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Cytochrome P-450

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627415/biomarkers-in-tigerfish-hydrocynus-vittatus-as-indicators-of-metal-and-organic-pollution-in-ecologically-sensitive-subtropical-rivers
#1
R Gerber, N J Smit, Johan H J van Vuren, Y Ikenaka, Victor Wepener
Studies have shown high levels of contamination of both metals and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in aquatic systems of the world renowned Kruger National Park, South Africa. With effects evident in top predators, including, unexplained Crocodylus niloticus deaths and organ level and histological changes in Hydrocynus vittatus. A suite of biomarkers reflecting exposure and were selected to evaluate biological responses of H. vittatus to anthropogenic stressors as well as to evaluate whether the chosen suite of biomarkers could successfully distinguish between the different pollution profiles present in the selected rivers...
April 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622878/the-influence-of-cyp2c9-and-vkorc1-gene-polymorphisms-on-the-response-to-warfarin-in-egyptians
#2
Ahmed M L Bedewy, Salah Showeta, Mostafa Hasan Mostafa, Lamia Saeed Kandil
Warfarin is the most commonly used drug for chronic prevention of thromboembolic events, it also ranks high among drugs that cause serious adverse events. The variability in dose requirements has been attributed to inter-individual differences in medical, personal, and genetic factor. Cytochrome P-450 2C9 is the principle enzyme that terminates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by catalyzing the conversion of the pharmacologically more potent S-enantiomer to its inactive metabolites. Warfarin exerts its effect by inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614448/global-transcriptomic-analysis-of-rhodococcus-erythropolis-d310-1-in-responding-to-chlorimuron-ethyl
#3
Yi Cheng, Hailian Zang, Hailan Wang, Dapeng Li, Chunyan Li
Chlorimuron-ethyl is a typical long-term residual sulfonylurea herbicide whose long period of residence poses a serious hazard to rotational crops. Microbial degradation is considered to be the most acceptable method for its removal, but the degradation mechanism is not clear. In this work, we investigated gene expression changes during the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by an effective chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis D310-1. The genes that correspond to this degradation and their mode of action were identified using RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR...
March 31, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492991/tacrolimus-interaction-with-oral-oestrogen-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-case-control-study
#4
M Ghadimi, S Dashti-Khavidaki, M Shahali, M Gohari, M-R Khatami, A Alamdari
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Oestrogens could inhibit the metabolism of drugs, such as calcineurin inhibitors, that are substrates for cytochrome P-450 microsomal enzymes. This study assessed the potential tacrolimus interaction with oral conjugated oestrogen in kidney transplant recipients who received conjugated oestrogen as prophylaxis against bleeding, before kidney biopsy. METHODS: In this case-control study, 13 kidney transplant recipients who received oral conjugated oestrogen as prophylaxis against uraemic bleeding before allograft biopsy were considered as cases...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473717/interventions-for-paracetamol-acetaminophen-overdose
#5
REVIEW
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458112/compatible-osmolytes-modulate-mitochondrial-function-in-a-marine-osmoconformer-crassostrea-gigas-thunberg-1793
#6
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399275/bioengineered-humanized-livers-as-better-three-dimensional-drug-testing-model-system
#7
Sandeep Kumar Vishwakarma, Avinash Bardia, Chandrakala Lakkireddy, Raju Nagarapu, Md Aejaz Habeeb, Aleem Ahmed Khan
AIM: To develop appropriate humanized three-dimensional ex-vivo model system for drug testing. METHODS: Bioengineered humanized livers were developed in this study using human hepatic stem cells repopulation within the acellularized liver scaffolds which mimics with the natural organ anatomy and physiology. Six cytochrome P-450 probes were used to enable efficient identification of drug metabolism in bioengineered humanized livers. The drug metabolism study in bioengineered livers was evaluated to identify the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity responses...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389962/correction-variation-in-human-cytochrome-p-450-drug-metabolism-genes-a-gateway-to-the-understanding-of-plasmodium-vivax-relapses
#8
Ana Carolina Rios Silvino, Gabriel Luiz Costa, Flávia Carolina Faustino de Araújo, David Benjamin Ascher, Douglas Eduardo Valente Pires, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Tais Nobrega Sousa
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160172.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379855/a-cell-culture-platform-to-maintain-long-term-phenotype-of%C3%A2-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-endothelial-cells
#9
Brenton R Ware, Mitchell J Durham, Chase P Monckton, Salman R Khetani
Background and Aims: Modeling interactions between primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in vitro can help elucidate human-specific mechanisms underlying liver physiology/disease and drug responses; however, existing hepatocyte/endothelial coculture models are suboptimal because of their use of rodent cells, cancerous cell lines, and/or nonliver endothelial cells. Hence, we sought to develop a platform that could maintain the long-term phenotype of PHHs and primary human LSECs...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375684/herba-gelsemii-elegantis-is-detoxified-by-ramulus-et-folium-mussaendae-pubescentis-extract-by-modulating-hepatic-cytochrome-p450-and-glutathione-s-transferase-enzymes-in-rats
#10
Yinghao Wang, Shuisheng Wu, Chen Liu, Xuehua Lu, Zhihuang Chen
Herba Gelsemii elegantis (GE) has been frequently used as a Chinese folk medicine but has high acute toxicity. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, it may be detoxified by Ramulus et Folium Mussaendae pubescentis (MP), but the detoxification mechanism has remained elusive. The present study aimed to evaluate the detoxification mechanisms by which MP modulates the effect of GE in rats, including the inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P (CYP)450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes. Male Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered GE at three doses (0...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361048/role-of-the-cytochrome-p-450-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-renal-dysfunction-in-cirrhosis
#11
Michael M Yeboah, Md Abdul Hye Khan, Marla A Chesnik, Melissa Skibba, Lauren L Kolb, John D Imig
Background: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a life-threatening complication of advanced liver cirrhosis that is characterized by hemodynamic alterations in the kidney and other vascular beds. Cytochrome P(CYP)-450 enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. These eicosanoids regulate blood pressure, vascular tone and renal tubular sodium transport under both physiological and pathophysiological states. Methods: Experiments were performed to investigate the role of the CYP system in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction during cirrhosis...
January 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357870/primaquine-ineligibility-in-anti-relapse-therapy-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-the-problem-of-g6pd-deficiency-and-cytochrome-p-450-2d6-polymorphisms
#12
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Baird, Katherine E Battle, Rosalind E Howes
The hypnozoite reservoir of Plasmodium vivax represents both the greatest obstacle and opportunity for ultimately eradicating this species. It is silent and cannot be diagnosed until it awakens and provokes a clinical attack with attendant morbidity, risk of mortality, and opportunities for onward transmission. The only licensed drug that kills hypnozoites is primaquine, which attacks the hypnozoite reservoir but imposes serious obstacles in doing so-at hypnozoitocidal doses, it invariably causes a threatening acute haemolytic anaemia in patients having an inborn deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), affecting about 8% of people living in malaria endemic nations...
January 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328413/prevalence-of-the-cyp2c19-2-681-g-a-3-636-g-a-and-17-%C3%A2-806-c-t-alleles-among-an-iranian-population-of-different-ethnicities
#13
Mahshid Dehbozorgi, Behnam Kamalidehghan, Iman Hosseini, Zahra Dehghanfard, Mohammad Hossein Sangtarash, Maryam Firoozi, Fatemeh Ahmadipour, Goh Yong Meng, Massoud Houshmand
Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P (CYP) 450 family may cause adverse drug responses in individuals. Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is a member of the CYP family, where the presence of the 681 G>A, 636 G>A and 806 C>T polymorphisms result in the CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 alleles, respectively. In the current study, the frequency of the CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 alleles in an Iranian population cohort of different ethnicities were examined and then compared with previously published frequencies within other populations...
March 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324864/safety-of-single-low-dose-primaquine-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-falciparum-infected-african-males-two-open-label-randomized-safety-trials
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Guido J H Bastiaens, Alfred B Tiono, Joseph Okebe, Helmi E Pett, Sam A Coulibaly, Bronner P Gonçalves, Muna Affara, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Edith C Bougouma, Guillaume S Sanou, Issa Nébié, John Bradley, Kjerstin H W Lanke, Mikko Niemi, Sodiomon B Sirima, Umberto d'Alessandro, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290096/protective-effect-of-fenofibrate-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-isolated-rat-hearts
#15
Ishfaq A Bukhari, Abdulrahman A Almotrefi, Osama Y Mohamed, Abeer A Al-Masri, Saeed A Sheikh
Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activator that lowers triglycerides and influences cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) epoxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. CYP-450 epoxygenase metabolizes AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs have coronary dilating and cardiac and renal protective properties. Fibrates possess similar properties due to their CYP-450 epoxygenase-inducing properties that lead to increase in endogenous EET production. In the current investigations, fenofibrate (100 mg/kg, orally) for 2 weeks decreased ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the isolated rat hearts...
April 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286360/conditional-knockdown-of-gene-expression-in-cancer-cell-lines-to-study-the-recruitment-of-monocytes-macrophages-to-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
Marta H Kubala, Yves A DeClerck
siRNA and shRNA-mediated knock down (KD) methods of regulating gene expression are invaluable tools for understanding gene and protein function. However, in the case that the KD of the protein of interest has a lethal effect on cells or the anticipated effect of the KD is time-dependent, unconditional KD methods are not appropriate. Conditional systems are more suitable in these cases and have been the subject of much interest. These include Ecdysone-inducible overexpression systems, Cytochrome P-450 induction system1 , and the tetracycline regulated gene expression systems...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274758/efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-and-amiodarone-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Florentino Lupercio, Jorge Romero, Bradley Peltzer, Carola Maraboto, David Briceno, Pedro Villablanca, Kevin Ferrick, Jay N Gross, Soo Kim, John Fisher, Luigi Di Biase, Andrew Krumerman
BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and amiodarone are widely used in the treatment of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The DOACs are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome p-450 (CYP3A4) substrates. Direct oral anticoagulant levels may be increased by the concomitant use of potent dual P-gp/CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as amiodarone, which can potentially translate into adverse clinical outcomes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of drug-drug interaction by the concomitant use of DOACs and amiodarone...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162613/the-jak1-2-inhibitor-ruxolitinib-reverses-interleukin-6-mediated-suppression-of-drug-detoxifying-proteins-in-cultured-human-hepatocytes
#18
Marie Febvre-James, Arnaud Bruyère, Marc Le Vée, Olivier Fardel
The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, which basically activates the Janus kinase (JAK)/ signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway, is well known to repress expression of hepatic cytochromes P-450 (P450s) and transporters. Therapeutic proteins, like monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-6 or its receptor, have consequently been demonstrated to restore full hepatic detoxification capacity, which results in inflammatory disease-related drug-drug interactions (idDDIs). In the present study, we investigated whether ruxolitinib, a small drug acting as a JAK1/2 inhibitor and currently used in the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms, may also counteract the repressing effects of IL-6 toward hepatic detoxifying systems...
February 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143479/encapsulation-of-rifampin-in-a-polymeric-layer-by-layer-structure-for-drug-delivery
#19
Akbar Esmaeili, Meisam Khodaei
Rifampin (RIF) is a bactericidal antibiotic drug and potent inducer of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzyme systems. Given by mouth or intravenously, it can cause numerous clinical drug interactions; thus, alternative systems of drug delivery that bypass some or all of its toxic effects are well worth investigating. In this study, a controlled layer-by-layer (LBL) process of encapsulating RIF in biocompatible alginate and chitosan polymers loaded onto Fe3 O4 nanoparticles was developed. Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were synthesized from FeCl3 ·6H2 O using a hydrothermal procedure...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092654/changes-in-cyp2d-enzyme-activity-following-induction-of-type-2-diabetes-and-administration-of-cinnamon-and-metformin-an-experimental-animal-study
#20
Ali Taheri, Hoda Lavasani, Sara Kasirzadeh, Behjat Sheikholeslami, Yalda H Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza Rouini
1. Alterations in the activity of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes result in changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs. This study was designed to explore the impact of type II diabetes, metformin and cinnamon on the activity of CYP2D isoenzyme. 2. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic and normal rats were gavaged by cinnamon and/or metformin for 14 days. Using isolated perfusion of rat livers, the metabolic activity of CYP2D in the study groups was evaluated based on the oxidative biotransformation of tramadol hydrochloride...
November 2, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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