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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110684/tryptophan-and-kynurenine-metabolites-are-they-related-to-depression
#1
Maurizio Pompili, Luana Lionetto, Martina Curto, Alberto Forte, Denise Erbuto, Franco Montebovi, Maria Elena Seretti, Isabella Berardelli, Gianluca Serafini, Marco Innamorati, Mario Amore, Ross J Baldessarini, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Simmaco
BACKGROUND: Some previous studies found decreased concentrations of L-tryptophan (TRY) and increased L-kynurenine (KYN), or its metabolites, in the body fluids of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), sometimes in association with suicidal behavior. Such changes might indicate a shift of TRY away from serotonin production, possibly via the effects of inflammatory peptides which activate indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. However, these findings have been inconsistent and require replication...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108529/auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-a-systematic-review
#2
Christina W Slotema, Jan Dirk Blom, Marieke B A Niemantsverdriet, Iris E C Sommer
Background: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are experienced more frequently by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) than previously assumed. However, consensus is lacking on how to treat them. Objective: To provide a systematic review of studies reporting on AVH in patients with BPD, with a focus on the efficacy of treatment of psychotic symptoms. Methods: For this review a systematic search was made in the PubMed and Ovid databases, and mean weighted prevalence rates, adjusted for sample size, were computed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108374/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-suicide-after-a-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#3
Zhenlang Guo, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Chiming Gu, Songtao Xiang, Jianfu Zhou, Leiliang Gong, Franky Leung Chan, Shusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a contributory psychological stress that causes excess risk of suicide among affected men remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate suicide incidence and associated risk factors among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 2018. The inverse variance method with random-effects modeling was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106750/physical-activity-and-physical-fitness-as-protective-factors-of-adolescent-health
#4
Andrea Lukács, Péter Sasvári, Emőke Kiss-Tóth
Objective This quantitative correlational design study aimed to examine the variation in adolescent health and lifestyle characteristics across self-reported physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) levels. Methods Data were collected from 422 students (50.2% males) (16.33 SD = 1.66 y/o) attending a high school. An online questionnaire was used to gather data on the following characteristics: self-reported well-being, overall life satisfaction, depression (including self-harm and suicidal ideation), perceived health status, eating disorders, sleepiness, substance use (alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use), body mass index, PA participation and PF levels...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103839/time-trends-in-suicide-rates-by-domestic-gas-or-car-exhaust-gas-inhalation-in-japan-1968-1994
#5
E Yoshioka, S J B Hanley, Y Saijo
AimsA reduction in the carbon monoxide content of domestic gas and car exhaust gas has been associated with a decrease in gassing suicides in many western countries. In Japan, a reduction in the carbon monoxide content of domestic gas supply began in the early 1970s, and carbon monoxide emissions standards of new passenger cars were significantly strengthened in 1978. However, little is known about the impact of detoxification of these gases on gassing-related suicides in Japan. Therefore, we examined the changing patterns of suicide due to domestic gas or car exhaust gas inhalation by gender and age in Japan between 1968 and 1994...
August 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103179/complex-suicides-a-review-of-the-literature-with-considerations-on-a-single-case-of-abdominal-self-stabbing-and-plastic-bag-suffocation
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Simonit, Fabio Bassan, Carlo Scorretti, Lorenzo Desinan
Complex suicides are rare and consist in the use of more than one method to induce death, representing a challenging investigation for forensic pathologists. According to the several combinations reported in literature, they have been classified into "typical" (where two common suicide methods are associated) and "atypical" (where more than two methods, or infrequent combinations of suicide methods are involved). In the case discussed here, an elderly man suffering of depression was found dead inside the tool shed of his house with a knife embedded in the abdomen and two plastic bags fastened around the neck using a twine...
August 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099207/interleukin-il-8-polymorphisms-contribute-in-suicide-behavior
#7
Rezvan Noroozi, Mir Davood Omrani, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Arezou Sayad, Athar Ata, Hamid Fallah, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Previous studies have highlighted the role of immune dysregulation in suicide behavior. Interleukin (IL)-8 is a chemokine with neuroprotective effects whose lower serum concentrations have been detected in individuals committed suicide. In the present study, we genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within IL-8 gene (rs4073, rs2227306 and rs1126647) in 229 individuals who attempted suicide with soft suicide methods, 235 suicide victims and 290 individuals without any history of psychiatric disorders or suicide attempt...
August 9, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094518/which-comes-first-an-examination-of-associations-and-shared-risk-factors-for-eating-disorders-and-suicidality
#8
REVIEW
April R Smith, Shelby N Ortiz, Lauren N Forrest, Elizabeth A Velkoff, Dorian R Dodd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review evaluates recent literature on the associations between eating disorders and suicidality and discusses potential shared mechanisms that may account for these relationships. Additionally, the review highlights shortcomings with the literature to date and suggests avenues for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder experience elevated rates of suicidality compared to the general population...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094317/decomposition-of-age-and-cause-specific-adult-mortality-contributions-to-the-gender-gap-in-life-expectancy-from-census-and-survey-data-in-zambia
#9
Vesper H Chisumpa, Clifford O Odimegwu
In the context of high adult mortality and an immense impact on the health burden of Zambia, a decomposition analysis of age- and cause-specific mortality in age group 15-59 was performed to determine the contributions to the gap in life expectancy at birth between males and females. Previous studies on decomposition have examined income groups, ethnicity, and regional differences' contributions to gaps in life expectancy, but not the adult mortality age group 15-59. These studies focus on developed countries and few on developing countries...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088027/the-study-of-effect-moderation-in-youth-suicide-prevention-studies
#10
REVIEW
Rashelle J Musci, Hadi Kharrazi, Renee F Wilson, Ryoko Susukida, Fardad Gharghabi, Allen Zhang, Lawrence Wissow, Karen A Robinson, Holly C Wilcox
PURPOSE: Suicide is now the second leading cause of death among persons between the ages of adolescents and emerging adults and rates have increased despite more funding and broader implementation of youth suicide-prevention programs. A systematic review was conducted focusing on identifying youth suicide-prevention studies within the United States. This paper reports on the methods utilized for understanding possible moderators of suicide-prevention program outcomes. METHODS: We searched six databases from 1990 through August 2017 to identify studies of suicide-preventive interventions among those under age 26 years...
August 7, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085335/reversibly-immortalized-hepatic-progenitor-cell-line-containing-double-suicide-genes
#11
Shu-Yu Fang, Chao-Qun Hu, Meng-Nan Liu, Li Tao, Yi Wang, Meng-Jia Gong, Yun He, Tong-Chuan He, Yang Bi
A large number of functional hepatocytes is required for bioartificial liver therapy. Simian virus 40 T‑antigen (SV40T) has been previously reported to improve the immortalized proliferation of primary hepatocytes to generate a sufficient number of cells; however, these long‑term immortalized hepatocytes may induce further malignant transformation in vivo. In the present study, the SV40T immortalization gene and two suicide genes, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV‑tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD), were transducted into primary hepatocytes to construct a novel type of Cre/LoxP‑mediated reversible immortalized hepatocyte line...
October 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081976/-mediating-effect-of-psychological-symptoms-coping-styles-and-impulsiveness-on-the-relationship-between-childhood-abuses-and-non-suicidal-self-injuries-among-middle-school-students
#12
Shuangshuang Ma, Yuhui Wan, Shichen Zhang, Shaojun Xu, Wan Liu, Liang Xu, Lulu Zhai, Hui Zhang, Jiahu Hao, Fangbiao Tao
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mediationl effects of psychological symptoms, coping styles and impulsiveness on relationship between childhood abuse and non-suicidal self-injuries( NSSI) among middle school students. METHODS: A total of 9704 participants( boys( 4600), girls( 5104); urban( 4049), rural( 5655); junior( 5168), senior( 4536)) were retained from all epidemiological study, involving students from junior and senior middle schools in Zhengzhou, Guiyang by random cluster sampling...
July 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079484/applying-computer-adaptive-testing-methods-to-suicide-risk-screening-in-the-emergency-department
#13
Edwin D Boudreaux, Derek P De Beurs, Tam H Nguyen, Brianna L Haskins, Celine Larkin, Bruce Barton
OBJECTIVE: Combine test theory with technology to develop brief, reliable suicide risk measures in the emergency department. METHODS: A computer adaptive test for suicide risk was built using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation and tested among the emergency department population. Data were analyzed from a sample of 1,350 patients in several Massachusetts emergency departments. The test was built as outlined by the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System...
August 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079042/increasing-knowledge-skills-and-confidence-concerning-students-suicidality-through-a-gatekeeper-workshop-for-school-staff
#14
Rebecca C Brown, Joana Straub, Isabelle Bohnacker, Paul L Plener
Introduction: Around one-third of adolescents in Germany report a lifetime history of suicide ideation. School staff (e.g., teachers or school social workers) can serve as gatekeepers to identify adolescents at risk and transfer them to appropriate mental health professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gatekeeper training for school staff. Methods: A total of N = 603 school social workers, school psychologists, and teachers participated in one of 33 1.5-day workshops. Knowledge, attitudes, confidence in skills, and perceived knowledge were assessed at pre and post workshops and at 6-month follow-up (FU)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077756/new-hybrid-type-strigolactone-mimics-derived-from-plant-growth-regulator-auxin
#15
Adéla Hýlová, Tomáš Pospíšil, Lukáš Spíchal, Jurgen J Mateman, Daniel Blanco-Ania, Binne Zwanenburg
Strigolactones (SLs) constitute a new class of plant hormones of increasing importance in plant science. The structure of natural SLs is too complex for ready access by synthesis. Therefore, much attention is being given to design of SL analogues and mimics with a simpler structure but with retention of bioactivity. Here new hybrid type SL mimics have been designed derived from auxins, the common plant growth regulators. Auxins were simply coupled with the butenolide D-ring using bromo (or chloro) butenolide...
August 2, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074005/retrospective-evaluation-of-adult-poisoning-cases-admitted-to-emergency-department-of-a-university-hospital-in-turkey
#16
S Sungur, U Bilge, N Acar, I Unluoglu
Objective: We aimed to evaluate demographic, etiological, clinical features, and prognosis of poisoning cases applied to a tertiary emergency department retrospectively. Materials and Methods: The recordings of poisoning cases aged 18 years old and over which applied to the department of emergency medicine between the dates of 2010-2015 were examined. Age, gender, admission date, amount of time passed since exposure to the poisonous substance, application method, cause of poisoning, laboratory findings at arrival, vital signs, type of poisonous substance, the way of taking, treatment method in urgent care, consultation need, and the outcome of cases were recorded...
August 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066665/extracting-psychiatric-stressors-for-suicide-from-social-media-using-deep-learning
#17
Jingcheng Du, Yaoyun Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Yuxi Jia, Qiang Wei, Cui Tao, Hua Xu
BACKGROUND: Suicide has been one of the leading causes of deaths in the United States. One major cause of suicide is psychiatric stressors. The detection of psychiatric stressors in an at risk population will facilitate the early prevention of suicidal behaviors and suicide. In recent years, the widespread popularity and real-time information sharing flow of social media allow potential early intervention in a large-scale population. However, few automated approaches have been proposed to extract psychiatric stressors from Twitter...
July 23, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062078/clinico-epidemiological-characteristics-of-corrosive-ingestion-a-cross-sectional-study-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-multan-south-punjab-pakistan
#18
Muhammad Usman Hashmi, Mansoor Ali, Kaleem Ullah, Abdul Aleem, Iftikhar H Khan
Introduction Corrosive ingestion is a grave public health problem. It is a medical emergency and shows diverse clinical presentations. The ingestion of corrosive substances has devastating effects on upper gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and the corrosive injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications. The present study aims to explore the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients of corrosive ingestion presenting at a tertiary care hospital of Multan, Pakistan. Method The target study population consists of all the patients with primary diagnosis of corrosive ingestion who presented to the department of thoracic surgery, Nishtar Medical University Hospital Multan, Pakistan, from January 2016 to December 2017...
May 29, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061849/sleep-disturbances-and-suicidality-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-a-representative-community-study-over-30-years
#19
Wulf Rössler, Jules Angst, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Helene Haker, Sofian Berrouiguet, Mariam Ujeyl, Nicholas Glozier, Michael P Hengartner
Study objectives: Associations between sleep problems and suicidality are increasingly acknowledged, but prospective data from well-controlled long-term community studies are lacking. Methods: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study with n = 591 young adults from Zurich, Switzerland, prospectively followed from 1979 (age 20/21 years) to 2008 (age 49/50 years). Twelve-month prevalence of various mental disorders, socio-environmental confounders and sleep problems were carefully assessed with semi-structured interviews at 7 assessment waves spanning overall a 30-year observation period...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061324/the-association-between-suicide-deaths-and-putatively-harmful-and-protective-factors-in-media-reports
#20
Mark Sinyor, Ayal Schaffer, Yasunori Nishikawa, Donald A Redelmeier, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler, Jitender Sareen, Anthony J Levitt, Alex Kiss, Jane Pirkis
BACKGROUND: Exposure to media reporting on suicide can lead to suicide contagion and, in some circumstances, may also lead to help-seeking behaviour. There is limited evidence for which specific characteristics of media reports mediate these phenomena. METHODS: This observational study examined associations between putatively harmful and protective elements of media reports about suicide in 13 major publications in the Toronto media market and subsequent suicide deaths in Toronto (2011-2014)...
July 30, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
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