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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090764/nipah-virus-epidemic-in-southern-india-and-emphasizing-one-health-approach-to-ensure-global-health-security
#1
EDITORIAL
Vijay K Chattu, Raman Kumar, Soosanna Kumary, Fnu Kajal, Joseph K David
Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis first reported in "Sungai Nipah" in Malaysia in 1999 has emerged as a global public health threat in the Southeast Asia region. From 1998 to 2018, more than 630 cases of NiV human infections were reported. NiV is transmitted by zoonotic (from bats to humans, or from bats to pigs, and then to humans) as well as human-to-human routes. Deforestation and urbanization of some areas have contributed to greater overlap between human and bat habitats resulting in NiV outbreaks...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055735/toll-like-receptor-4-plays-an-important-role-to-enhance-bacterial-clearance-from-the-nose-in-synergy-with-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-trem-1-expression-on-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils
#2
Munehito Moriyama, Takashi Hirano, Toshiaki Kawano, Yoshinori Kadowaki, Satoru Kodama, Masashi Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is among the most common infectious diseases. Neutrophils play a major role in innate host defenses against pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. Recently, in neutrophils, ligation of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 was found to activate the full spectrum of neutrophil effector mechanisms, including the release of inflammatory mediators, degranulation, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst in synergy with Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
September 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055608/impact-of-radiologically-stratified-exacerbations-insights-into-pneumonia-aetiology-in-copd
#3
Nicholas P Williams, Kristoffer Ostridge, Jeanne-Marie Devaster, Viktoriya Kim, Ngaire A Coombs, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Stephen Harden, Ausami Abbas, Emmanuel Aris, Christophe Lambert, Andrew Tuck, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have increased risk of developing pneumonia, which is associated with poor outcomes. It can be symptomatically indistinguishable from exacerbations, making diagnosis challenging. Studies of pneumonia in COPD have focused on hospitalised patients and are not representative of the ambulant COPD population. Therefore, we sought to determine the incidence and aetiology of acute exacerbation events with evidence of pneumonic radiographic infiltrates in an outpatient COPD cohort...
July 28, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053529/allergic-conversion-of-protective-mucosal-immunity-against-nasal-bacteria-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyposis
#4
Kazuya Takeda, Shuhei Sakakibara, Kazuo Yamashita, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Marwa Ali El Hussien, Jun Katayama, Yohei Maeda, Masanobu Nakata, Shigeyuki Hamada, Daron M Standley, Masaki Hayama, Takashi Shikina, Hidenori Inohara, Hitoshi Kikutani
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation and polyposis at the nose and paranasal sinus and a high concentration of IgE in nasal polyps (NPs). The causative antigen and pathogenesis of CRSwNP remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify reactive allergens of IgE antibodies produced locally in NPs of CRSwNP patients. We also attempted to unravel the differentiation pathway of IgE-producing B cells in the NPs...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047088/antiviral-activity-of-poncirus-trifoliata-seed-extract-against-oseltamivir-resistant-influenza-virus
#5
Yoonki Heo, Yeondong Cho, Kwon Sung Ju, Hansam Cho, Ki Hoon Park, Hanul Choi, Jong Kwang Yoon, Chiung Moon, Young Bong Kim
The emergence of oseltamivir-resistant variants of influenza virus has highlighted the necessity for the development of more effective novel antiviral drugs. To date, numerous researchers have focused on developing antiviral drugs using natural resources, such as traditional herbal medicines. Poncirus trifoliata is widely used in oriental medicine as a remedy for gastritis, dysentery, inflammation and digestive ulcers. In this study, we investigated the potential antiviral effect of the Poncirus trifoliata orange seed extract against influenza virus...
August 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043078/in-vitro-detection-of-common-rhinosinusitis-bacteria-by-the-enose-utilising-differential-mobility-spectrometry
#6
Jussi Virtanen, Lauri Hokkinen, Markus Karjalainen, Anton Kontunen, Risto Vuento, Jura Numminen, Markus Rautiainen, Niku Oksala, Antti Roine, Ilkka Kivekäs
Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a sudden, symptomatic inflammation of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. It is usually caused by respiratory virus infection, but bacteria complicate for a small number of ARS patients. The differential diagnostics between viral and bacterial pathogens is difficult and currently no rapid methodology exists, so antibiotics are overprescribed. The electronic nose (eNose) has shown the ability to detect diseases from gas mixtures. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is a next-generation device that can separate ions based on their different mobility in high and low electric fields...
July 24, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038516/fever-of-unknown-origin-following-parathyroidectomy-prior-to-onset-of-typical-polymyalgia-rheumatica-symptoms-a-case-report
#7
Akinori Kanzaki, Kiyoshi Matsui, Tadahiko Sukenaga, Koushi Mase, Aya Nishioka, Tomoharu Tamori, Seiko Kataoka, Hiroyuki Konya, Shin Mizutani, Akira Takeda, Masato Koseki, Tetsuo Nishiura, Hidenori Koyama, Hajime Sano
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disease commonly seen in elderly individuals, however, the etiology has not been reported. Typical clinical features include bilateral shoulder pain and morning stiffness, while serologic autoantibody test findings are negative. Approximately 40%-50% of affected patients present with low-grade fever, fatigue, and appetite loss, which we often experience in the field of general medicine, and thus, the condition should not be given low priority. However, knowledge regarding such constitutional manifestations is also limited...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034876/arachidonic-acid-and-other-unsaturated-fatty-acids-and-some-of-their-metabolites-function-as-endogenous-antimicrobial-molecules-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Undurti N Das
Our body is endowed with several endogenous anti-microbial compounds such as interferon, cytokines, free radicals, etc. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility that lipids could function as antimicrobial compounds. In this short review, the antimicrobial actions of various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly free acids) and their putative mechanisms of action are described. In general, PUFAs kill microbes by their direct action on microbial cell membranes, enhancing generation of free radicals, augmenting the formation of lipid peroxides that are cytotoxic, and by increasing the formation of their bioactive metabolites, such as prostaglandins, lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that enhance the phagocytic action of leukocytes and macrophages...
May 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032246/estriol-reduces-pulmonary-immune-cell-recruitment-and-inflammation-to-protect-female-mice-from-severe-influenza
#9
Meghan S Vermillion, Rebecca L Ursin, Sarah E Attreed, Sabra L Klein
Estriol (E3) is an endogenous estrogen in females with broad biological activity within diverse tissue types. In the context of certain T cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease, E3 can ameliorate disease severity through immunomodulatory mechanisms that decrease tissue inflammation. Severe disease caused by influenza A virus (IAV) infection is also characterized by aberrant inflammation and immunopathology. How E3 might impact the pathogenesis of IAV infection, however, has not been explored. Gonadally intact female C57BL/6 mice that were treated with exogenous E3 during infection with mouse-adapted 2009 H1N1, had reduced total pulmonary inflammation and improved disease outcomes as compared with females that received no hormone...
July 18, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018617/respiratory-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-human-influenza-a-virus-infection-their-role-in-immune-protection-and-as-targets-of-the-virus
#10
REVIEW
Sindhu Vangeti, Meng Yu, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Emerging viruses have become increasingly important with recurrent epidemics. Influenza A virus (IAV), a respiratory virus displaying continuous re-emergence, contributes significantly to global morbidity and mortality, especially in young children, immunocompromised, and elderly people. IAV infection is typically confined to the airways and the virus replicates in respiratory epithelial cells but can also infect resident immune cells. Clearance of infection requires virus-specific adaptive immune responses that depend on early and efficient innate immune responses against IAV...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012970/programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathogenesis-of-influenza
#11
REVIEW
Daisuke Fujikura, Tadaaki Miyazaki
Influenza is a respiratory disease induced by infection by the influenza virus, which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. This infectious disease has serious impacts on public health systems and results in considerable mortality and economic costs throughout the world. Based on several experimental studies, massive host immune reaction is associated with the disease severity of influenza. Programmed cell death is typically induced during virus infection as a consequence of host immune reaction to limit virus spread by eliminating niches for virus propagation without causing inflammation...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012205/production-of-amphiregulin-and-recovery-from-influenza-is-greater-in-males-than-females
#12
Meghan S Vermillion, Rebecca L Ursin, Denise I T Kuok, Landon G Vom Steeg, Nicholas Wohlgemuth, Olivia J Hall, Ashley L Fink, Eric Sasse, Andrew Nelson, Roland Ndeh, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Wayne Mitzner, Michael C W Chan, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein
BACKGROUND: Amphiregulin (AREG) is an epidermal growth factor that is a significant mediator of tissue repair at mucosal sites, including in the lungs during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Previous research illustrates that males of reproductive ages experience less severe disease and recover faster than females following infection with IAV. METHODS: Whether males and females differentially produce and utilize AREG for pulmonary repair after IAV infection was investigated using murine models on a C57BL/6 background and primary mouse and human epithelial cell culture systems...
July 17, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997328/synergistic-effects-of-influenza-and-staphylococcus-aureus-toxins-on-inflammation-activation-and-cytotoxicity-in-human-monocytic-cell-lines
#13
Marion Jeannoel, Jean-Sebastien Casalegno, Michèle Ottmann, Cédric Badiou, Oana Dumitrescu, Bruno Lina, Gérard Lina
In patients with influenza, morbidity and mortality are strongly influenced by infections with Staphylococcus aureus producing high amounts of certain toxins. Here we tested the impact of influenza virus on the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic actions of a panel of S. aureus virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), phenol-soluble modulin α1 (PSMα1) and 3 (PSMα3), α-hemolysin (Hla), and cell wall components, i.e., heat-killed S. aureus (HKSA) and protein A. We initially screened for potential synergic interactions using a standardized in vitro model in influenza-infected continuous human monocytic cell lines...
July 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986838/an-update-on-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-influenza-the-road-to-redemption-or-perdition
#14
REVIEW
Tate Michelle D, Mansell Ashley
Inflammation is an integral aspect of influenza A virus (IAV) infection. It is critical to induce an antiviral environment to reduce viral replication and dissemination, while also being essential to the development and maturation of adaptive immunity, which ultimately resolves infection. Conversely, excessive pulmonary inflammation and cellular influx are characteristic of lethal IAV infections. It has become increasingly apparent that the innate immune inflammasome complex is a crucial moderator in IAV disease pathogenesis...
June 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980196/increased-hypothalamic-microglial-activation-after-viral-induced-pneumococcal-lung-infection-is-associated-with-excess-serum-amyloid-a-production
#15
Hao Wang, Melissa Blackall, Luba Sominsky, Sarah J Spencer, Ross Vlahos, Melissa Churchill, Steven Bozinovski
BACKGROUND: It is well established that lung pathology and inflammation are more severe during respiratory infections complicated by the presence of both bacteria and viruses. Whilst co-infection can result in invasive pneumococcal disease and systemic inflammation, the neuroinflammatory consequences of co-infection are poorly characterised. METHODS: In this study, we utilised a mouse co-infection model involving Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and influenza A virus (IAV) lung infection, and we also isolated microglia for ex vivo stimulation with pneumococcus or serum amyloid A (SAA)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970200/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-hospitalised-children-with-refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#16
Xinxing Zhang, Zhengrong Chen, Wenjing Gu, Wei Ji, Yuqing Wang, Chuangli Hao, Yanyu He, Li Huang, Meijuan Wang, Xuejun Shao, Yongdong Yan
To investigate the impact of viral and bacterial co-infection in hospitalised children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP). Retrospective analysis of 396 children with RMPP in our hospital admitted between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2016 was performed. Nasal aspirate samples were collected for pathogen detection and clinical data were collected. We analysed clinical characteristics, lung imaging characteristics and pathogenic species among these children. Of the 396 RMPP cases, 107 (27.02%) had co-infection with other pathogen, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common bacteria of infection and human bocavirus (HBoV), human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus being the most common viruses of infection...
August 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963101/clinical-and-laboratory-profiles-of-hospitalized-children-with-acute-respiratory-virus-infection
#17
Eunjin Choi, Kee-Soo Ha, Dae Jin Song, Jung Hwa Lee, Kwang Chul Lee
Purpose: Despite the availability of molecular methods, identification of the causative virus in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has proven difficult as the same viruses are often detected in asymptomatic children. Methods: Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect 15 common respiratory viruses in children under 15 years of age who were hospitalized with ARI between January 2013 and December 2015...
June 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947185/influence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-progression-of-experimental-otitis-media-in-rats
#18
Hee Bok Kim, So Hyun Lim, Chang Gun Cho, Han Seok Choi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune response against infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of vitamin D deficiency on the progression of otitis media (OM) using an experimental rat model. METHODS: Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) were divided into two groups based on their diet: a control diet group (n=36) and a vitamin D-deficient diet group (n=36). After 8 weeks of diet, experimental OM was induced by inoculation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in the middle ear cavity...
June 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933044/defective-lung-function-following-influenza-virus-is-due-to-prolonged-reversible-hyaluronan-synthesis
#19
Thomas J Bell, Oliver J Brand, David J Morgan, Samira Salek-Ardakani, Christopher Jagger, Toshifumi Fujimori, Lauren Cholewa, Viranga Tilakaratna, Jörgen Östling, Matt Thomas, Anthony J Day, Robert J Snelgrove, Tracy Hussell
Little is known about the impact of viral infections on lung matrix despite its important contribution to mechanical stability and structural support. The composition of matrix also indirectly controls inflammation by influencing cell adhesion, migration, survival, proliferation and differentiation. Hyaluronan is a significant component of the lung extracellular matrix and production and degradation must be carefully balanced. We have discovered an imbalance in hyaluronan production following resolution of a severe lung influenza virus infection, driven by hyaluronan synthase 2 from epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts...
June 20, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921748/desmoglein1-deficiency-is-a-potential-cause-of-cutaneous-eruptions-induced-by-shuanghuanglian-injection
#20
Yidan Zhang, Xiujun Zhang, Shanshan Fan, Lili Song, Zhen Yang, Pengwei Zhuang, Yanjun Zhang
Cutaneous eruption is a common drug-adverse reaction, characterised by keratinocytes inflammation and apoptosis. Shuanghuanglian injeciton (SHLI) is a typical Chinese medicine injection, which is used to treat influenza. It has been reported that SHLI has the potential to induce cutaneous adverse eruptions. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Since desmoglein 1 (DSG1) shows a crucial role in maintaining skin barrier function and cell susceptibility, we assume that DSG1 plays a critical role in the cutaneous eruptions induced by SHLI...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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