nonflowering seed plants distributed throughout Asia, America, Europe, and North Africa. These Ephedra species have medicinal, ecological, and economic value. This review aims to summarize the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Ephedra species to unveil opportunities for future research. Comprehensive information on the Ephedra species was collected by electronic search (e.g., GoogleScholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of Science) and phytochemical books...
November 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499754/identification-of-enzymatic-cleavage-products-of-%C3%AE-carotene-rich-extracts-of-kale-and-biofortified-maize
#14
Tawanda Muzhingi, Kyung-Jin Yeum, Andrew H Siwela, Odilia Bermudez, Guangwen Tang
Provitamin A carotenoids in plant foods provide more than 80% of vitamin A intake for people in developing countries. Therefore, the conversion efficiency of β-carotene to vitamin A is important, as it determines the effectiveness of plant foods as sources of vitamin A in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant food antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, γ-tocotrienol and total γ-oryzanol on the cleavage of β-carotene in vitro. Rat intestinal mucosa post mitochondrial fractions were incubated with β-carotene-rich extracts of kale and biofortified maize for an hour at 37°C...
November 30, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488694/chromatographic-data-segmentation-method-a-hybrid-analytical-approach-for-investigation-of-antiviral-substances-in-medicinal-plant-extracts
#15
Tomas Drevinskas, Audrius Maruska, Laimutis Telksnys, Stellan Hjerten, Manatas Stankevičius, Raimundas Lelešius, Rūta Mickienė, Agneta Karpovaite, Algirdas Salomskas, Nicola Tiso, Ona Ragazinskiene
The methodology described in this paper will significantly reduce the time required for understanding the relations between chromatographic data and bio-activity assays. The methodology is a hybrid of hypothesis based and data-driven scientific approaches. In this work, a novel chromatographic data segmentation method is proposed, which demonstrates the capability of finding what volatile substances are responsible for antiviral and cytotoxic effects in the medicinal plant extracts. Up to now the full potential of the separation methods has not been exploited in the life sciences...
November 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483278/proteomics-of-heat-stress-and-ethylene-mediated-thermotolerance-mechanisms-in-tomato-pollen-grains
#16
Sridharan Jegadeesan, Palak Chaturvedi, Arindam Ghatak, Etan Pressman, Shimon Meir, Adi Faigenboim, Nicholas Rutley, Avital Beery, Arye Harel, Wolfram Weckwerth, Nurit Firon
Heat stress is a major cause for yield loss in many crops, including vegetable crops. Even short waves of high temperature, becoming more frequent during recent years, can be detrimental. Pollen development is most heat-sensitive, being the main cause for reduced productivity under heat-stress across a wide range of crops. The molecular mechanisms involved in pollen heat-stress response and thermotolerance are however, not fully understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays a role in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) pollen thermotolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477525/aspidosperma-pyrifolium-a-medicinal-plant-from-the-brazilian-caatinga-displays-a-high-antiplasmodial-activity-and-low-cytotoxicity
#17
Isabela P Ceravolo, Carlos L Zani, Flávio J B Figueiredo, Markus Kohlhoff, Antônio E G Santana, Antoniana U Krettli
BACKGROUND: Several species of Aspidosperma plants are referred to as remedies for the treatment of malaria, especially Aspidosperma nitidum. Aspidosperma pyrifolium, also a medicinal plant, is used as a natural anti-inflammatory. Its fractionated extracts were assayed in vitro for activity against malaria parasites and for cytotoxicity. METHODS: Aspidosperma pyrifolium activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum using extracts in vitro. Toxicity towards human hepatoma cells, monkey kidney cells or human monocytes freshly isolated from peripheral blood was also assessed...
November 26, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477269/a-thioredoxin-domain-containing-protein-interacts-with-pepino-mosaic-virus-triple-gene-block-protein-1
#18
Matthaios M Mathioudakis, Souheyla Khechmar, Carolyn A Owen, Vicente Medina, Karima Ben Mansour, Weronika Tomaszewska, Theodore Spanos, Panagiotis F Sarris, Ioannis C Livieratos
Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a mechanically-transmitted tomato pathogen of importance worldwide. Interactions between the PepMV coat protein and triple gene block protein (TGBp1) with the host heat shock cognate protein 70 and catalase 1 (CAT1), respectively, have been previously reported by our lab. In this study, a novel tomato interactor ( Sl TXND9) was shown to bind the PepMV TGBp1 in yeast-two-hybrid screening, in vitro pull-down and bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays. Sl TXND9 possesses part of the conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active site sequence (W__PC vs...
November 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476805/immobilization-of-hexavalent-chromium-in-contaminated-soil-using-nano-magnetic-mnfe-2-o-4
#19
Behzad Eyvazi, Ahmad Jamshidi-Zanjani, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban
Nano-magnetic MnFe2 O4 was prepared and examined to immobilize Cr(VI) in the soil. According to the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) the formation of nano-magnetic MnFe2 O4 with the particle size of less than 200 nm was demonstrated. Compared with the untreated soil, the leachability of Cr(VI) was reduced from 70.95% to 4.22% through toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) at a dosage of 2 g/L of nanoparticles and 192 h remediation time. At the same condition, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) human bioaccessibility of chromium was reduced from 86...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475649/in-vitro-evaluation-of-cuscuta-reflexa-roxb-for-thrombolytic-antioxidant-membrane-stabilizing-and-antimicrobial-activities
#20
Abul Kalam Azad, Farhina Rahman Laboni, Harun Rashid, Sahena Ferdous, Shah Samiur Rashid, Nurkhalida Kamal, Zubair Khalid Labu, M S Islam, Zaidul Islam Sarker
The key purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the thrombolytic, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial potentials of crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of whole plant, organic and aqueous soluble fractions (OF & AQSF). CEE showed the highest (44.63%) clot lysis activity compared to streptokinase (64.35%). In DPPH study, petroleum ether soluble fraction (PSF) has exhibited IC50 of 18.83 μg/mL while the standard ascorbic acid was 2.48 µg/mL. AQSF profoundly inhibited the lysis of erythrocytes (66...
November 26, 2018: Natural Product Research
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