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inflammation influenza

Lara Ravanetti, Annemiek Dijkhuis, Tamara Dekker, Yanaika S Sabogal Pineros, Abilash Ravi, Barbara S Dierdorp, Jonas S Erjefält, Michiko Mori, Stelios Pavlidis, Ian M Adcock, Navin L Rao, René Lutter
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus triggers severe exacerbations of asthma for which no adequate treatment is available. It is known that IL-33 levels correlate with exacerbation severity, but its role in the immune-pathogenesis of exacerbations has remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that IL-33 is necessary to drive asthma exacerbations. We intervened with the IL-33 cascade and sought to dissect its role, also in synergy with TSLP, in airway inflammation, anti-viral activity and lung function...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Emma Macdonald-Laurs, Archana Koirala, Philip N Britton, William Rawlinson, Chee Chung Hiew, Jocelynne Mcrae, Russell C Dale, Cheryl Jones, Kristine Macartney, Brendan McMullan, Sekhar Pillai
PURPOSE: Neurological complications of influenza cause significant disease in children. Central nervous system inflammation, the presumed mechanism of influenza-associated encephalopathy, is difficult to detect. Characteristics of children presenting with severe neurological complications of influenza, and potential biomarkers of influenza-associated encephalopathy are described. METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective case-series of children with influenza and neurological complications during 2017 was performed...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Yu-Qi Yan, Ying-Jie Fu, Sha Wu, Hong-Qiong Qin, Xiao Zhen, Bi-Mei Song, Yuan-Shu Weng, Peng-Cheng Wang, Xiao-Yin Chen, Zhen-You Jiang
Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the berberis species, has a wide array of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic effects. We evaluated the antiviral effect of berberine against influenza A/FM1/1/47 (H1N1) in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that berberine strongly suppressed viral replication in A549 cells and in mouse lungs. Meanwhile, berberine relieved pulmonary inflammation and reduced necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pulmonary edema induced by viral infection in mice when compared with vehicle-treated mice...
October 11, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Robert S Hagan, Jose Torres-Castillo, Claire M Doerschuk
Macrophages provide key elements of the host response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, including expression of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) contributes to IFN expression and anti-viral responses in some cell types, but its role in the innate response to IAV in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that macrophage TBK1 contributes to both IFN and non-IFN components of host defense and IAV pathology. We generated myeloid-conditional TBK1 knockout mice and assessed the in vitro and in vivo consequences of IAV infection...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Jehyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
Fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and H9N2 influenza infection are two economically important diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant (JOL967) to deliver highly conserved extracellular domains of H9N2 M2 (M2e) to induce protective immunity against both H9N2 infection and FT. To increase the immunogenicity of M2e, we physically linked it with CD40L and cloned the fusion gene into either prokaryotic constitutive expression vector pJHL65 or mammalian expression vector pcDNA3...
October 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
Licia Dos Reis Luz, Diogo Denardi Porto, Caio B Castro, Maria Francilene S Silva, Elenilson de Godoy Alves Filho, Kirley Marques Canuto, Edy Sousa de Brito, Helena Becker, Claúdia do Ó Pessoa, Guilherme Julião Zocolo
Schinopsis brasiliensis is a plant typically found in the caatinga biome (northeastern Brazil). Its leaves and bark have been used for the treatment of health dysfunctions such as cough, influenza, diarrhea, throat inflammation, and sexual impotence. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of this plant. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MSE ) allowed the partial identification of 33 compounds, including isomers from leaf, branch, and bark samples, with 16 compounds reported for the first time (corilagin, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin derivatives) in S...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Giovanni A Rossi, Wolfgang Bessler, Stefania Ballarini, Christian Pasquali
BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections may promote bacterial super-infection decreasing the host immune response efficiency. However, using a mice model we recently demonstrated that preventive treatment with the bacterial extract OM-85 reduces the susceptibility to a secondary Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae infection after influenza virus (I.V.) challenge. METHODS: To better characterize the efficacy of OM-85 against S. pneumoniae super-infection, a post-hoc analysis was conducted, comparing efficacy (survival) and morbidity signs (clinical score, body temperature and weight loss) in the OM-85 and the control (BLANC) groups of mice after: a) I...
September 26, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Georgia K Atkin-Smith, Mubing Duan, Weisan Chen, Ivan K H Poon
Infection with Influenza A virus (IAV) causes significant cell death within the upper and lower respiratory tract and lung parenchyma. In severe infections, high levels of cell death can exacerbate inflammation and comprise the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier leading to respiratory failure. IAV infection of airway and alveolar epithelial cells promotes immune cell infiltration into the lung and therefore, immune cell types such as macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils are readily exposed to IAV and infection-induced death...
September 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Sophia Davidson
Influenza viruses (IVs) are a continual threat to global health. The high mutation rate of the IV genome makes this virus incredibly successful, genetic drift allows for annual epidemics which result in thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations. Moreover, the emergence of new strains through genetic shift (e.g., swine-origin influenza A) can cause devastating global outbreaks of infection. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently used to treat IV infection and act directly on viral proteins to halt IV spread...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Caiyun Huo, Yi Jin, Shumei Zou, Peng Qi, Jin Xiao, Haiyan Tian, Ming Wang, Yanxin Hu
The "cytokine storm" and excessive inflammation triggered by lethal avian influenza virus (IAV) are responsible for its high virulence and mortality. However, the molecular mechanism behind these effects is unclear. In this study, we used LA795 cells and a mouse model to assess the crucial role of TLR3 during infection with lethal avian influenza A virus and subsequent inflammation. The results showed that IAVs could replicate and proliferate well in LA795 cells and that the replication of H5N1 was more efficient than human H1N1 and lowly pathogenic avian H7N2 viruses...
September 15, 2018: Virus Research
Andreas Kyburz, Angela Fallegger, Xiaozhou Zhang, Aleksandra Altobelli, Mariela Artola-Boran, Timothy Borbet, Sabine Urban, Petra Paul, Christian Münz, Stefan Floess, Jochen Huehn, Timothy L Cover, Martin J Blaser, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
BACKGROUND: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Jacek Winiarski, Tomasz Michalik, Bartłomiej Śmieszniak, Ewa Popowicz, Marta Szyca
The aim of our article is to present a healthy qualities of Cistus. Cistus is plant belonging to the Cistaceae has strong health-promoting properties through its antioxidant, immunomodulatory, bacteriostatic and antifungal activities. Cistus has an inhibitory effect on the multiplication of viruses, which can be used to treat cold and influenza. A significant effect of the Cistus on stopping the growth and proliferation of prostatic cells was also demonstrated, which evidence of cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity...
August 29, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Nicoletta Scheller, Susanne Herold, Ronny Kellner, Wilhelm Bertrams, Anna Lena Jung, Harshavadhan Janga, Timm Greulich, Leon N Schulte, Claus F Vogelmeier, Jürgen Lohmeyer, Bernd Schmeck
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory infections and alveolar epithelial damage resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extracellular vesicles (EV) have been shown to mediate cellular crosstalk in inflammation by transfer of microRNAs. In this study, we found significant changes in the miRNA composition of EVs in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IAV-induced ARDS. Among the nine significantly deregulated microRNAs, miR-17-5p was upregulated in patients` BALF, and in EVs of IAV-infected lung epithelial cells (A549)...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Suado M Abdillahi, Ramesh Tati, Sara L Nordin, Maria Baumgarten, Oskar Hallgren, Leif Bjermer, Jonas Erjefält, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Birendra Singh, Kristian Riesbeck, Matthias Mörgelin
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative human commensal commonly residing in the nasopharynx of preschool children. It occasionally causes upper respiratory tract infection such as acute otitis media, but can also spread to the lower respiratory tract causing bronchitis and pneumonia. There is increasing recognition that NTHi has an important role in chronic lower respiratory tract inflammation, particularly in persistent infection in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Andres J Gonzalez, Emmanuel C Ijezie, Onesmo B Balemba, Tanya A Miura
Influenza viruses and rhinoviruses are responsible for a large number of acute respiratory viral infections in human populations and are detected as co-pathogens within hosts. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that co-infection by rhinovirus and influenza virus may reduce disease severity and that they may also interfere with each other's spread within a host population. To determine how co-infection by these two unrelated respiratory viruses affects pathogenesis, we established a mouse model using a minor serogroup rhinovirus (RV1B) and mouse-adapted influenza A virus (PR8)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ekaterina Nikitina, Irina Larionova, Evgeniy Choinzonov, Julia Kzhyshkowska
Viruses manipulate cell biology to utilize monocytes/macrophages as vessels for dissemination, long-term persistence within tissues and virus replication. Viruses enter cells through endocytosis, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis or membrane fusion. These processes play important roles in the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of these agents and in establishing viral genome persistence and latency. Upon viral infection, monocytes respond with an elevated expression of proinflammatory signalling molecules and antiviral responses, as is shown in the case of the influenza, Chikungunya, human herpes and Zika viruses...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alberto Donzelli
Pregnant women are a World Health Organization (WHO) priority group for influenza vaccination, but evidence of effectiveness and safety for pregnant women comes from observational studies, which are notoriously prone to confounding by indication and healthy-vaccinee bias. The latter type of bias leads to an overestimation of the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, which may be what occurs in pregnant women. Indeed, better educated women with healthier behaviors and who seek better medical care may be more adherent to vaccinations recommended by doctors, scientific societies and health authorities...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Brittney R Lins, Jessica L Hurtubise, Andrew J Roebuck, Wendie N Marks, Nadine K Zabder, Gavin A Scott, Quentin Greba, Wojciech Dawicki, Xiaobei Zhang, Christopher D Rudulier, John R Gordon, John G Howland
Influenza during pregnancy is associated with the development of psychopathology in the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal cytokines produced following administration of viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) to pregnant rats were predictive of behavioral abnormalities in the adult offspring. Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received a single intravenous injection of 4-mg/kg polyI:C or saline on gestational day (GD)15. Blood was collected 3 h later for serum analysis of cytokine levels with ELISA...
July 2018: ENeuro
Kellie J Goodlet, Michael D Nailor, Ashraf Omar, Jasmine L Huang, John J LiPuma, Rajat Walia, Sofya Tokman
Chronic airway inflammation and infection drive morbidity and mortality among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus predominate in children, the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa increases as patients age. Other bacteria, including species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), are also more prevalent among adults with CF. Species within the Bcc accelerate lung function decline and can trigger development of "cepacia syndrome," both before and after lung transplantation...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Qiulu Li, Peng Pang, Ke Zheng, Li Sun, Jing Wang, Xiaoyin Chen
Seasonal influenza is an acute viral infection caused by influenza virus, which is often prevalent in summer and winter. In contrast to the prevalent focus on winter flu, summer flu is often ignored by epidemiological researchers. However, summer flu should be studied because of the special immune status and the influenza spread mechanism in the hot and humid environment. Moreover, people are more likely to catch a summertime cold upon suddenly entering relatively cool air conditioning from the hot and humid environment...
September 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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