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Cytochrome P-450

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873936/endothelium-dependent-responses-in-the-microcirculation-observed-in-vivo
#1
REVIEW
William Rosenblum
Endothelium dependent responses were first demonstrated 40 years ago in the aorta. Since then extensive research has been conducted in vitro using conductance vessels and materials derived from them. However the microcirculation controls blood flow to vital organs and has been the focus of in vivo studies of endothelium dependent dilation beginning immediately after the first in vitro report. Initial in vivo studies employed a light/dye technique for selectively damaging the endothelium to unequivocally prove, in vivo, the existence of endothelium dependent dilation and in the microvasculature...
June 6, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867542/detrimental-effects-of-testosterone-addition-to-estrogen-therapy-involve-cytochrome-p-450-induced-20-hete-synthesis-in-aorta-of-ovariectomized-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-shr-a-model-of-postmenopausal-hypertension
#2
Tiago J Costa, Graziela S Ceravolo, Cinthya Echem, Carolina M Hashimoto, Beatriz P Costa, Rosangela A Santos-Eichler, Maria Aparecida Oliveira, Francesc Jiménez-Altayó, Eliana H Akamine, Ana Paula Dantas, Maria Helena C Carvalho
Postmenopausal period has been associated to different symptoms such as hot flashes, vulvovaginal atrophy, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and others. Clinical studies have described postmenopausal women presenting HSDD can benefit from the association of testosterone to conventional hormonal therapy. Testosterone has been linked to development of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and it also increases cytochrome P -450-induced 20-HETE synthesis which in turn results in vascular dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862982/taxonomic-status-and-epidemiology-of-the-mesoparasitic-copepod-pennella-balaenoptera-in-cetaceans-from-the-western-mediterranean
#3
Natalia Fraija-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Hortelano, Ana E Ahuir-Baraja, Juan Antonio Raga, Francisco Javier Aznar
Pennella balaenoptera is a mesoparasitic copepod that has been reported in at least 17 cetacean species. Subtle morphological differences in the first antennae of adult females have been used to discriminate this species from P. filosa, a species infecting fishes. Other morphological traits are unreliable because of their high plasticity, and no molecular data are available to confirm the taxonomic status of P. balaenoptera as an independent species. We found no consistent morphological differences of the first antennae between P...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780235/the-cytochrome-p450-isoenzyme-and-some-new-opportunities-for-the-prediction-of-negative-drug-interaction-in-vivo
#4
REVIEW
Dmitrij A Sychev, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Andrey A Svistunov, Maksim L Maksimov, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Vitalij A Otdelenov, Natal'ja P Denisenko, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Cytochrome (CYP) 450 isoenzymes are the basic enzymes involved in Phase I biotransformation. The most important role in biotransformation belongs to CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2. Inhibition and induction of CYP isoenzymes caused by drugs are important and clinically relevant pharmacokinetic mechanisms of drug interaction. Investigation of the activity of CYP isoenzymes by using phenotyping methods (such as the determination of the concentration of specific substrates and metabolites in biological fluids) during drug administration provides the prediction of negative side effects caused by drug interaction...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752906/tramadol-understanding-the-risk-of-serotonin-syndrome-and-seizures
#5
REVIEW
Sameer Hassamal, Karen Miotto, William Dale, Itai Danovitch
Tramadol is commonly prescribed for pain control because it presents a lower risk for addiction and respiratory depression compared to other opioids. However, tramadol's serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitory effects result in a unique adverse effect profile. Two such adverse events are serotonin syndrome and seizures. The prevalence of tramadol-induced serotonin syndrome and seizures is modest in the general population but if left untreated, the morbidity and mortality can be high, and therefore prompt recognition and management is essential...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741901/stereoselective-metabolism-of-omeprazole-by-cytochrome-p-450-2c19-and-3a4-mechanistic-insights-from-dft-study
#6
Kalyanashis Jana, Tusar Bandyopadhyay, Bishwajit Ganguly
The efficacy of S-omeprazole as proton pump inhibitor compared to its enantiomer R-omeprazole is studied using density functional theoretical calculations. The pharmacokinetic studies suggest that the efficacy of S-omeprazole presumably depends on metabolic pathway and excretion from the human body. The DFT calculations at SMDWater -B3LYP-D3/6-311+G(d,p)/LANL2DZ//B3LYP/6-31G(d)/LANL2DZ with triradicaloid model active species, [Por•+ FeIV (SH)O], of the CYP2C19 enzyme with high spin quartet and low spin doublet states demonstrate C-H bond activation mechanism through a two-state rebound process for hydroxylation of R-omeprazole and S-omeprazole...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725907/genetic-factors-associated-with-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-a-systematic-review
#7
Pedro López-Morales, Diego Flores-Funes, Elena González Sánchez-Migallón, Ramón José Lirón-Ruiz, José Luis Aguayo-Albasini
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, there seems to be a relationship between different genetic polymorphisms and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We perform a systematic review of the current literature about the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the presence of PONV. METHODS: Two bibliographic searches were carried out in three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) of studies, preferably prospective, about PONV following abdominal surgery...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713556/relapsing-malaria-a-case-report-of-primaquine-resistance
#8
Christopher Dijanic, Jillian Nickerson, Sunita Shakya, Amanda Dijanic, Marilyn Fabbri
Primaquine (an 8-aminoquinoline malarial therapy) is the only FDA-approved therapy to treat the hypnozoite stage of P. vivax . We think of relapse occurring because of parasitic resistance or poor compliance secondary to drug toxicities. However, in patients with repeated treatment failure, we must consider CYP-450 mutations affecting drug metabolism as an important cause of relapse. A 47-year-old man who travelled to a jungle in Venezuela was diagnosed with P. falciparum and P. vivax in July 2015. He was treated with seven rounds of primaquine-based therapy in the following year, all resulted in relapse without further exposure to endemic areas...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704990/the-metabolism-of-imidacloprid-by-aldehyde-oxidase-contributes-to-its-clastogenic-effect-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#9
Alexander I Vardavas, Eren Ozcagli, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K Alegakis, Fotini Vasilaki, Kostas Kaloudis, John Tsiaoussis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Félix Carvalho, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a systemic, chloro-nicotinyl insecticide classified in Regulation N° 1272/2008 of the European Commision as "harmful if swallowed and very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects". IMI is metabolized in vitro both by aldehyde oxidase (AOX) (reduction) and by cytochrome P450s enzymes (CYPs). In the present study, the AOX inhibitor sodium tungstate dihydrate (ST) was used to elucidate the relative contribution of CYP 450 and AOX metabolic pathways on IMI metabolism, in male rabbits exposed to IMI for two months...
May 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627415/biomarkers-in-tigerfish-hydrocynus-vittatus-as-indicators-of-metal-and-organic-pollution-in-ecologically-sensitive-subtropical-rivers
#10
R Gerber, N J Smit, Johan H J van Vuren, Y Ikenaka, Victor Wepener
Studies have shown high levels of contamination of both metals and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in aquatic systems of the world renowned Kruger National Park, South Africa. With effects evident in top predators, including, unexplained Crocodylus niloticus deaths and organ level and histological changes in Hydrocynus vittatus. A suite of biomarkers reflecting exposure and were selected to evaluate biological responses of H. vittatus to anthropogenic stressors as well as to evaluate whether the chosen suite of biomarkers could successfully distinguish between the different pollution profiles present in the selected rivers...
August 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622878/the-influence-of-cyp2c9-and-vkorc1-gene-polymorphisms-on-the-response-to-warfarin-in-egyptians
#11
Ahmed M L Bedewy, Salah Showeta, Mostafa Hasan Mostafa, Lamia Saeed Kandil
Warfarin is the most commonly used drug for chronic prevention of thromboembolic events, it also ranks high among drugs that cause serious adverse events. The variability in dose requirements has been attributed to inter-individual differences in medical, personal, and genetic factor. Cytochrome P-450 2C9 is the principle enzyme that terminates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by catalyzing the conversion of the pharmacologically more potent S-enantiomer to its inactive metabolites. Warfarin exerts its effect by inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614448/global-transcriptomic-analysis-of-rhodococcus-erythropolis-d310-1-in-responding-to-chlorimuron-ethyl
#12
Yi Cheng, Hailian Zang, Hailan Wang, Dapeng Li, Chunyan Li
Chlorimuron-ethyl is a typical long-term residual sulfonylurea herbicide whose long period of residence poses a serious hazard to rotational crops. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for its removal, but the degradation mechanism is not clear. In this work, we investigated gene expression changes during the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by an effective chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis D310-1. The genes that correspond to this degradation and their mode of action were identified using RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR...
August 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492991/tacrolimus-interaction-with-oral-oestrogen-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-case-control-study
#13
M Ghadimi, S Dashti-Khavidaki, M Shahali, M Gohari, M-R Khatami, A Alamdari
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Oestrogens could inhibit the metabolism of drugs, such as calcineurin inhibitors, that are substrates for cytochrome P-450 microsomal enzymes. This study assessed the potential tacrolimus interaction with oral conjugated oestrogen in kidney transplant recipients who received conjugated oestrogen as prophylaxis against bleeding, before kidney biopsy. METHODS: In this case-control study, 13 kidney transplant recipients who received oral conjugated oestrogen as prophylaxis against uraemic bleeding before allograft biopsy were considered as cases...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473717/interventions-for-paracetamol-acetaminophen-overdose
#14
REVIEW
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458112/compatible-osmolytes-modulate-mitochondrial-function-in-a-marine-osmoconformer-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793
#15
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399275/bioengineered-humanized-livers-as-better-three-dimensional-drug-testing-model-system
#16
Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Avinash Bardia, Chandrakala Lakkireddy, Raju Nagarapu, Md Aejaz Habeeb, Aleem Ahmed Khan
AIM: To develop appropriate humanized three-dimensional ex-vivo model system for drug testing. METHODS: Bioengineered humanized livers were developed in this study using human hepatic stem cells repopulation within the acellularized liver scaffolds which mimics with the natural organ anatomy and physiology. Six cytochrome P-450 probes were used to enable efficient identification of drug metabolism in bioengineered humanized livers. The drug metabolism study in bioengineered livers was evaluated to identify the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity responses...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389962/correction-variation-in-human-cytochrome-p-450-drug-metabolism-genes-a-gateway-to-the-understanding-of-plasmodium-vivax-relapses
#17
Ana Carolina Rios Silvino, Gabriel Luiz Costa, Flávia Carolina Faustino de Araújo, David Benjamin Ascher, Douglas Eduardo Valente Pires, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Tais Nobrega Sousa
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160172.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379855/a-cell-culture-platform-to-maintain-long-term-phenotype-of-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-endothelial-cells
#18
Brenton R Ware, Mitchell J Durham, Chase P Monckton, Salman R Khetani
Background and Aims: Modeling interactions between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in vitro can help elucidate human-specific mechanisms underlying liver physiology/disease and drug responses; however, existing hepatocyte/endothelial coculture models are suboptimal because of their use of rodent cells, cancerous cell lines, and/or nonliver endothelial cells. Hence, we sought to develop a platform that could maintain the long-term phenotype of PHHs and primary human LSECs...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375684/herba-gelsemii-elegantis-is-detoxified-by-ramulus-et-folium-mussaendae-pubescentis-extract-by-modulating-hepatic-cytochrome-p450-and-glutathione-s-transferase-enzymes-in-rats
#19
Yinghao Wang, Shuisheng Wu, Chen Liu, Xuehua Lu, Zhihuang Chen
Herba Gelsemii elegantis (GE) has been frequently used as a Chinese folk medicine but has high acute toxicity. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, it may be detoxified by Ramulus et Folium Mussaendae pubescentis (MP), but the detoxification mechanism has remained elusive. The present study aimed to evaluate the detoxification mechanisms by which MP modulates the effect of GE in rats, including the inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P (CYP)450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes. Male Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered GE at three doses (0...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361048/role-of-the-cytochrome-p-450-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-renal-dysfunction-in-cirrhosis
#20
Michael M Yeboah, Md Abdul Hye Khan, Marla A Chesnik, Melissa Skibba, Lauren L Kolb, John D Imig
Background: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a life-threatening complication of advanced liver cirrhosis that is characterized by hemodynamic alterations in the kidney and other vascular beds. Cytochrome P(CYP)-450 enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. These eicosanoids regulate blood pressure, vascular tone and renal tubular sodium transport under both physiological and pathophysiological states. Methods: Experiments were performed to investigate the role of the CYP system in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction during cirrhosis...
January 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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