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Intensive pediatric care drugs intravenous administration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199622/comparison-of-intravenous-palivizumab-and-standard-of-care-for-treatment-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-mechanically-ventilated-pediatric-patients
#1
Brady J Helmink, Carolyn E Ragsdale, Evan J Peterson, Kathryn G Merkel
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests palivizumab may be beneficial for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in pediatric patients, although it is only approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for RSV prophylaxis. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes among pediatric patients with RSV infection who received intravenous palivizumab and standard of care versus standard of care alone. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center cohort study conducted between November 2003 and October 2013...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27026063/safe-intravenous-administration-in-pediatrics-a-5-year-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-experience-with-smart-pumps
#2
S Manrique-Rodríguez, A C Sánchez-Galindo, C M Fernández-Llamazares, M M Calvo-Calvo, Á Carrillo-Álvarez, M Sanjurjo-Sáez
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of smart pump implementation in a pediatric intensive care unit in terms of number and type of administration errors intercepted. DESIGN: Observational, prospective study carried out from January 2010 to March 2015 with syringe and great volumen infusion pumps available in the hospital. SETTING: A tertiary level hospital pediatric intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS: Infusions delivered with infusion pumps in all pediatric intensive care unit patients...
October 2016: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994602/pharmacokinetics-of-oral-and-intravenous-oseltamivir-treatment-of-severe-influenza-b-virus-infection-requiring-organ-replacement-therapy
#3
Katharina Karsch, Xi Chen, Oliver Miera, Björn Peters, Patrick Obermeier, Roland C Francis, Válerie Amann, Susanne Duwe, Pieter Fraaij, Alla Heider, Marcel de Zwart, Felix Berger, Albert Osterhaus, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with severe influenza virus infection, multi-organ failure and organ replacement therapy may absorb and metabolize neuraminidase inhibitors differently. Systematic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic clinical trials are currently lacking in this high-risk group. Inadequate dosing increases the risk of treatment failure and drug resistance, especially in severely ill patients with elevated virus loads. This study aims to explore the impact of organ replacement therapy on oseltamivir drug concentrations...
March 19, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26294272/-security-of-hospital-infusion-practices-from-an-a-priori-risk-analysis-to-an-improvement-action-plan
#4
J Pignard, S Cosserant, O Traore, B Souweine, V Sautou
OBJECTIVES: Infusion in care units, and all the more in intensive care units, is a complex process which can be the source of many risks for the patient. Under cover of an institutional approach for the improvement of the quality and safety of patient healthcare, a risk mapping infusion practices was performed. METHODS: The analysis was focused on intravenous infusion situations in adults, the a priori risk assessment methodology was applied and a multidisciplinary work group established...
March 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25298601/the-effect-of-preoperative-intravenous-paracetamol-administration-on-postoperative-fever-in-pediatrics-cardiac-surgery
#5
Mohammad-Hasan Abdollahi, Khalil Foruzan-Nia, Mostafa Behjati, Babak Bagheri, Mehdi Khanbabayi-Gol, Shahla Dareshiri, Alireza Pishgahi, Rafie Zarezadeh, Nazgol Lotfi-Naghsh, Ainaz Lotfi-Naghsh, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad
BACKGROUND: Post-operative fever is a common complication of cardiac operations, which is known to be correlated with a greater degree of cognitive dysfunction 6 weeks after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present study was to examine efficacy and safety of single dose intravenous Paracetamol in treatment of post-operative fever in children undergoing cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 children, aged 1-12 years, presenting for open heart surgery were entered in the trial and randomly allocated into two groups: Placebo and Paracetamol...
September 2014: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25214951/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-of-severe-encephalitis-associated-with-neurogenic-pulmonary-edema-caused-by-enterovirus-71-in-china
#6
Yu-Cai Zhang, Xing-Wang Li, Xiao-Dong Zhu, Su-Yun Qian, Yun-Xiao Shang, Bi-Ru Li, Xiao-Lin Liu
BACKGROUND: Hand-foot-mouth disease has become a major public health issue in children in China. In the present prospective study we investigated the clinical characteristics and emergency management of children with severe encephalitis associated with NPE caused by enterovirus 71. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) over a 2-month period. Clinical records were reviewed of critically ill children with severe encephalitis associated with NPE caused by EV71 who were admitted to PICUs during the period of May to June 2008 in Fuyang...
2010: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24936108/pharmacokinetic-properties-and-tolerability-of-single-dose-terbutaline-in-patients-with-severe-asthma-treated-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#7
Daniel J Lebovitz, Paul G Smith, MaryAnn O'Riordan, Michael D Reed
BACKGROUND: Asthmatic children requiring treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) receive aggressive drug therapy that may include IV administration of β 2-receptor agonists to prevent progression to life-threatening respiratory failure. The only pharmacologic agent in this class currently available for parenteral use in the United States is terbutaline. Study of IV dosing of terbutaline in the pediatric population has been limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and tolerability of single-dose terbutaline in pediatric patients across a broad age range who were admitted to the PICU and were receiving maximal conventional asthma drug therapy...
January 2004: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24384883/preparation-of-intravenous-drug-administration-guidelines-for-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#8
Silvia Manrique-Rodríguez, Amelia Sánchez-Galindo, Cecilia M Fernández-Llamazares, Jesús López-Herce, Milagrosa Rodríguez-Gómez, Lara Echarri-Martínez, Angel Carrillo-Álvarez, María Sanjurjo-Sáez
Drug administration is one of the main sources of errors in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). An available guide for intravenous drug administration might be useful. The aim of this article is to present the methodology and results for the development of a guide for intravenous drug administration in a PICU. A total of 116 drugs were included. Standard concentrations, diluents, technique for reconstitution and dilution, stability, rate of administration, and relevant observations were defined for each drug according to a review of the most commonly used literature resources...
January 2014: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23602063/cumulative-corticosteroid-exposure-and-infection-risk-after-complex-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christopher W Mastropietro, Renee Barrett, Maria Caridad Davalos, Marwan Zidan, Kevin M Valentine, Ralph E Delius, Henry L Walters
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cardiac surgery may receive corticosteroids preoperatively to temper cardiopulmonary bypass-related inflammation, postoperatively for hemodynamic instability, and periextubation to reduce airway edema. Recent data have associated preoperative corticosteroids with infection. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between cumulative corticosteroid exposure and infection. METHODS: A retrospective review of children who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution from January 2009 to July 2010 was performed...
June 2013: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23538522/intravenous-pentamidine-is-safe-and-effective-as-primary-pneumocystis-pneumonia-prophylaxis-in-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
James M DeMasi, Jennifer A Cox, David Leonard, Andrew Y Koh, Victor M Aquino
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially life-threatening but preventable infection that may occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Intravenous pentamidine has been used in the prevention of PCP in the post-transplant period, although there are few trials published in the literature evaluating its safety and efficacy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children who underwent HSCT from January 1, 2005, to October 1, 2011, who received intravenous pentamidine as first-line PCP prophylaxis initiated at admission...
September 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23512668/a-novel-maturation-function-for-clearance-of-the-cytochrome-p450-3a-substrate-midazolam-from-preterm-neonates-to-adults
#11
Ibrahim Ince, Saskia N de Wildt, Chenguang Wang, Chengueng Wang, Mariska Y M Peeters, Jacobus Burggraaf, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, John N van den Anker, Dick Tibboel, Meindert Danhof, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Major changes in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity may be expected in the first few months of life with, later, relatively limited changes. In this analysis we studied the maturation of in vivo CYP3A-mediated clearance of midazolam, as model drug, from preterm neonates of 26 weeks gestational age (GA) to adults. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data after intravenous administration of midazolam were obtained from six previously reported studies...
July 2013: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23295901/repeated-exposure-to-propofol-potentiates-neuroapoptosis-and-long-term-behavioral-deficits-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Deshui Yu, Yan Jiang, Jin Gao, Bin Liu, Ping Chen
Previous studies have shown that exposure of the immature brain to drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or drugs that potentiate GABA(A) receptors can trigger widespread neuroapoptosis. Almost all currently used general anesthetics have either NMDA receptor blocking or GABA(A) receptor enhancing properties. Propofol, a new intravenous anesthetic, is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice whose neurotoxicity on brain development remains unknown. We investigated the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on neuroapoptosis and long-term spatial learning/memory functions...
February 8, 2013: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23055907/retrospective-analysis-of-the-initiation-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-severe-sepsis-in-pediatric-patients
#13
Joseph M Larochelle, Jill A Morgan, Kristine A Parbuoni
BACKGROUND: The 2008 Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines state that intravenous antibiotic therapy should be started within the first hour of recognition of septic shock. Currently, there are no published studies looking at antibiotic timing in pediatric sepsis patients. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine if sepsis patients admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) are administered antibiotics in the appropriate time frame according to the Surviving Sepsis Guidelines...
October 2009: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23023469/management-of-afebrile-neonates-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shervin A Kharazmi, Daniel A Hirsh, Harold K Simon, Shabnam Jain
OBJECTIVE: To describe the management of afebrile neonatal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in the pediatric emergency department (PED). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients aged 0 to 28 days seen in the PED for SSTIs from 2004 to 2010. The SSTIs were identified from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes of pustulosis, cellulitis, and abscess. Records were reviewed to determine the absence of fever; anatomical location; cultures of blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid; antibiotic usage; and return visits...
October 2012: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22855105/cardiac-arrest-and-possible-seizure-activity-after-vincristine-injection
#15
Angela S Lennon, Grace Norales, Michael B Armstrong
PURPOSE: A case of cardiac arrest and possible seizure activity after vincristine injection in a child is reported. SUMMARY: A two-year-old African-American girl with stage IV hepatoblastoma arrived at a clinic to receive her fourth dose of vincristine as part of standard induction therapy. The patient had tolerated her first three doses of vincristine sulfate 0.7 mg (1.5 mg/m(2)) i.v. without any adverse events. Laboratory tests, including a comprehensive metabolic panel, conducted before chemotherapy administration were unremarkable...
August 15, 2012: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22821290/holy-water-associated-pulmonary-infection-with-a-multiresistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-in-an-11-year-old-child
#16
M Michel, A Entenmann, T Wiemann, A van Baalen, M Krause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2013: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22727770/old-agent-new-experience-colistin-use-in-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-a-multicentre-study
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Muhammet Sukru Paksu, Sule Paksu, Adil Karadag, Gülnar Sensoy, Nazik Asilioglu, Dincer Yildizdas, Basak Nur Akyildiz, Tanil Kendirli, Demet Demirkol, Muhammet Akgun, Emine Alp, Ergin Ciftci, Akif Koray Guney, Naci Murat
Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms are a common problem around the world, especially in Intensive Care Units. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of colistin therapy in paediatric patients with severe nosocomial infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria. There were 87 episodes in 79 paediatric Intensive Care Unit patients in five different hospitals; each patient was treated intravenously with colistin and evaluated. Of the 79 patients, 54...
August 2012: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22512393/sedation-and-analgesia-in-pediatric-intensive-care
#18
REVIEW
Carmelo Minardi, Emre Sahillioğlu, Marinella Astuto, Marco Colombo, Pablo Mauricio Ingelmo
Almost all children in the pediatric intensive care (PICU) need analgesia and/or sedation. Analgesics drugs are used to control pain from surgical incisions, drainages, vascular access or endotracheal suctioning. Sedatives are used to facilitate the delivery of nursing care, to facilitate mechanical ventilation, prevent self-extubation and to minimize patient discomfort. A therapeutic plan for analgesia and sedation should be established for each patient and regularly reviewed. The most often used sedation agents in PICU patients are Morphine or Fentanyl alone or in combination with Midazolam...
June 2012: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22508922/magnesium-use-in-asthma-pharmacotherapy-a-pediatric-emergency-research-canada-study
#19
Suzanne Schuh, Roger Zemek, Amy Plint, Karen J L Black, Stephen Freedman, Robert Porter, Serge Gouin, Alexandra Hernandez, David W Johnson
OBJECTIVES: To examine the use of intravenous magnesium in Canadian pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in children requiring hospitalization for acute asthma and association of administration of frequent albuterol/ipratropium and timely corticosteroids with hospitalization. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review at 6 EDs of otherwise healthy children 2 to 17 years of age with acute asthma. Data were extracted on history, disease severity, and timing of ED stabilization treatments with inhaled albuterol, ipratropium, corticosteroids, and magnesium...
May 2012: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22479086/describing-intravenous-extravasation-in-children-dive-study
#20
Vanessa Paquette, Rumi McGloin, Tracie Northway, Pia Dezorzi, Avash Singh, Roxane Carr
BACKGROUND: Extravasation, the inadvertent leakage of intravenous (IV) medication from the vein into the surrounding tissue, is a iatrogenic cause of patient injury. Extravasation has been reported to occur in 0.1% to 6.5% of hospital inpatients. The incidence may be higher among children because they have multiple risk factors, including small and fragile veins, decreased peripheral circulation, capillary leakage, and flexible subcutaneous tissue. OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of extravasation at a pediatric tertiary care hospital, to identify the agents causing extravasation, and to describe the use of antidotes to manage identified cases...
September 2011: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
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