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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319532/zinc-camk-ii-associated-mitophagy-signaling-contributed-to-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-cognitive-deficits-following-neonatal-seizures-and-its-regulation-by-chronic-leptin-treatment
#1
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315711/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviated-osteoarthritis-and-chondrocyte-apoptosis-through-autophagy-inducing
#2
Jun Zhou, Yu Wang, Yiming Liu, Hanjiang Zeng, Hanshi Xu, Fan Lian
OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the effect of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on a knee osteoarthritis rat model and analyze how ADMSCs affect chondrocyte apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A surgically induced rat knee osteoarthritis (OA) model was constructed. ADMSCs were engrafted into the right knee cavity. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson, and Safranin O were used to compare the histopathology of synovial membrane and cartilage. Immunohistochemical (IHC) was used to measure MMP-13, Collagen 2 (Col-2), Caspase-3 (Cas-3), PARP, p62, LC3b, DDR-2, FGFR-1, Wnt, P-AKT/AKT, p-CAMKII/CAMKII, and p-Smad1/Smad1 expression in the articular cartilage...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303867/propofol-regulates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-via-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-ampk-atf5-signaling-axis
#3
Chao Liang, Fang Du, Jiaxing Wang, Jing Cang, Zhanggang Xue
BACKGROUND: Propofol can cause degeneration of developing brain cells and subsequent long-term learning or memory impairment. However, at the early stage of embryonic development, the molecular mechanism of propofol-induced inhibition in neural stem cells (NSCs) neurogenesis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of propofol in NSCs neurogenesis and, more importantly, to explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: First, a single intraperitoneal injection of propofol was performed in pregnant mice, and 6 hours after administration of propofol, the hippocampus RNA and the protein of the embryos' brains was extracted to analyze the expression of neuron-specific markers...
October 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217265/metabolic-profiling-of-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-in-h9c2-cells-reveals-the-accumulation-of-phytosphingosine-and-the-vital-role-of-dan-shen-in-xin-ke-shu
#4
Lili Sun, Hongmei Jia, Liyan Ma, Meng Yu, Yong Yang, Yang Liu, Hongwu Zhang, Zhongmei Zou
BACKGROUND: Xin-Ke-Shu (XKS), a patent medicine consisting of five commonly used traditional Chinese herbs, is used for the treatment of coronary heart diseases. A previous study showed that XKS has protective effects for ameliorating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. PURPOSE: This study was aimed to deeply understand the mechanisms and compatible principle of XKS against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury and the contribution of each single herb to the efficacy of XKS...
October 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092488/leptin-regulated-autophagy-plays-a-role-in-long-term-neurobehavioral-injury-after-neonatal-seizures-and-the-regulation-of-zinc-cpla2-and-camk-ii-signaling-in-cerebral-cortex
#5
Li-Li Li, Ya-Chao Li, Dong-Jing Zhao, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
Metabolic disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. Recent evidence suggests that leptin levels in peripheral blood and brain are lower in patients with epilepsy. Leptin is an energy-regulating hormone that plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and brain trauma. However, little is known about the effects and molecular mechanisms of leptin treatment on long-term neurobehavioral impairment caused by developmental seizures. The present study evaluated whether chronic leptin treatment protected against neurobehavioral impairments induced by recurrent seizures in newborns treated with flurothyl...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071829/gene-expression-analysis-indicates-reduced-memory-and-cognitive-functions-in-the-hippocampus-and-increase-in-synaptic-reorganization-in-the-frontal-cortex-3-weeks-after-mdma-administration-in-dark-agouti-rats
#6
Peter Petschner, Viola Tamasi, Csaba Adori, Eszter Kirilly, Romeo D Ando, Laszlo Tothfalusi, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used entactogenic drug known to impair cognitive functions on the long-run. Both hippocampal and frontal cortical regions have well established roles in behavior, memory formation and other cognitive tasks and damage of these regions is associated with altered behavior and cognitive functions frequently described in otherwise healthy MDMA users. Meanwhile, in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients seem to benefit from therapeutic application of the drug, where damage in hippocampal cue extinction may play a role...
August 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997101/-mitochondrial-calcium-overload-in-the-masseter-muscle-of-rats-with-occlusal-interference-ionic-changes-and-regulation-by-calmodulin-kinase-ii
#7
Lin Zeng, Jing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in mitochondrial calcium and extracellular sodium concentrations in the masseter muscle of rats with occlusal interference and the regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload by calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II). METHODS: SD rat models of occlusal interference were established by placing a stainless steel segments (0.8 mm in diameter) to raise the occlusal surface of the upper right first molar. At 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after occlusal interference and at 3 days after removal of occlusal interference, HE staining was used to observe the histomorphological changes of the masseter muscle...
June 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860638/characterization-of-fibroblasts-from-hypertrophied-right-ventricle-of-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#8
Keisuke Imoto, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which is characterized by an elevation of pulmonary arterial resistance, leads to a lethal right heart failure. It is an urgent issue to clarify the pathogenesis of PAH-induced right heart failure. The present study aimed to elucidate the characteristics of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) isolated from hypertrophied right ventricles of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH model rats. CFs were isolated from the right ventricles of MCT-injected rats (MCT-CFs) and saline-injected control rats (CONT-CFs)...
September 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804319/microrna-219-decreases-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-inhibition-and-hippocampal-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-mice-by-suppressing-the-nmdar-signaling-pathway
#9
Ling Zhang, Zheng-Wen Chen, Shu-Fen Yang, Muyasi Shaer, Ying Wang, Jun-Jie Dong, Beili Jiapaer
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex polygenic disease that causes hyperglycemia and accounts for 90%-95% of all diabetes mellitus cases. Hence, this study aimed to examine the effects of microRNA-219 (miR-219) on inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) and apoptosis of hippocampal neuronal cells in T2DM mice through the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling pathway regulation. METHODS: The T2DM mouse models were established, after which LTP in vivo was recorded by means of electrical biology, and the fasting blood glucose of mice was measured...
May 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771437/works-on-heart-how-about-brain-effect-of-hyperkalemia-on-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#10
T Qin, N Li, X-F Tan, J-H Zheng, R Tao, M-H Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hyperkalemia on the brain after I/R in h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 adult male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) hyperkalemia 80 µg/g (HK80) group; (2) hyperkalemia 40 µg/g (HK40) group; (3) normal saline (NS) group; (4) sham (SH) group. The concentration of serum K+ was elevated in HK80 and HK40 groups. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model was used to assess the effect of hyperkalemia on the brain after I/R...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652442/antioxidant-hydrolyzed-peptides-from-manchurian-walnut-juglans-mandshurica-maxim-attenuate-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#11
Dayong Ren, Fanrui Zhao, Chunlei Liu, Ji Wang, Yong Guo, Jingsheng Liu, Weihong Min
BACKGROUND: Walnut protein, which is obtained as a by-product of oil expression, has not been used efficiently. Although walnuts are beneficial for cognitive functioning, the potential of their protein composition in strengthening learning and memory functions remains unknown. In this study, the inhibition of memory impairment by the Manchurian walnut hydrolyzed peptide (MWHP) was evaluated. RESULTS: Small-molecular-weight MWHP (<3 kDa) achieved the optimal antioxidative activity...
October 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395480/melanopsin-and-rhodopsin-mediate-uva-induced-immediate-pigment-darkening-unravelling-the-photosensitive-system-of-the-skin
#12
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathalia Moraes, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The mammalian skin has a photosensitive system comprised by several opsins, including rhodopsin (OPN2) and melanopsin (OPN4). Recently, our group showed that UVA (4.4 kJ/m2 ) leads to immediate pigment darkening (IPD) in murine normal and malignant melanocytes. We show the role of OPN2 and OPN4 as UVA sensors: UVA-induced IPD was fully abolished when OPN4 was pharmacologically inhibited by AA9253 or when OPN2 and OPN4 were knocked down by siRNA in both cell lines. Our data, however, demonstrate that phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway, a classical OPN4 pathway, is not involved in UVA-induced IPD in either cell line...
April 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393654/trpv4-stimulation-releases-atp-via-pannexin-channels-in-human-pulmonary-fibroblasts
#13
Mozibur Rahman, Rui Sun, Subhendu Mukherjee, Bernd Nilius, Luke J Janssen
We previously described several ionic conductances in human pulmonary fibroblasts, including one activated by two structurally distinct TRPV4 (transient receptor potential, vanilloid-type, subtype 4)-channel agonists: 4αPDD (4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate) and GSK1016790A. However, the TRPV4-activated current exhibited peculiar properties: it developed slowly over many minutes, exhibited reversal potentials that could vary by tens of millivolts even within a given cell, and was not easily reversed by subsequent addition of two distinct TRPV4-selective blockers (RN-1734 and HC-067047)...
July 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221166/high-salt-induced-hypertension-leads-to-cognitive-defect
#14
Cui-Ping Guo, Zhen Wei, Fang Huang, Min Qin, Xing Li, Yu-Man Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Hong-Lian Li, Xiao-Chuan Wang
Although increasing evidences suggest a relationship between hypertension and brain function for years, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a risk factor for cognitive decline and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, an experimental animal model of hypertension simply by feeding rats with high salt diet was employed. We found that long-term high salt intake caused a marked increase of systolic blood pressure linked to a declined regional cerebral blood flow. Fear conditioning and morris water maze behavioral test revealed that high salt diet induced hippocampal dependent spatial reference memory deficits, while a decreased synaptogenesis without neuronal loss in hippocampus was observed in high salt treated rats...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216949/-effects-of-n-butylphthalide-on-the-expressions-of-calpain-1-and-camk-ii-in-hippocampus-in-rats-with-acute-severe-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#15
Qin Li, Xiaoyu Ding, Weikang Bi, Jinglin Wang, Yong Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on cognitive function in acute severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning rats and its mechanism. METHODS: 120 health Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40): normal control group (NC group), CO poisoning group (CO group) and NBP treatment group (NBP group). The acute severe CO poisoning model was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by intoxicated with 1 000 ×10-6 CO for 40 minutes, followed with 3 000 ×10-6 CO for another 20 minutes, and then received hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200726/influence-of-flavonoids-on-mechanism-of-modulation-of-insulin-secretion
#16
Juliana Mikaelly Dias Soares, Ana Ediléia Barbosa Pereira Leal, Juliane Cabral Silva, Jackson R G S Almeida, Helinando Pequeno de Oliveira
Background: The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. Objective: To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. Methods: The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137154/two-sulfur-glycoside-compounds-isolated-from-lepidium-apetalum-willd-protect-nrk52e-cells-against-hypertonic-induced-adhesion-and-inflammation-by-suppressing-the-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-raas
#17
Peipei Yuan, Xiaoke Zheng, Meng Li, Yingying Ke, Yang Fu, Qi Zhang, Xiaolan Wang, Weisheng Feng
Lepidium apetalum Willd has been used to reduce edema and promote urination. Cis -desulfoglucotropaeolin ( cis -DG) and trans -desulfoglucotropaeolin ( trans -DG) were isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd, and caused a significant increase in cell viability in a hypertonic model in NRK52e cells. In the hypertonic model, cis -DG and trans -DG significantly promoted the cell viability of NRK52e cells and inhibited the elevation of Na⁺ in the supernatant, inhibited the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system, significantly reduced the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (ALD), and lowered aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na⁺-K⁺ ATP content in renal medulla...
November 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128805/ursolic-acid-affords-antidepressant-like-effects-in-mice-through-the-activation-of-pka-pkc-camk-ii-and-mek1-2
#18
Ana B Ramos-Hryb, Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Rui D S Prediger, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid has been shown to display antidepressant-like effects in mice through the modulation of monoaminergic systems. In this study, we sought to investigate the involvement of signaling pathways on the antidepressant-like effects of ursolic acid. METHODS: Mice were treated orally with ursolic acid (0.1mg/kg) and, 45min later they received the followings inhibitors by intracerebroventricular route: H-89 (PKA inhibitor, 1μg/mouse), KN-62 (CAMK-II inhibitor, 1μg/mouse), chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor, 1μg/mouse), U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor, 5μg/mouse), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor, 5μg/mouse), wortmannin (PI3K irreversible inhibitor, 0...
December 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079520/zac1-gpr39-phosphorylating-camk-ii-contributes-to-the-distinct-roles-of-pax3-and-pax7-in-myogenic-progression
#19
Qiumei Yang, Ye Li, Xulong Zhang, Daiwen Chen
Both Pax3 and Pax7 can activate a large panel of genes involved in muscle stem cell function. Despite a significant overlap in their transcriptional network, functional difference between them is observed. After overexpressing Pax3 or Pax7 in C2C12, we find both Zac1 and GPR39 are upregulated by Pax7 but not Pax3. Further studies suggest Zac1 interacts directly with Pax7, which can regulate GPR39 expression by activating Zac1. In addition, the effect of Zac1/GPR39 system on myogenic progression has been illuminated: Zac1/GPR39 can promote myogenic differentiation and produce type-II muscle fibers...
February 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990082/fluid-shear-stress-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-and-arrests-the-cell-cycle-at-the-g0-phase-via-the-erk1-2-pathway
#20
Liyin Yu, Xingfeng Ma, Junqin Sun, Jie Tong, Liang Shi, Lijun Sun, Jianbao Zhang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that fluid shear stress (FSS) may promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells. However, proliferation and differentiation are mutually exclusive processes and are unlikely to be promoted by FSS simultaneously. Cell proliferation and differentiation induced by FSS has rarely been reported. In order to provide an insight into this process, the present study investigated the effects of FSS on osteoblast‑like MC3T3 cells in the G0/G1 phase, the period during which the fate of a cell is determined...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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