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Coline Byczek, Pierre-Yves Longaretti, Julien Renaud, Sandra Lavorel
Modelling cultural ecosystem services is an enduring challenge, raising issues about the integration and spatialization of immaterial values and benefits, and their contingency on local preferences. Building on the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum framework, we present a novel methodology for assessing the recreation service using GPS tracks downloaded from crowd-sourced websites: the Grelou model (Georeferencing REcreation in Local OUtdoors), here applied to the Grenoble living area (French Alps). GPS tracks revealed the complete spatial extent of visitor presence and enabled modelling visitation networks for ten recreation activities with great spatial accuracy, thus providing a spatial estimate of recreational multifunctionality-expressed as the sum of networks...
2018: PloS One
Fergus Cameron, Bryanna Moore, Lynn Gillam
Families of children with diabetes increasingly obtain health information from a variety of sources. Doctor patient relationships have accordingly become more fluid and dynamic with input from other parties. These outside parties include representatives from the diabetes health care industry- industry third parties (ITP's). This review is an exploration of the ethical principles and cognitive processes involved when doctors and patients negotiate around health care practices and the role of ITP's in that dialogue...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Z Su, A Zarassi, J-F Hsu, P San-Jose, E Prada, R Aguado, E J H Lee, S Gazibegovic, R L M Op Het Veld, D Car, S R Plissard, M Hocevar, M Pendharkar, J S Lee, J A Logan, C J Palmstrøm, E P A M Bakkers, S M Frolov
We study transport mediated by Andreev bound states formed in InSb nanowire quantum dots. Two kinds of superconducting source and drain contacts are used: epitaxial Al/InSb devices exhibit a doubling of tunneling resonances, while, in NbTiN/InSb devices, Andreev spectra of the dot appear to be replicated multiple times at increasing source-drain bias voltages. In both devices, a mirage of a crowded spectrum is created. To describe the observations a model is developed that combines the effects of a soft induced gap and of additional Andreev bound states both in the quantum dot and in the finite regions of the nanowire adjacent to the quantum dot...
September 21, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Stephen M Lu, David T Hsu, Adam D Perry, Lyle S Leipziger, Armen K Kasabian, Scott P Bartlett, Charles H Thorne, P Niclas Broer, Neil Tanna
BACKGROUND: The authors assess the impact of rhinoplasty on public perception of a patient's appearance and personality. METHODS: A survey was created using standardized before-and-after photographs of 10 Caucasian women who had undergone primary rhinoplasty. Photographs of two additional women who had not undergone facial surgery were randomly included as controls, for a total of 12 survey items. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were placed side by side...
October 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Rul von Stülpnagel, Jakub Krukar
Subjective risk perception during urban cycling has been mostly investigated through questionnaire studies. However, newly available data sources promise extended possibilities for the investigation and understanding of the underlying factors. We validate the rationale for using both opportunistically available crowd-sourced data (i.e., volunteered geographic information or VGI) as well as more established but rarely investigated authoritative data as predictors of subjective cycling risk. We achieve this by correlating indicators of cycling risk extracted from both VGI and authoritative data for two different German cities with participants' risk estimates assessed in laboratory-based virtual reality experiments...
September 19, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Utsab Khadka, Viktor Holubec, Haw Yang, Frank Cichos
Self-organization is the generation of order out of local interactions. It is deeply connected to many fields of science from physics, chemistry to biology, all based on physical interactions. The emergence of collective animal behavior is the result of self-organization processes as well, though they involve abstract interactions arising from sensory inputs, information processing, storage, and feedback. Resulting collective behaviors are found, for example, in crowds of people, flocks of birds, and swarms of bacteria...
September 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Elise A Piazza, Frédéric E Theunissen, David Wessel, David Whitney
Timbre, the unique quality of a sound that points to its source, allows us to quickly identify a loved one's voice in a crowd and distinguish a buzzy, bright trumpet from a warm cello. Despite its importance for perceiving the richness of auditory objects, timbre is a relatively poorly understood feature of sounds. Here we demonstrate for the first time that listeners adapt to the timbre of a wide variety of natural sounds. For each of several sound classes, participants were repeatedly exposed to two sounds (e...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yvette Graham, George Awad, Alan Smeaton
We present Direct Assessment, a method for manually assessing the quality of automatically-generated captions for video. Evaluating the accuracy of video captions is particularly difficult because for any given video clip there is no definitive ground truth or correct answer against which to measure. Metrics for comparing automatic video captions against a manual caption such as BLEU and METEOR, drawn from techniques used in evaluating machine translation, were used in the TRECVid video captioning task in 2016 but these are shown to have weaknesses...
2018: PloS One
B P Doré, C Scholz, E C Baek, J O Garcia, M B O'Donnell, D S Bassett, J M Vettel, E B Falk
Information that is shared widely can profoundly shape society. Evidence from neuroimaging suggests that activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a core region of the brain's valuation system tracks with this sharing. However, the mechanisms linking vmPFC responses in individuals to population behavior are still unclear. We used a multilevel brain-as-predictor approach to address this gap, finding that individual differences in how closely vmPFC activity corresponded with population news article sharing related to how closely its activity tracked with social consensus about article value...
August 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Stephanie Minter, Alicia Armour, Amanda Tinnemore, Karen Strub, Anna Lisa Crowley, Gerald S Bloomfield, John H Alexander, Pamela S Douglas, Joseph A Kisslo, Eric J Velazquez, Zainab Samad
Quality in stress echocardiography interpretation is often gauged against coronary angiography (CA) data but anatomic obstructive coronary disease on CA is an imperfect gold standard for a stress induced wall motion abnormality. We examined the utility of crowd-sourcing a "majority-vote" consensus as an alternative 'gold standard' against which to evaluate the accuracy of an individual echocardiographer's interpretation of stress echocardiography studies. Participants independently interpreted baseline and post-exercise stress echocardiographic images of cases that had undergone follow up CA within 3 months of the stress echo in two surveys, 2 years apart...
November 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Jennifer Baumbusch, Samara Mayer, Isabel Sloan-Yip
A disorder is considered a rare disease if it affects 1 in 2000, hence, while independently unique, collectively, these conditions are quite common. Many rare diseases are diagnosed during childhood, and therefore parents become primary caregivers in addition to their parental role. Despite the prevalence of rare diseases among children, there has been little research focused on parents' experiences of navigating the healthcare system, a gap we begin to address in this study. Guided by an interpretive description methodology, participants were recruited through online listservs and posting flyers at a pediatric hospital in Western Canada...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Kesh Baboolal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Transplantation
Kristin Baltrusaitis, John S Brownstein, Samuel V Scarpino, Eric Bakota, Adam W Crawley, Giuseppe Conidi, Julia Gunn, Josh Gray, Anna Zink, Mauricio Santillana
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes an estimated 3000 to 50,000 deaths per year in the United States of America (US). Timely and representative data can help local, state, and national public health officials monitor and respond to outbreaks of seasonal influenza. Data from cloud-based electronic health records (EHR) and crowd-sourced influenza surveillance systems have the potential to provide complementary, near real-time estimates of influenza activity. The objectives of this paper are to compare two novel influenza-tracking systems with three traditional healthcare-based influenza surveillance systems at four spatial resolutions: national, regional, state, and city, and to determine the minimum number of participants in these systems required to produce influenza activity estimates that resemble the historical trends recorded by traditional surveillance systems...
August 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sina Taghvaee, Mohammad H Sowlat, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi, Constantinos Sioutas
In this study, source-specific cancer risk characterization of ambient PM2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed in central Tehran. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied for source apportionment of PAHs in the area from May 2012 through May 2013. The PMF runs were carried out using chemically analyzed PAHs mass concentrations. Five factors were identified as the major sources of airborne PAHs in central Tehran, including petrogenic sources and petroleum residue, natural gas and biomass burning, industrial emissions, diesel exhaust emissions, and gasoline exhaust emissions, with approximately similar contributions of around 20% to total PAHs concentration from each factor...
November 2018: Environment International
Levin Kuhlmann, Philippa Karoly, Dean R Freestone, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Andriy Temko, Alexandre Barachant, Feng Li, Gilberto Titericz, Brian W Lang, Daniel Lavery, Kelly Roman, Derek Broadhead, Scott Dobson, Gareth Jones, Qingnan Tang, Irina Ivanenko, Oleg Panichev, Timothée Proix, Michal Náhlík, Daniel B Grunberg, Chip Reuben, Gregory Worrell, Brian Litt, David T J Liley, David B Grayden, Mark J Cook
Accurate seizure prediction will transform epilepsy management by offering warnings to patients or triggering interventions. However, state-of-the-art algorithm design relies on accessing adequate long-term data. Crowd-sourcing ecosystems leverage quality data to enable cost-effective, rapid development of predictive algorithms. A crowd-sourcing ecosystem for seizure prediction is presented involving an international competition, a follow-up held-out data evaluation, and an online platform, Epilepsyecosystem...
September 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Laura Teichmann, Henriette Kümmel, Bianca Warmbold, Erhard Bremer
The accumulation of compatible solutes is a common defense of bacteria against the detrimental effects of high osmolarity. Uptake systems for these compounds are cornerstones in cellular osmostress responses because they allow the energy preserving scavenging of osmostress protectants from environmental sources. Bacillus subtilis is well studied with respect to the import of compatible solutes and its five transport systems (OpuA, OpuB, OpuC, OpuD, OpuE) for these stress protectants have previously been comprehensively studied...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Martin Seehuus, Wilfred Pigeon
OBJECTIVE: Distress and dysfunction in sleep and sex are both very common, and have been found to be separately related to anxiety, depression, and stress. Even so, and despite evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and erectile disfunction, the connections between sleep and sex are largely understudied. METHOD: A large (N = 703) survey of people in the United States between 18 and 65 years old was conducted using Mechanical Turk, an on-line crowd-sourcing platform...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
John R Cooley, Nidia Arguedas, Elias Bonaros, Gerry Bunker, Stephen M Chiswell, Annette DeGiovine, Marten Edwards, Diane Hassanieh, Diler Haji, John Knox, Gene Kritsky, Carolyn Mills, Dan Mozgai, Roy Troutman, John Zyla, Hiroki Hasegawa, Teiji Sota, Jin Yoshimura, Chris Simon
The periodical cicadas of North America ( Magicicada spp.) are well-known for their long life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their mass synchronized emergences. Although periodical cicada life cycles are relatively strict, the biogeographic patterns of periodical cicada broods, or year-classes, indicate that they must undergo some degree of life cycle switching. We present a new map of periodical cicada Brood V, which emerged in 2016, and demonstrate that it consists of at least four distinct parts that span an area in the United States stretching from Ohio to Long Island...
2018: PeerJ
Maryam Nasirian, Samira Hosseini Hooshyar, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Karamouzian
BACKGROUND: Reliable population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) are limited in Iran and self-reporting remains the main source of indirect estimation of STI-associated symptoms in the country. However, where and how the questions are asked could influence the rate of self-reporting. In the present study, we aimed to assess what questionnaire delivery method (ie, face-to-face interview [FTFI], self-administered questionnaire [SAQ], or audio self-administered questionnaire [Audio-SAQ]) and setting (ie, street, household or hair salon) leads to more reliable estimates for the prevalence of self-reported STI-associated symptoms...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Michael D Lee
Human behavioral data often show patterns of sudden change over time. Sometimes the causes of these step changes are internal, such as learning curves changing abruptly when a learner implements a new rule. Sometimes the cause is external, such as people's opinions about a topic changing in response to a new relevant event. Detecting change points in sequences of binary data is a basic statistical problem with many existing solutions, but these solutions rarely seem to be used in psychological modeling. We develop a simple and flexible Bayesian approach to modeling step changes in cognition, implemented as a graphical model in JAGS...
July 31, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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