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melanocortin receptor agonist

K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus, E Savontaus
γ-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous agonist of the melanocortin 3-receptor (MC3R). Genetic disruption of MC3Rs increases adiposity and blunts responses to fasting, suggesting that increased MC3R signaling could be physiologically beneficial in the long term. Interestingly, several studies have concluded that activation of MC3Rs is orexigenic in the short term. Therefore, we aimed to examine the short- and long-term effects of γ-MSH in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) on energy homeostasis and hypothesized that the effect of MC3R agonism is dependent on the state of energy balance and nutrition...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Shengchen Liao, Jingjing Dong, Weina Xu, Bingwen Xi, Yaxiong Tao, Bo Liu, Jun Xie
The melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5R) plays an important role in the regulation of exocrine secretion in mammals. Its function in fish is not well established. In this study, we reported the molecular cloning, tissue expression, and pharmacological characterization of Megalobrama amblycephala MC5R (MamMC5R), as well as the effect of catching stress on its expression. The full-length cDNA of Mammc5r gene was 1237 bp, consisted of a 990-bp open reading frame encoding 329 amino acids. Sequence analyses revealed that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Mammc5r were highly homologous (> 90%) with MC5Rs of zebrafish, common carp, and goldfish...
October 4, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Stéphanie Almeida Scalvino, Audrey Chapelle, Neïla Hajem, Elian Lati, Philippe Gasser, Jean-Christophe Choulot, Laurence Michel, Michel Hocquaux, Estelle Loing, Joan Attia, Joanna Wdzieczak-Bakala
OBJECTIVE: Hair greying (i.e., canities) is a component of chronological aging and occurs regardless of gender or ethnicity. Canities is directly linked to the loss of melanin and increase in oxidative stress in the hair follicle and shaft. To promote hair pigmentation and reduce the hair greying process, an agonist of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a biomimetic peptide (palmitoyl tetrapeptide-20; PTP20) was developed. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the designed peptide on hair greying...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Ye Ran Yoon, Tae-Gul Lee, Mi-Hyun Choi, Seung Woo Shin, Young-Gyu Ko, Im Joo Rhyu, Dong-Hoon Kim, Je Kyung Seong, Ja-Hyun Baik
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and plays an essential role in the control of energy homeostasis. Here, we identified a novel MC4R-interacting protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), from a pulldown assay using hypothalamic protein extracts and the third intracellular loop of MC4R. We found that MC4R interacted with GRP78 in both the cytosol and at the cell surface and that this interaction increased when MC4R was internalized in the presence of the agonist melanotan-II (MTII)...
September 12, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Xiao-Chen Yuan, Ya-Xiong Tao
It is time-consuming and costly to bring new drugs to market, making it necessary and urgent to exploit existing drugs for new uses. Recently, fenoprofen was demonstrated as an allosteric modulator at melanocortin receptors (MCRs), although the exact mode of action has not been clarified. MCRs regulate multiple functions, including pigmentation, adrenal steroidogenesis, inflammation, energy homeostasis, and exocrine gland secretion. In this study, we showed that fenoprofen failed to displace the orthosteric agonist Nle4-D-Phe7--melanocyte stimulating hormone from binding to MC3-5R while possessing positive allosteric modulator activities at these receptors...
August 31, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ti-Lin Yi, Li-Kun Yang, Guo-Liang Ruan, Dai-Qin Yang, Ya-Xiong Tao
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays critical roles in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as energy homeostasis, reproduction and sexual function, cardiovascular function, and other functions in mammals. Although the functions of the MC4R in fish have not been extensively studied, the importance of MC4R in regulation of piscine energy expenditure and sexual functions is emerging. Swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an economically and evolutionarily important fish widely distributed in tropics and subtropics...
December 15, 2018: Gene
Bethany A Falls, Yan Zhang
Human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) mutations have been implicated as the cause for about 6-8% of all severe obesity cases. Drug-like molecules that are able to rescue the functional activity of mutated receptors are highly desirable to combat genetic obesity among this population of patients. One such molecule is the selective MC4R agonist RM-493 (setmelanotide). While this molecule has been shown to activate mutated receptors with 20-fold higher potency over the endogenous agonist, little is known about its binding mode and how it effectively interacts with hMC4R despite the presence of mutations...
August 13, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ann A Coulter, Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
For many years, obesity was believed to be a condition of overeating that could be resolved through counseling and short-term drug treatment. Obesity was not recognized as a chronic disease until 1985 by the scientific community, and 2013 by the medical community. Pharmacotherapy for obesity has advanced remarkably since the first class of drugs, amphetamines, were approved for short-term use. Most amphetamines were removed from the obesity market due to adverse events and potential for addiction, and it became apparent that obesity pharmacotherapies were needed that could safely be administered over the long term...
July 2018: Drugs
Kim Eerola, Siru Virtanen, Laura Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Minying Cai, Victor Hruby, Mikko Savontaus, Eriika Savontaus
γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous agonist of the melanocortin 3-receptor (MC3R). Genetic disruption of MC3Rs increases adiposity and blunts responses to fasting, suggesting that increased MC3R signaling could be physiologically beneficial in the long-term. Interestingly, several studies have concluded that activation of MC3Rs is orexigenic in the short term. Therefore, we aimed to examine the short- and long-term effects of γ-MSH in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) on energy homeostasis and hypothesized that the effect of MC3R-agonism is dependent on the state of energy balance and nutrition...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Anthony P Coll
Safe and effective pharmacological treatments for severe obesity remain scarce. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Iepsen et al. (2018) show that obese patients with pathogenic melanocortin 4 receptor mutations, the most common form of monogenic obesity, lose weight with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist therapy.
July 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Mark D Ericson, Zoe M Koerperich, Katie T Freeman, Katlyn A Fleming, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
The melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R), endogenous agonists derived from the proopiomelanocortin gene transcript, and naturally occurring antagonists agouti and agouti-related protein (AGRP) have been linked to biological pathways associated with energy homeostasis. The active tripeptide sequence of AGRP, Arg111-Phe112-Phe113, is located on a hypothesized β-hairpin loop. Herein, stereochemical modifications of the Arg-Phe-Phe sequence were examined in the octapeptide AGRP-derived macrocyclic scaffold c[Pro-Arg-Phe-Phe-Xxx-Ala-Phe-DPro], where Xxx was Asn or diaminopropionic acid (Dap)...
July 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Noureldin Saleh, Gunnar Kleinau, Nicolas Heyder, Timothy Clark, Peter W Hildebrand, Patrick Scheerer
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a potential drug target for treatment of obesity, anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction. Crystal structures for MC4R are not yet available, which has hindered successful structure-based drug design. Using microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations, we have investigated selective binding of the non-peptide antagonist MCL0129 to a homology model of human MC4R (hMC4R). This approach revealed that, at the end of a multi-step binding process, MCL0129 spontaneously adopts a binding mode in which it blocks the agonistic-binding site...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sid Topiol
The determination of the potential value of receptor trafficking at melanocortin receptors has been hampered by the absence of known biased ligands. Heterobivalent MC4R ligands linking agonist to antagonist small peptidic moieties were designed and found to act as Gαs enhancers while minimally activating β-arrestin recruitment. The strategy invoked offers intriguing promise as a surprising approach that is possibly broadly applicable to the challenge of designing biased ligands at other GPCRs.
June 4, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Eva W Iepsen, Jinyi Zhang, Henrik S Thomsen, Elizaveta L Hansen, Mette Hollensted, Sten Madsbad, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Jens-Christian Holm, Signe S Torekov
Pathogenic mutations in the appetite-regulating melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) represent the most common cause of monogenic obesity with limited treatment options. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) cause weight loss by reducing appetite. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide 3.0 mg for 16 weeks in 14 obese individuals with pathogenic MC4R mutations (BMI 37.5 ± 6.8) and 28 matched control participants without MC4R mutation (BMI 36.8 ± 4.8). Liraglutide decreased body weight by 6...
July 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
K V Derkach, I B Sukhov, V M Bondareva, A O Shpakov
Metformin (MF), a first-line drug in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, has been used in the recent years to treat obesity. Its therapeutic effect is due not only to the influence on the peripheral tissues, but also on the hypothalamus, which controls food behavior and energy metabolism. The aim was to study the effect of MF therapy (200 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) in rats with obesity caused by a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet on the metabolic and hormonal parameters and functional state of the hypothalamic signaling systems...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Shalini Jain, Anna Panyutin, Naili Liu, Cuiying Xiao, Ramón A Piñol, Priyanka Pundir, Clémence Girardet, Andrew A Butler, Xinzhong Dong, Oksana Gavrilova, Marc L Reitman
Intraperitoneal administration of the melanocortin agonist melanotan II (MTII) to mice causes a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia. It is preserved in mice lacking any one of melanocortin receptors 1, 3, 4, or 5, suggesting a mechanism independent of the canonical melanocortin receptors. Here we show that MTII-induced hypothermia was abolished in KitW-sh/W-sh mice, which lack mast cells, demonstrating that mast cells are required. MRGPRB2 is a receptor that detects many cationic molecules and activates mast cells in an antigen-independent manner...
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Toshihiro Goto, Michiko Itoh, Takayoshi Suganami, Sayaka Kanai, Ibuki Shirakawa, Takeru Sakai, Masahiro Asakawa, Toshihiro Yoneyama, Toshihiro Kai, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Accumulating evidence has suggested that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists, such as obeticholic acid (OCA) are therapeutically useful for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is still unclear how FXR agonists protect against NASH and which cell type is the main target of FXR agonists. In this study, we examined the effects of OCA on the development of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice that progressively developed hepatic steatosis and NASH on Western diet (WD). Treatment with OCA effectively prevented chronic inflammation and liver fibrosis in WD-fed MC4R-KO mice with only marginal effect on body weight and hepatic steatosis...
May 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brandon Podyma, Hui Sun, Eric A Wilson, Bradley Carlson, Ethan Pritikin, Oksana Gavrilova, Lee S Weinstein, Min Chen
Central melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) stimulate energy expenditure and inhibit food intake. MC4Rs activate the G protein Gs α, but whether Gs α mediates all MC4R actions has not been established. Individuals with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), who have heterozygous Gs α-inactivating mutations, only develop obesity when the Gs α mutation is present on the maternal allele because of tissue-specific genomic imprinting. Furthermore, evidence in mice implicates Gs α imprinting within the central nervous system (CNS) in this disorder...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aleksandar Todorovic, Cody J Lensing, Jerry Ryan Holder, Joseph W Scott, Nicholas B Sorensen, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
The melanocortin system regulates an array of diverse physiological functions including pigmentation, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, cardiovascular regulation, sexual function, and steroidogenesis. Endogenous melanocortin agonist ligands all possess the minimal messaging tetrapeptide sequence His-Phe-Arg-Trp. Based on this endogenous sequence, the Ac-His1 -dPhe2 -Arg3 -Trp4 -NH2 tetrapeptide has previously been shown to be a useful scaffold when utilizing traditional positional scanning approaches to modify activity at the various melanocortin receptors (MC1-5R)...
June 11, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Karine Clément, Heike Biebermann, I Sadaf Farooqi, Lex Van der Ploeg, Barbara Wolters, Christine Poitou, Lia Puder, Fred Fiedorek, Keith Gottesdiener, Gunnar Kleinau, Nicolas Heyder, Patrick Scheerer, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Irina Jahnke, Shubh Sharma, Jacek Mokrosinski, Susanna Wiegand, Anne Müller, Katja Weiß, Knut Mai, Joachim Spranger, Annette Grüters, Oliver Blankenstein, Heiko Krude, Peter Kühnen
Genetic defects underlying the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) signaling pathway lead to severe obesity. Three severely obese LEPR-deficient individuals were administered the MC4R agonist setmelanotide, resulting in substantial and durable reductions in hyperphagia and body weight over an observation period of 45-61 weeks. Compared to formerly developed and tested MC4R agonists, setmelanotide has the unique capability of activating nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling and restoring function of this signaling pathway for selected MC4R variants...
May 2018: Nature Medicine
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