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Heart *Ischemia Heart Disease

Valeria Raparelli, Marco Proietti, Andrea Lenzi, Stefania Basili
Improvements in ischemic heart disease (IHD) management have been unbalanced between sexes, with coronary microvascular dysfunction considered the likely underlying reason. The Endocrine Vascular disease Approach (EVA) is an observational study ( NCT02737982) aiming to assess sex and gender interactions between coronary circulation, sexual hormones, and platelet function. Consecutive patients with IHD undergoing coronary angiography will be recruited: (1) to assess sex and gender differences in angiographic reperfusion indexes; (2) to evaluate the effects of estrogen/androgen on sex-related differences in myocardial ischemia; (3) to investigate the platelet biology differences between men and women with IHD; (4) to verify sex- and gender-driven interplay between response to percutaneous coronary intervention, platelets, sex hormones, and myocardial damage at baseline and its impact on 12-month outcomes...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Hiroki Teragawa, Chikage Oshita, Tomohiro Ueda
Coronary spasm is caused by a transient coronary narrowing due to the constriction of epicardial coronary artery, which leads to myocardial ischemia. More than 50 years have passed since the first recognition of coronary spasm, and many findings on coronary spasm have been reported. Coronary spasm has been considered as having pivotal roles in the cause of not only rest angina but also exertional angina, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure. In addition, several new findings of the mechanism of coronary spasm have emerged recently...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Cardiology
Xin Yu, Liang Ge, Liang Niu, Xin Lian, Haichun Ma, Lei Pang
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from the amino acid L-arginine in the body. Among the three key NOSs, the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) can only be induced by inflammatory stimuli and contribute to the large amount of NO production. iNOS-derived NO plays an important role in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including the ischemic heart disease. Nowadays, the development of specific iNOS inhibitors and the availability of iNOS knockout mice have provided substantial evidence to support the role of iNOS/NO signaling in the myocardium...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
J Douglas Bremner, Carolina Campanella, Zehra Khan, Negar Fani, Nicole Kasher, Sarah Evans, Collin Reiff, Sanskriti Mishra, Stacy Ladd, Jonathon A Nye, Paolo Raggi, Viola Vaccarino
INTRODUCTION: Major depression is associated with an increased risk for and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD), however the mechanisms by which this occurs are not clear. Depression, which is linked to stress, is associated with changes in brain areas involved in memory and the stress response, and it is likely that these regions play an important role in this increased risk. This study assessed the effects of stress on brain and cardiac function in patients with CAD with and without depression...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
C Noel Bairey Merz, Marian B Olson, Sheryl F Kelsey, Vera Bittner, Steven E Reis, Nathaniel Reichek, Eileen Handberg
BACKGROUND: We previously reported in a cross-sectional analysis an adverse relationship between weight cycling and HDL-cholesterol but not angiographic obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) among women undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia in the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). We now examine the relationship between weight cycling and prospective adverse cardiovascular outcome in this group. METHODS: 795 women enrolled between 1996-2001 in the WISE undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation of suspected ischemia and followed for a median of 6...
2018: PloS One
Sergio Perez, Torin P Thielhelm, Mauricio G Cohen
Concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) and aortic stenosis occur in approximately 60-75% of patients referred for surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Current guidelines support simultaneous surgical aortic valve replacement and bypass surgery with a class IIa recommendation, based on observational, non-randomized data. With the inception of TAVR, this strategy has been challenged, as observational studies have not shown significant outcome differences in patients with and without CAD treated with TAVR...
November 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
L I Pyshkina, A R Abieva, A N Yasamanova, N A Darvish, P R Kamchatnov, A A Kabanov, A A Tyazhelnikov, E V Silina, S N Shurygin, Z H Osmaeva
AIM: To study the state of cerebral hemodynamics and platelet hemostasis in patients with carotid stenosis (CS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prospective study included 123 patients with atherosclerotic CS. The 1st group included 53 patients (mean age 52±12.5 yrs) who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA); the 2nd group - 70 patients who were treated conservatively (mean age 58.5±15.9 yrs). The state of blood flow through the main arteries of the head (Doppler flowmetry), platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline, the frequency of acute cardiovascular events that occurred during 12 months were evaluated...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Xueyi Chen, Pavel Zhabyeyev, Abul K Azad, Wang Wang, Rachel A Minerath, Jessica DesAulniers, Chad E Grueter, Allan G Murray, Zamaneh Kassiri, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Gavin Y Oudit
Aims: Cardiac remodeling in the ischemic heart determines prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), while enhancement of angiogenesis and cell survival has shown great potential for IHD despite translational challenges. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting angiogenesis and cell survival. However, the effect of PI3Kβ in the ischemic heart is poorly understood. This study investigates the role of endothelial and cardiomyocyte PI3Kβ in post-infarct cardiac remodeling...
November 28, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Wen-Hui Xu, Cang-Hai Li, Ting-Liang Jiang
Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death which is different from apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, and results from iron-dependent lipidperoxide accumulation. Now, it is found that ferroptosis is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, antiviral immune response, acute renal failure, hepatic and heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. On the one hand, it could be found the appropriate drugs to promote ferroptosis to clear cancer cells and virus infected cells, etc...
October 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jinwen Su, Ming Fang, Bei Tian, Jun Luo, Can Jin, Xuejun Wang, Zhongping Ning, Xinming Li
Heart failure (HF) induced by ischemia myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Atorvastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, has been demonstrated to benefit patients with ischemic or non-ischemic-induced HF, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that lncRNAs play important role in variety of human disease. However, the role and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. In our work, we applied 0...
November 27, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Mohamed Abouegylah, Lior Z Braunstein, Mohamed A Alm El-Din, Andrzej Niemierko, Laura Salama, Mostafa Elebrashi, Samantha K Edgington, Kyla Remillard, Brian Napolitano, George E Naoum, Hoda E Sayegh, Tessa Gillespie, Mohamed Farouk, Abdelsalam A Ismail, Alphonse G Taghian
PURPOSE: Patients with Her2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab have higher rates of cardiotoxicity (CT). Left-breast radiation might increase the risk for CT from cardiac exposure to radiation. The goal of our study is to evaluate the contribution of radiotherapy (RT) in the development of CT in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients were treated with RT and trastuzumab from 2000 to 2014. The RT plans for left-side disease were recalled from archives...
November 26, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Xiangjiu Ding, Yang Liu, Qingbo Su, Sanyuan Hu, Jianjun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Acute aortic occlusion is a rare but life-threatening medical condition that can result from aortic saddle embolism, thrombosis of an atherosclerotic aorta, or aortic dissection. Herein are described the diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics for a series of patients with aortic saddle embolism. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed for patients receiving treatment for aortic saddle embolism at a university hospital in China between January 2001 and September 2017...
November 23, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Akanksha Agrawal, Nuzhat Sayyida, Jorge Luis Penalver, Mary R Ziccardi
Introduction: Electrocardiographic changes imitating myocardial ischemia have been occasionally reported in patients with intra-abdominal pathology including acute pancreatitis. Case Report: A 60-year-old man with no past medical history presented to the emergency department (ED) after a syncopal episode. In ED, his vitals were stable. His ECG showed sinus bradycardia at 53 beats per minute, peaked T waves, 1 mm ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF, and 2 mm ST elevation in V3 as shown in the figures...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
J Howard Jaster, Josef Zamecnik, Aldo Bruno Giannì, Giulia Ottaviani
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, a multinational randomized controlled phase IV clinical trial of adaptive servoventilation for the management of heart failure with central sleep apnea was halted in progress because more patients in the study group were dying than in the control group. One year later, another large clinical trial reported results on the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preventing sudden death and other cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke in patients with preexisting vascular disease as well as obstructive sleep apnea...
October 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Erika Engelowski, Nastaran Fazel Modares, Simone Gorressen, Pascal Bouvain, Dominik Semmler, Christina Alter, Zhaoping Ding, Ulrich Flögel, Jürgen Schrader, Haifeng Xu, Philipp A Lang, Jens Fischer, Doreen M Floss, Jürgen Scheller
Ischemic heart diseases are the most frequent diseases in the western world. Apart from Interleukin (IL-)1, inflammatory therapeutic targets in the clinic are still missing. Interestingly, opposing roles of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-23 have been described in cardiac ischemia in mice. IL-23 is a composite cytokine consisting of p19 and p40 which binds to IL-23R and IL-12Rβ1 to initiate signal transduction characterized by activation of the Jak/STAT, PI3K and Ras/Raf/MAPK pathways. Here, we generate IL-23R-Y416FΔICD signaling deficient mice and challenged these mice in close- and open-chest left anterior descending coronary arteria ischemia/reperfusion experiments...
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jie Wu, Zhenhua Zeng, Weijin Zhang, Zhiya Deng, Yahui Wan, Yaoyuan Zhang, Sheng An, Qiaobing Huang, Zhongqing Chen
As a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+ -dependent protein deacetylase, SIRT3 is highly expressed in tissues with high metabolic turnover and mitochondrial content. It has been demonstrated that SIRT3 plays a critical role in maintaining normal mitochondrial biological function through reversible protein lysine deacetylation. SIRT3 has a variety of substrates that are involved in mitochondrial biological processes such as energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and clearance, electron transport chain (ETC) flux, mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance and mitochondrial dynamics...
November 20, 2018: Free Radical Research
Melina J Saavedra, Javier Mozzi, Natalia Nápoli, Alejandra Villa, Jorge Barretta, Pablo Marantz
The anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare entity that has an incidence of 0.002 % and can potentially cause sudden death. Unlike to the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), usually presented with myocardial ischemia and heart failure; the diagnosis of ARCAPA is often incidental during evaluation of a heart murmur. We report a case of a 6 months old female patient referred to us with a cardiac murmur and a suspicion of coronary fistula...
December 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Jens T Rosenberg, Xuegang Yuan, Shannon N Helsper, F Andrew Bagdasarian, Teng Ma, Samuel C Grant
Ischemia, which involves decreased blood flow to a region and a corresponding deprivation of oxygen and nutrients, can be induced as a consequence of stroke or heart attack. A prevalent disease that affects many individuals worldwide, ischemic stroke results in functional and cognitive impairments, as neural cells in the brain receive inadequate nourishment and encounter inflammation and various other detrimental toxic factors that lead to their death. Given the scarce treatments for this disease in the clinic such as the administration of tissue plasminogen activator, which is only effective in a limited time window after the occurrence of stroke, it will be necessary to develop new strategies to ameliorate or prevent stroke-induced brain damage...
July 2018: Brain Circulation
Lijun Wang, Yicheng Lv, Guoping Li, Junjie Xiao
Exercise training is beneficial to the cardiovascular system. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a class of conserved non-coding RNAs and play a wide-ranging role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Exercise training alters the expression levels of large amounts of miRNAs in the heart. In addition, circulating miRNAs appear to be regulated by exercise training. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in the regulation of miRNAs during physical exercise intervention in various cardiovascular diseases, including pathologic cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
October 2018: Journal of Sport and Health Science
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Ischemia⁻reperfusion injury contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, with acute kidney injury included. Hibernating mammals survive prolonged bouts of deep torpor with a dramatic drop in blood pressure, heart, and breathing rates, interspersed with short periods of arousal and, consequently, ischemia⁻reperfusion injury. Clarifying the differences under warm anoxia or reoxygenation between human cells and cells from a native hibernator may reveal interventions for rendering human cells resistant to ischemia⁻reperfusion injury...
November 15, 2018: Biology
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