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Nutrition and Diabetics

Helge Hebestreit, Erik Hj Hulzebos, Jane E Schneiderman, Chantal Karila, Steven R Boas, Susi Kriemler, Tiffany Dwyer, Margareta Sahlberg, Don S Urquhart, Larry C Lands, Felix Ratjen, Tim Takken, Liobou Varanistkaya, Viktoria Rücker, Alexandra Hebestreit, Jakob Usemann, Thomas Radtke
RATIONALE: The prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) for survival in cystic fibrosis (CF) in the context of current clinical management, when controlling for other known prognostic factors is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of CPET-derived measures beyond peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) following rigorous adjustment for other predictors. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data from 10 CF-centers in Australia, Europe and North America were collected retrospectively...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Josef Fontana, Michal Zima, Vaclav Vetvicka
Numerous conditions, including cancer, diabetes, aging, and atherosclerosis, are thought to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as a persistent imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation, resulting in the damage of cellular macromolecules and is often considered to be involved in wide variety of human diseases. However, the current literature is very heterogeneous making it rather difficult to draw general conclusions. Often, different biomarkers have been used in different health problems...
October 15, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Chinmoy Sarkar, Chris Webster, John Gallacher
BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanisation and associated socioeconomic transformations have modified current lifestyles, shifting dietary preferences towards ready-to-eat, calorie-dense food of poor nutritional quality. The effect of ready-to-eat food environments that sell food for instant consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes has received scant attention. We therefore aimed to examine the association between exposure to ready-to-eat food environments and type 2 diabetes in a large and diverse population sample...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Yunkoo Kang, Sowon Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide in adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a systemic disease that is likely to be associated with other diseases. Studies have shown a relationship between muscle strength, muscle quality, and metabolic syndrome. Handgrip strength is known as a simple tool to measure muscle strength. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome and each metabolic syndrome features in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1050 adolescents (574 boys, 476 girls; age 10-18 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Hua-Tsen Hsiao, Jun-Jun Lee, Hsiu-Hui Chen, Ming-Kung Wu, Chi-Wei Huang, Ya-Ting Chang, Chia-Yi Lien, Jing-Jy Wang, Hsin-I Chang, Chiung-Chih Chang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent evidence highlights the effects of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Involuntary body weight changes in patients with different stages of dementia can be related to clinical factors of the patient per se or support from their caregivers. Understanding the interactions among factors is important to establish a monitoring paradigm to guide treatment strategies. METHODS: A total of 345 patients with very mild (n = 224) and mild stage (n = 121) dementia were enrolled from a multi-disciplinary dementia clinic...
September 22, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Radha Yadav, Debpriyo Kumar Dey, Rishika Vij, Sunita Meena, Rajeev Kapila, Suman Kapila
Interest in probiotics has grown significantly in the last decades due to their reported nutritional and health promoting effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) prepared using three different probiotic strains i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5957, Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5897 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898; independently or in combination, for treating streptozotocin induced type-1 diabetes in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were fed with PFM preparations for 6 weeks and then analyzed for the various biochemical parameters associated...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Josep Franch-Nadal, Fermín García-Gollarte, Alfonso Pérez Del Molino, María L Orera-Peña, Marta Rodríguez de Miguel, Malena Melogno-Klinkas, Héctor D de Paz, Susana Aceituno, Patricia Rodríguez-Fortúnez
BACKGROUND: Management of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex due to their age-related conditions. Several clinical guidelines provide specific recommendations for management of these patients but little is known about their implementation in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician and community pharmacist perceptions and routine clinical practice in the management of elderly T2DM patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Katrien Benhalima, Caro Minschart, Dries Ceulemans, Annick Bogaerts, Bart Van Der Schueren, Chantal Mathieu, Roland Devlieger
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. This is partly due to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women of childbearing age. Since bariatric surgery is currently the most successful way to achieve maintained weight loss, increasing numbers of obese women of childbearing age receive bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery performed before pregnancy significantly reduces the risk to develop GDM but the risk is generally still higher compared to normal weight pregnant women...
October 11, 2018: Nutrients
David J Albers, Matthew E Levine, Andrew Stuart, Lena Mamykina, Bruce Gluckman, George Hripcsak
We introduce data assimilation as a computational method that uses machine learning to combine data with human knowledge in the form of mechanistic models in order to forecast future states, to impute missing data from the past by smoothing, and to infer measurable and unmeasurable quantities that represent clinically and scientifically important phenotypes. We demonstrate the advantages it affords in the context of type 2 diabetes by showing how data assimilation can be used to forecast future glucose values, to impute previously missing glucose values, and to infer type 2 diabetes phenotypes...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Kimberly M Tippens, Andrew Erlandsen, Douglas A Hanes, Robert Graybill, Courtney Jackson, Julie Briley, Heather Zwickey
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of measuring the health impacts of a 12-week naturopathic whole foods nutrition education course among adults with or at risk for prediabetes. DESIGN: A pilot nonrandomized pre-post intervention design investigated physiological changes associated with participation in a 12-week structured naturopathic nutrition education course. Follow-up measures were assessed at 6 and 12 months from baseline. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Three community-based kitchens in Oregon...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Yvonne N Flores, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Roshan Bastani, Mei Leng, Catherine M Crespi, Paula Ramírez-Palacios, Heather Stevens, Jorge Salmerón
AIM: To compare the prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD) risk factors in a representative sample of Mexican-Americans born in the United States (US) or Mexico, to a sample of adults in Mexico. METHODS: Data for Mexican-Americans in the US were obtained from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which includes persons of Mexican origin living in the US ( n = 4274). The NHANES sample was restricted to Mexican-American participants who were 20 years and older, born in the US or Mexico, not pregnant or breastfeeding, and with medical insurance...
October 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Nicholas M Selby, Maarten W Taal
OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that result from hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. AGEs are also formed in food during cooking. On the other hand, malnutrition may contribute to AGE formation through its association with oxidative stress and inflammation. AGE accumulation can be measured by skin autofluorescence (SAF) and elevated SAF is independently associated with higher mortality on hemodialysis (HD). We aimed to investigate associations between SAF, dietary AGE intake, and markers of malnutrition in persons receiving HD...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Jutta Dierkes, Helene Dahl, Natasha Lervaag Welland, Kristina Sandnes, Kristin Sæle, Ingegjerd Sekse, Hans-Peter Marti
BACKGROUND: Poor nutritional status of patients with renal disease has been associated with worsening of renal function and poor health outcomes. Simply measuring weight and height for calculation of the body mass index does however not capture the true picture of nutritional status in these patients. Therefore, we measured nutritional status by BMI, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake and nutritional screening in three groups of renal patients. METHODS: Patients with chronic kidney disease not on renal replacement therapy (CKD stages 3-5, n = 112), after renal transplantation (n = 72) and patients treated with hemodialysis (n = 24) were recruited in a tertiary hospital in Bergen, Norway in a cross-sectional observational study...
October 11, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Claire L Lyons, Helen M Roche
Nutritional status provides metabolic substrates to activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor that regulates metabolism. Recent evidence has demonstrated that AMPK has wider functions with respect to regulating immune cell metabolism and function. One such example is the regulatory role that AMPK has on NLRP3-inlflammasome and IL-1β biology. This in turn can result in subsequent negative downstream effects on glucose, lipid and insulin metabolism. Nutrient stress in the form of obesity can impact AMPK and whole-body metabolism, leading to complications such as type 2 diabetes and cancer risk...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Geronimo Jimenez, Elaine Lum, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: The availability of smartphone health apps empowers people to engage in self-care. There are currently over 300,000 health apps available on the market targeting a variety of user needs from weight loss to management of chronic conditions, with diabetes being the most commonly targeted condition. To date, health apps largely fall outside government regulation, and there are no official guidelines to help clinicians and patients in app selection. Patients commonly resort to the internet for suggestions on which diabetes app to use...
September 29, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Mario A Miranda, Heather A Lawson
The search for genetic risk factors in type-II diabetes has been hindered by a failure to consider dietary variables. Dietary nutrients impact metabolic disease risk and severity and are essential to maintaining metabolic health. Genetic variation between individuals confers differences in metabolism, which directly impacts response to diet. Most studies attempting to identify genetic risk factors in disease fail to incorporate dietary components, and thus are ill-equipped to capture the breadth of the genome's impact on metabolism...
October 5, 2018: Nutrients
Lisa Dicks, Natalie Kirch, Dorothea Gronwald, Kerstin Wernken, Benno F Zimmermann, Hans-Peter Helfrich, Sabine Ellinger
Regular cocoa consumption has been shown to improve blood pressure (BP), insulin sensitivity, and lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), using up to 100 g of chocolate or 54 g of cocoa. These effects, attributed to cocoa flavanols, would be beneficial for patients with T2D if they could be achieved by a usual serving size of flavanol-rich cocoa. Forty-two hypertensive patients with T2D (stable pharmacological treatment, with good adjustment for glucose metabolism, lipids, and BP) ingested capsules with 2...
October 5, 2018: Nutrients
Julie A Schmittdiel, Wendy T Dyer, Cassondra J Marshall, Roberta Bivins
CONTEXT: Research on predictors of clinical outcomes usually focuses on the impact of individual patient factors, despite known relationships between neighborhood environment and health. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether US census information on where a patient resides is associated with diabetes development among patients with prediabetes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all 157,752 patients aged 18 years or older from Kaiser Permanente Northern California with laboratory-defined prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose, 100 mg/dL-125 mg/dL, and/or glycated hemoglobin, 5...
October 5, 2018: Permanente Journal
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
October 8, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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