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Heart *Ischemia Heart Disease

M-Ashraf Altesha, Tiffany Ni, Afaan Khan, Kexiang Liu, Xiufen Zheng
Circular RNA (circRNA) are endogenous transcripts that display differential expression across species, developmental stages, and pathologies. Their lack of free ends confers increased stability when compared with linear transcripts, making them ideal candidates for future diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence has implicated circRNA in the pathogenesis of multiple cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, we summarize current understanding of circRNA biogenesis, properties, expression profiles, detection methods, functions, and their implication in cardiac pathologies including/ischemia reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac senescence, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and aneurysm...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Willythssa S Pierre-Louis, Jonathan Bath, Sesank Mikkilineni, Michael C Scott, Michael Harlander-Locke, Zachary Rasor, Matthew Smeds
OBJECTIVE: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has become a prognostic marker for pro-inflammatory states. It is associated with outcomes in many clinical processes including critical limb ischemia. We sought to identify predictors of amputation failure and mortality, in addition to the role of NLR in patients undergoing above knee amputations (AKA) or below knee amputations (BKA). METHODS: All patients undergoing BKA or AKA between 2004 and 2014 at three institutions were identified and analyzed (n=513)...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Parisa Samangouei, Gustavo E Crespo-Avilan, Hector Cabrera-Fuentes, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Nur Izzah Ismail, Khairunnisa Binte Katwadi, William A Boisvert, Derek J Hausenloy
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure (HF) that often follows are among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As such novel therapies are needed to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size, and preserve left ventricular (LV) systolic function in order to reduce the propensity for HF following AMI. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can undergo morphological changes by two opposing processes, mitochondrial fusion and fission. Changes in mitochondrial morphology and turnover are a vital part of maintaining mitochondrial health, DNA stability, energy production, calcium homeostasis, cellular division, and differentiation, and disturbances in the balance of fusion and fission can predispose to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death...
August 2018: Conditioning medicine
Oliver M Barry, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Jonathan Rhodes, Jeffrey R Reichman, Laura Bourette, Tracy Curran, Julieann O'Neill, Jennifer L Pymm, Mark E Alexander
OBJECTIVES: This study quantified the incidence of arrhythmias during pediatric exercise stress tests (ESTs) and evaluated criteria to identify patients at risk of clinically important arrhythmias. BACKGROUND: The incidence of clinically important arrhythmias during pediatric ESTs and criteria for identifying high-risk patients are poorly characterized. METHODS: A retrospective review of ESTs performed from 2013 to 2015 was studied. Arrhythmias were categorized into 4 classes based on need for test termination and intervention...
October 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Daniela Cesselli, Pietro Parisse, Aneta Aleksova, Claudia Veneziano, Celeste Cervellin, Andrea Zanello, Antonio Paolo Beltrami
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are at the center of an intense activity of investigation, both for their possible employment as biomarkers of ongoing pathologic processes and for their broad range of biological activities. EV can promote tissue repair in very different pathologic settings, including hindlimb and myocardial ischemia. Importantly, the exact mode of action of EV is still partly understood, since they may act by modulating growth factors and cytokines, signaling pathways, and by transferring non-coding RNAs to target cells...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lin Ren, Qian Wang, Yu Chen, Yanzhuo Ma, Dongmei Wang
AIM: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a severe trauma that cells undergo and is associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to play an important role in cardiovascular biology and disease. However, whether the miR-133a and ER stress play a role in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protection of cardiomyocytes against I/R-induced apoptosis remains unclear. METHODS: The neonatal cardiomyocytes were prepared to be treated with H2S or transfected with miR-133a activator or miR-133a inhibitor, either separately or in combination...
October 16, 2018: Pharmacology
Lingling Yu, Weifang Zhang, Chahua Huang, Qian Liang, Huihui Bao, Zhijian Gong, Minxuan Xu, Zhenzhen Wang, Minhua Wen, Xiaoshu Cheng
Myocardial cell apoptosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. FoxO4, which was initially identified as a tumor suppressor that limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis, plays diverse roles in cardiovascular diseases. However, its contribution to myocardial I/R injury remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the role of FoxO4 in apoptosis during myocardial I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms in vivo . Rats were subjected to ligation/restoration of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery and 30 min of ischemia, followed by 4 h of reperfusion...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Can Zhao, Jing Jiang, Yong-Liang Wang, Yong-Quan Wu
Ischemic heart disease is widely considered as a major health threat, which causes a high number of deaths every year worldwide. Much evidence has shown that oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). This study aims to evaluate the effect of miR-590-3p on the OS of IRI mice through the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by targeting receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1). IRI mouse models were established for extracting myocardial tissues and isolating myocardial cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
M Reinthaler, F Jung, K Empen
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been demonstrated to induce potent cardioprotection in individuals experiencing coronary ischemia. A protocol combining limb ischemia and electronic muscle stimulation of the ischemic skeletal muscle (RIPC+), performed in advance of coronary artery occlusion, was superior in terms of infarct size reduction when compared to RIPC alone. METHODS: This study was performed to evaluate the benefit of RIPC + in humans compared to a standard RIPC protocol and a control group...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Cheng Zheng, Jia-Feng Lin, Zhong-Hao Lin, Wei-Qian Lin, Saroj Thapa, Yuan-Zheng Lin, Hao Lian, Zhi-Rui Liu, Jia-Hui Chen, Xiao-Wei Li
With the chronic ischemia persisting after acute myocardial infarction, the accompanying low-degree inflammation and subsequent fibrosis result in progression of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recently, Sodium Houttuyfonate (SH), a pure compound extracted from Houttuynia cordata , has been confirmed exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects under diseased situations. Here, we aimed to investigate whether SH could reverse the cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction by alleviating cardiac inflammation and fibrosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Xiangwen Zhao, Liang Meng, Jimin Jiang, Xinglong Wu
We performed this study to better elucidate the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms and coronary heart disease (CHD). Eligible articles were searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and CNKI. A total of 24 studies containing 6489 CHD patients and 5664 control subjects were analyzed. Our overall and subgroup analyses suggested that rs699947 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in both Caucasians and Asians, rs1570360 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in Caucasians, and rs3025039 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in Asians...
October 15, 2018: Growth Factors
Yi-Fen Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
The prevalence of chronic pain increases with age. The pain occurrence in the elderly ranges from 25% to 80% in different countries. Ischemic heart disease is also prevailing in the aged people. Restored blood flow quickly rescues myocardium but also causes ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Brief episodes of ischemia at a distant organ could reduce the myocardial reperfusion injury. This is called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) cardioprotection. Several circulating factors and neurogenic signals contribute to the cardioprotection by RIPC...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Angela Raucci, Stefania Di Maggio, Francesco Scavello, Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Marco E Bianchi, Maurizio C Capogrossi
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein involved in transcription regulation, DNA replication and repair and nucleosome assembly. HMGB1 is passively released by necrotic tissues or actively secreted by stressed cells. Extracellular HMGB1 acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule and gives rise to several redox forms that by binding to different receptors and interactors promote a variety of cellular responses, including tissue inflammation or regeneration. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 in experimental models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocarditis, cardiomyopathies induced by mechanical stress, diabetes, bacterial infection or chemotherapeutic drugs reduces inflammation and is protective...
October 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Thomas R Porter
In a study, published in this issue of Echo Research and Practice, Ntoskas et al. retrospectively analyzed the safety of a cardiac physiologist performing, and interpreting, Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in of 300 patients undergoing DSE for the detection of inducible reversible ischemia, myocardial viability and valvular heart disease. While safety during the tests themselves did not appear to be compromised with this unsupervised approach, the interpretation of these DSEs causes concerns regarding broad patient safety relative to misread results...
September 1, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Lei Zhang, Yanan Wang, Yi Li, Lingli Li, Suowen Xu, Xiaojun Feng, Sheng Liu
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide, but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is considered to be the third most important endogenous gasotransmitter in the organism after carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. It can be synthesized in mammalian tissues and can freely cross the cell membrane and exert many biological effects in various systems including cardiovascular system. More and more recent studies have supported the protective effects of endogenous H2 S and exogenous H2 S-releasing compounds (such as NaHS, Na2 S, and GYY4137) in cardiovascular diseases, such as cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and atherosclerosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Seung-Jun Lee, Choong-Kun Lee, Seok Kang, Intae Park, Yoo Hyung Kim, Seo Ki Kim, Seon Pyo Hong, Hosung Bae, Yulong He, Yoshiaki Kubota, Gou Young Koh
Emerging evidence indicates that angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2), a well-recognized vascular destabilizing factor, is a biomarker of poor outcome in ischemic heart disease. However, its precise role in postischemic cardiovascular remodeling is poorly understood. Here, we show that Angpt2 plays multifaceted roles in the exacerbation of cardiac hypoxia and inflammation after myocardial ischemia. Angpt2 was highly expressed in endothelial cells at the infarct border zone after myocardial infarction (MI) or ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Roberto Sansone, Lucas Busch, Ralf Langhoff
The updated ESC guidelines on PAD were developed, for the first time, as a collaboration between cardiologists and vascular surgeons and unveiled at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2017 congress. Although awareness has improved, PAD is still associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and quality of life impairment. Primarily, the guidelines emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary management of these patients and propose "a vascular team". A new chapter on antithrombotic therapies is provided...
October 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Maryam Mahmoudabady, Faezeh Sadat Talebian, Narges Amel Zabihi, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Saeed Niazmand
Objectives: Myocardial reperfusion is the only logical cure for ischemic heart disease. However, ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the underlying factors facilitating and accelerating the apoptosis in the myocardium. This study set to investigate the impact of Teucrium polium (TP) hydro-alcoholic extract on I/R induced apoptosis in the isolated rat heart. Methods: Isolated rat hearts were classified into six groups. The control samples were subjected to 80 min of perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer; in control-ischemia group, after primary perfusion (20 min) the hearts were exposed to global ischemia (20 min) and reperfusion (40 min)...
September 2018: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Cheryl M J Tan, Peregrine Green, Nidi Tapoulal, Adam J Lewandowski, Paul Leeson, Neil Herring
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an abundant sympathetic co-transmitter, widely found in the central and peripheral nervous systems and with diverse roles in multiple physiological processes. In the cardiovascular system it is found in neurons supplying the vasculature, cardiomyocytes and endocardium, and is involved in physiological processes including vasoconstriction, cardiac remodeling, and angiogenesis. It is increasingly also implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia/infarction, arrhythmia, and heart failure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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