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"Advanced Life Support" OR "ALS" OR "Advanced Cardiac Life Support" OR "ACLS"

Chiharu Matsuda, Toshio Shimizu, Yuki Nakayama, Michiko Haraguchi
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the prognostic significance of the cough peak flow (CPF) decline rate in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Thirty-four patients with ALS participated. We examined CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), body mass index, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), and followed patients to death, tracheostomy or non-invasive ventilator dependency. We analyzed the relationship between the rate of decline of each parameter and survival prognosis...
August 14, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Whitney A Ratliff, Jessica N Saykally, Michael J Kane, Bruce A Citron
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset neuromuscular disease for which there is currently no effective treatment. The progression of ALS includes loss of motor neurons controlling the voluntary muscles, with much of this loss occurring at the neuromuscular junction. In an effort to better understand changes at the neuromuscular junction, we utilized the wobbler mouse model of motor neuron loss. We examined biceps and end plate morphologies and monitored selected factors involved in end plate function...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Christian Lattermann, Caitlin E-W Conley, Darren L Johnson, Emily K Reinke, Laura J Huston, Janet L Huebner, Ching-Heng Chou, Virginia B Kraus, Kurt P Spindler, Cale A Jacobs
Background: The majority of patients develop posttraumatic osteoarthritis within 15 years of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Inflammatory and chondrodegenerative biomarkers have been associated with both pain and the progression of osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear if preoperative biomarkers differ for patients with inferior postoperative outcomes. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare biomarkers collected on the day of ACL reconstruction between patients with "good" or "poor" 2-year postoperative outcomes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Anna M Wirth, Andrei Khomenko, Dobri Baldaranov, Ines Kobor, Ohnmar Hsam, Thomas Grimm, Siw Johannesen, Tim-Henrik Bruun, Wilhelm Schulte-Mattler, Mark W Greenlee, Ulrich Bogdahn
Objective: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative process affecting upper and lower motor neurons as well as non-motor systems. In this study, precentral and postcentral cortical thinning detected by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were combined with clinical (ALS-specific functional rating scale revised, ALSFRS-R) and neurophysiological (motor unit number index, MUNIX) biomarkers in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Methods: The unicenter sample included 20 limb-onset classical ALS patients compared to 30 age-related healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ariel Kiyomi Daoud, Tessa Mandler, Alexia Georgia Gagliardi, Harin Bhavin Parikh, Patrick M Carry, Anusara Carolyn Ice, Jay Albright
Background: Despite advancements in minimally invasive arthroscopic surgical techniques, post-operative pain management following ACL reconstruction remains a concern. This study compares the effectiveness of two common intraoperative pain management strategies - a femoral nerve catheter (FC) versus a combined femoral nerve catheter and single injection sciatic nerve block (FSB) - in pediatric patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Methods: The medical records of patients age 8 to 18 who underwent ACL reconstruction at our institution were reviewed retrospectively...
2018: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
Huijuan Shi, Hongshi Huang, Yuanyuan Yu, Zixuan Liang, Si Zhang, Bing Yu, Hui Liu, Yingfang Ao
Individuals who received anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgeries demonstrated lower extremity movement asymmetries. The purpose of this study was to determine if psychological impairment was a contributor to lower extremity movement asymmetries in walking for individuals who received ACL reconstruction surgeries. Three-dimensional videographic and force plate data were collected for 25 males after unilateral ACL reconstruction performing walking without (single-task condition) and with the concurrent cognitive task (dual-task condition)...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amelia S Lanier, Brian A Knarr, Nicholas Stergiou, Thomas S Buchanan
Control of shear ground reaction forces (sGRF) is important in performing running and cutting tasks as poor sGRF control has implications for those with knee injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. The goal of this study was to develop a novel and safe task to evaluate control or accurate modulation of shear ground reaction forces related to those generated during cutting. Our approach utilized a force control task using real-time visual feedback of a subject's force production and evaluated control capabilities through accuracy and divergence measurements...
August 11, 2018: Sensors
Qiang Gao, Xuewen Zhao, Xiao Yu, Yu Song, Zhe Wang
BACKGROUND: Brain computer interface (BCI) technology is a communication and control approach. Up to now many studies have attempted to develop an EEG-based BCI system to improve the quality of life of people with severe disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), paralysis, brain stroke and so on. The proposed BCIBSHS could help to provide a new way for supporting life of paralyzed people and elderly people. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper is to explore how to set up a cost-effective and safe-to-use online BCIBSHS to recognize multi-commands and control smart devices based on SSVEP...
July 27, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Amanda J Foss, Neil Chernoff, Mark T Aubel
β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been identified as the potential cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) observed in the Chamorro people of Guam. The principal hypothesis for BMAA exposure and intoxication relies on the biomagnification of BMAA in flying fox specimens ingested by the Chamorro people. Although high levels of BMAA were quantitated in flying fox specimens utilizing liquid chromatography-fluorescence (LC-FL), there have not been any confirmatory analyses conducted to date...
August 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Eric Hamrin Senorski, Eleonor Svantesson, Kurt P Spindler, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, David Sundemo, Olaf Westin, Jon Karlsson, Kristian Samuelsson
BACKGROUND: Factors relating to the patient and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may help to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome after reconstruction. PURPOSE: To determine 10-year risk factors for inferior knee function after ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register were extracted for patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between January 2005 and December 2006...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Moon Jong Chang, Jin Hwa Jeong, Chong Bum Chang, Young Jun Kim, Bo-Kyung Seo, Min Kyu Song, Taehoon Kang, Seung-Baik Kang
BACKGROUND: Some patients with recurrent symptomatic instability after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have an extension deficiency (ED). This study 1) compared preoperative clinical conditions between the ED and non-ED groups undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, 2) documented clinical and arthroscopic findings in ACL-reconstructed patients with re-instability and ED, and 3) determined whether the ED could be resolved and whether the clinical results of revision surgery differed between the ED and non-ED groups METHODS: This study included 58 patients who underwent revision ACL reconstruction...
August 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Hidemi Misawa, Yuta Morisaki
Different and selective vulnerability among motor neuron subtypes are a fundamental, but unexplained, feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): fast-fatigable (FF) motor neurons are the most vulnerable, and fast fatigue-resistant/slow (FR/S) motor neurons are relatively resistant. We identified that osteopontin (OPN) can serve as a marker of FR/S motor neurons, whereas matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is expressed by FF motor neurons in mice. In SOD1G93A ALS model mice, as the disease progressed, OPN was secreted and accumulated as granular deposits in the extracellular matrix...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Yumi Matsushita, Naoki Kitamura, Masashi Higuchi, Yoshinao Z Hosaka, Izumi Shibuya
Ten pairs of protrusions, called accessory lobes (ALs), exist at the lateral sides of the avian lumbosacral spinal cord. Histological evidence indicates that neuron-like cells gather in the ALs, and behavioral evidence suggests that the ALs act as a sensory organ of equilibrium during bipedal walking. Recently, using an electrophysiological method, we reported that cells showing Na+ currents and action potentials exist among cells that were dissociated from the ALs. However, it was unclear which isoforms of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) are expressed in the ALs and whether cells having neuronal morphology in the ALs express VGSCs...
2018: Biomedical Research
Manoj Kumar Jaiswal
Over the past decades, a multitude of experimental drugs have been shown to delay disease progression in preclinical animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but failed to show efficacy in human clinical trials or are still waiting for approval under Phase I-III trials. Riluzole, a glutamatergic neurotransmission inhibitor, is the only drug approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for ALS treatment with modest benefits on survival. Recently, an antioxidant drug, edaravone, developed by Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma was found to be effective in halting ALS progression during early stages...
August 12, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Bruno Pombo, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Pedro Marques
The posterior cruciate ligament index (PCL index) has been reported as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The clinical relevance of PCL index on the reconstruction of ACL with hamstring tendon autograft has not been described in the literature. The objective of this study is to evaluate the importance of the PCL index as a marker of anatomic reconstruction and of functional improvement of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with HT autograft. Twenty-four patients were submitted to ACL reconstruction with HT autograft...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Katharina Linse, Elisa Aust, Markus Joos, Andreas Hermann
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease, leading to progressive paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory disabilities. Therapy is mostly focused on palliative interventions. During the course of the disease, verbal as well as nonverbal communicative abilities become more and more impaired. In this light, communication has been argued to be "the essence of human life" and crucial for patients' quality of life. High-tech augmentative and alternative communication (HT-AAC) technologies such as eyetracking based computer devices and brain-computer-interfaces provide the possibility to maintain caregiver-independent communication and environmental control even in the advanced disease state of ALS...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sannasi Rajasekar, Ajay Kumar, Jignesh Patel, Muthukrishnan Ramprasad, Asir John Samuel
BACKGROUND: Deficiency in hip girdle neuromuscular control can cause exaggerated Dynamic Knee Valgus (DKV) which afflicts the knee joint and lead to knee injuries especially ACL injury in sports. Though Kinesio taping (KT) is known to improve function, stability and proprioception, the evidence is inconclusive on its effectiveness in athletes. We hypothesized that kinesio taping could enhance neuromuscular control of the hip girdle there by causing a reduction in DKV. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To determine whether KT on Gluteus medius can correct exaggerated dynamic knee valgus and improves hip abductor strength when compared to sham KT...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Leeanne McGurk, Edward Gomes, Lin Guo, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Van Tran, Robert G Kalb, James Shorter, Nancy M Bonini
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), cytoplasmic aggregates of hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 accumulate and colocalize with some stress granule components, but how pathological TDP-43 aggregation is nucleated remains unknown. In Drosophila, we establish that downregulation of tankyrase, a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase, reduces TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm and potently mitigates neurodegeneration. We establish that TDP-43 non-covalently binds to PAR via PAR-binding motifs embedded within its nuclear localization sequence...
July 26, 2018: Molecular Cell
Kenneth Pihl, Aleksandra Turkiewicz, Martin Englund, L Stefan Lohmander, Uffe Jørgensen, Nis Nissen, Jeppe Schjerning, Jonas B Thorlund
OBJECTIVES: We explored associations between specific meniscal pathologies and other concurrent structural knee pathologies with presence of self-reported mechanical symptoms in patients undergoing meniscal surgery. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We included patients undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear from Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS). Pre-surgery, patients completed online questionnaires including self-reported presence of mechanical symptoms...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Christoph S Clemen, Lilli Winter, Karl-Heinz Strucksberg, Carolin Berwanger, Matthias Türk, Cornelia Kornblum, Alexandra Florin, Juan Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Oana Veronica Amarie, Lore Becker, Lillian Garrett, Wolfgang Hans, Kristin Moreth, Frauke Neff, Laura Pingen, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Jan Rozman, Irina Treise, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Matthias Vorgerd, Ludwig Eichinger, Rolf Schröder
Heterozygous missense mutations in the human VCP gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and fronto-temporal dementia (IBMPFD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exact molecular mechanisms by which VCP mutations cause disease manifestation in different tissues are incompletely understood. In the present study, we report the comprehensive analysis of a newly generated R155C VCP knock-in mouse model, which expresses the ortholog of the second most frequently occurring human pathogenic VCP mutation...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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