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Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes

Katrien Benhalima, Caro Minschart, Dries Ceulemans, Annick Bogaerts, Bart Van Der Schueren, Chantal Mathieu, Roland Devlieger
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. This is partly due to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women of childbearing age. Since bariatric surgery is currently the most successful way to achieve maintained weight loss, increasing numbers of obese women of childbearing age receive bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery performed before pregnancy significantly reduces the risk to develop GDM but the risk is generally still higher compared to normal weight pregnant women...
October 11, 2018: Nutrients
Taofeek O Usman, Emmanuel D Areola, Olufunto O Badmus, InKyeom Kim, Lawrence A Olatunji
Nutritional challenges and androgen excess have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes and poor fetal outcome, but the mechanisms are not well delineated. The effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) on glucose dysmetabolism and poor fetal outcome induced by gestational androgen excess is also not known. We tested the hypothesis that blockade of androgen receptor (AR) and suppression of late gestational androgen excess prevents glucose dysmetabolism and poor fetal outcome through suppression of adenosine deaminase (ADA)/xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Chiamaka Esther Amaefule, Zoe Drymoussi, Julie Dodds, Lorna Sweeney, Elena Pizzo, Jahnavi Daru, John Robson, Lucilla Poston, Asma Khalil, Jenny Myers, Angela Harden, Graham A Hitman, Khalid Khan, Javier Zamora, Mohammed S B Huda, Shakila Thangaratinam
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes increases maternal and offspring complications in pregnancy and cardiovascular complications in the long term. The nutritional supplement myo -inositol may prevent gestational diabetes; however, further evaluation is required, especially in multiethnic high-risk mothers. Our pilot trial on myo -inositol to prevent gestational diabetes will evaluate trial processes, assess acceptability to mothers and obtain preliminary estimates of effect and cost data prior to a large full-scale trial...
September 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Alexandra K Adams, Emily J Tomayko, Kate A Cronin, Ronald J Prince, Kyungmann Kim, Lakeesha Carmichael, Tassy Parker
OBJECTIVE: To describe sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among American Indian (AI) families with young children and determine predictors of adult and child weight status among these factors. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional baseline data. SETTING: One urban area and 4 rural AI reservations nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 450 AI families with children aged 2-5years participating in the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 intervention...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Xiaojing Wang, Mingqun Deng, Xiao Zhai, Rongrong Li
Maternal over-nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders in offspring, whereas maternal dietary genistein may have beneficial effects on the metabolic health of offspring. Our objective was to determine whether maternal dietary genistein could attenuate the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on their offspring's metabolism and to explore the role of the gut microbiota on their offspring's glucose and lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a high-fat diet without genistein (HF), high-fat diet with low-dose genistein (0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mini Joseph, Riddhi Das Gupta, Sahana Shetty, Roshna Ramachandran, Geethu Antony, Jiji Mathews, Santhosh Benjamin, Shajith Anoop, Jansi Vimala Rani, Nihal Thomas
Background: Diabetes is the most common condition in pregnancy with a worldwide prevalence of 16.9%. Aim: To determine the adequacy of the nutrient intake of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 85 pregnant women who met the diagnostic inclusion criteria for diabetes mellitus (gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus) and who were being managed at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital...
October 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Camille Dugas, Julie Perron, Isabelle Marc, S John Weisnagel, Julie Robitaille
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero are at high-risk of obesity. Given that nutritional habits can track from infancy to childhood, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the timing of fruit juice introduction in infancy and later consumption of sweet-tasting foods and beverages among children exposed (GDM+) and unexposed (GDM-) to GDM. METHODS: A total of 107 GDM+ and 59 GDM- participated in the project...
August 29, 2018: Appetite
Carla Gianfrancesco, Zoe Darwin, Linda McGowan, Debbie M Smith, Roz Haddrill, Michelle Carter, Eleanor M Scott, Nisreen A Alwan, Michelle A Morris, Salwa A Albar, Janet E Cade
myfood24 is an online 24 hr dietary recall tool developed for nutritional epidemiological research. Its clinical application has been unexplored. This mixed methods study explores the feasibility and usability of myfood24 as a food record in a clinical population, women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Women were asked to complete five myfood24 food records, followed by a user questionnaire (including the System Usability Scale (SUS), a measure of usability), and were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview...
August 23, 2018: Nutrients
Angelo Maria Patti, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Kalliopi Pafili, Manfredi Rizzo, Nikolaos Papanas
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents impaired carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy and is characterized by progressive insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. If inadequately treated, it may lead to fetal macrosomia and other adverse outcomes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the current evidence from studies on the use of insulin and other agents for the treatment of women with GDM. Expert opinion: Lifestyle management is of paramount importance for the treatment of GDM...
September 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ilario Ferrocino, Valentina Ponzo, Roberto Gambino, Adriana Zarovska, Filomena Leone, Clara Monzeglio, Ilaria Goitre, Rosalba Rosato, Angelo Romano, Giorgio Grassi, Fabio Broglio, Maurizio Cassader, Luca Cocolin, Simona Bo
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication, is associated with an increased risk of maternal/perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective observational explorative study in 41 GDM patients to evaluate their microbiota changes during pregnancy and the associations between the gut microbiota and variations in nutrient intakes, anthropometric and laboratory variables. GDM patients routinely received nutritional recommendations according to guidelines. The fecal microbiota (by 16S amplicon-based sequencing), was assessed at enrolment (24-28 weeks) and at 38 weeks of gestational age...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
María Limones, Julio Sevillano, María G Sánchez-Alonso, Emilio Herrera, María Del Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have investigated the effect of maternal nutrition on metabolic programming of the offspring, the question whether a nutritional insult during early gestation favours an altered metabolic state of the mother that persists during the remainder period of pregnancy, when foetal growth is maximal, remains to be answered. METHODS: To address this issue, we analysed the effect of 40% food restriction during the first 12 days of gestation on glucose tolerance, as well as on liver and adipose tissue metabolism, in Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Ana Carolina Momentti, Débora Estadella, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
There is a growing concern about the impacts of hypovitaminosis D on the health of pregnant woman, fetal development, childhood, and adult life. Variations in maternal nutrition during gestation and/or lactation play a critical role in the physiological and metabolic development of the fetus and neonate, which can induce phenotypic changes and trigger important consequences throughout life, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and hypertension. Vitamin D plays a role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation and in modulating the innate and adaptive immune response...
September 2018: Steroids
Elizabeth A Symington, Jeannine Baumgartner, Linda Malan, Lizelle Zandberg, Cristian Ricci, Cornelius M Smuts
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure optimal birth outcomes, maternal health and offspring development. However, little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of pregnant women residing in urban South Africa. Therefore, the Nutrition during Pregnancy and Early Development (NuPED) cohort study was initiated to assess early nutrition-related exposures predictive of early childhood development in urban South Africa. METHODS: The aims of this prospective cohort study are: 1) to assess dietary intake and nutritional status of urban pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa, and 2) to determine associations with birth outcomes, measures of maternal health, as well as measures of offspring health and development...
July 24, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Yun-Su Kim, Hee-Seung Kim, Yoo-Lee Kim
BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus suffer from anxiety and depression, which make controlling blood glucose levels difficult. INTRODUCTION: This quasi-experimental study uses a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design to investigate the effects of a web-based self-care program on self-care behaviors, anxiety, depression, and blood glucose in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The subjects of the study were outpatients being treated in the Department of Endocrinology at Hospital G, located in Seoul near University C, from July 15, 2015, to December 31, 2016...
July 23, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Pedro C Marques, Gustavo Rocha, Filipa Flor-De-Lima, Hercília Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) remains a serious problem among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and is a marker of severe nutritional deficit during the first weeks of life. It can lead to a higher risk of growth impairment during childhood and long-term medical problems. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of EUGR in preterm infants below 1500 grams. METHODS: Descriptive retrospective study of all preterm infants with birth weight below 1500 grams who were born at and discharged from our center, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016...
July 23, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Carina Andriatta Blume, Brenda Moretto Machado, Raíssa Ramos da Rosa, Maisa Dos Santos Rigoni, Daniela Schaan Casagrande, Cláudio Corá Mottin, Beatriz D Schaan
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to assess whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) prior to pregnancy is associated with fluid intelligence in offspring. Additionally, perinatal and obstetric outcomes, and children nutritional status were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Singleton births of women who underwent RYGB between 2000 and 2010 (BS) were matched to two control births by maternal age, delivery year, and gender. Control group 1 (CG1) and control group 2 (CG2) included women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m2 and ≥ 35 kg/m2 , respectively, who had never undergone bariatric surgery...
July 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Mitra Kolivand, Mehr Ali Rahimi, Afsaneh Keramat, Mohammad Shariati, Mohammad Hassan Emamian
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a new self-care guide package on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 152 women with GDM. The intervention group was provided with the self-care guide package and three face-to-face educational sessions. The control group received routine clinical services, including physician visits and short training regarding nutrition, blood glucose control, and insulin injections...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Megan Jarman, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Fatemeh Ramazani, Mohammadreza Pakseresht, Paula J Robson, Steven T Johnson, Rhonda C Bell
Few studies have explored pre-pregnancy diet and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) derive pre-pregnancy dietary patterns for women enrolled in a prospective cohort in the province of Alberta, Canada; (2) describe associations between dietary patterns and socio-demographic characteristics; and (3) describe associations between dietary patterns and pregnancy complications. Upon enrolment into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study (median age of gestation, 17 weeks), women ( n = 1545) completed a validated 142-item food frequency questionnaire recording food and beverages consumed "in the 12 months prior to pregnancy"...
July 17, 2018: Nutrients
Frank H Bloomfield, Jane E Harding, Michael P Meyer, Jane M Alsweiler, Yannan Jiang, Clare R Wall, Tanith Alexander
BACKGROUND: Babies born at moderate-late preterm gestations account for > 80% of all preterm births. Although survival is excellent, these babies are at increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. They also are at increased risk of adverse long-term health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. There is little evidence guiding optimal nutritional practices in these babies; practice, therefore, varies widely. This factorial design clinical trial will address the role of parenteral nutrition, milk supplementation and exposure of the preterm infant to taste and smell with each feed on time to tolerance of full feeds, adiposity, and neurodevelopment at 2 years...
July 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jürgen Harreiter, Karin Schindler, Dagmar Bancher-Todesca, Christian Göbl, Felix Langer, Gerhard Prager, Alois Gessl, Michael Leutner, Bernhard Ludvik, Anton Luger, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael Krebs
The prevalence of obesity is growing worldwide, and strategies to overcome this epidemic need to be developed urgently. Bariatric surgery is a very effective treatment option to reduce excess weight and often performed in women of reproductive age. Weight loss influences fertility positively and can resolve hormonal imbalance. So far, guidelines suggest conceiving after losing maximum weight and thus recommend conception at least 12-24 months after surgery. As limited data of these suggestions exist, further evidence is urgently needed as well for weight gain in pregnancy...
2018: Journal of Obesity
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