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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120251/emerging-many-body-effects-in-semiconductor-artificial-graphene-with-low-disorder
#1
Lingjie Du, Sheng Wang, Diego Scarabelli, Loren N Pfeiffer, Ken W West, Saeed Fallahi, Geoff C Gardner, Michael J Manfra, Vittorio Pellegrini, Shalom J Wind, Aron Pinczuk
The interplay between electron-electron interactions and the honeycomb topology is expected to produce exotic quantum phenomena and find applications in advanced devices. Semiconductor-based artificial graphene (AG) is an ideal system for these studies that combines high-mobility electron gases with AG topology. However, to date, low-disorder conditions that reveal the interplay of electron-electron interaction with AG symmetry have not been achieved. Here, we report the creation of low-disorder AG that preserves the near-perfection of the pristine electron layer by fabricating small period triangular antidot lattices on high-quality quantum wells...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115370/intravenous-lipid-emulsions-in-veterinary-clinical-toxicology
#2
REVIEW
Sharon Gwaltney-Brant, Irina Meadows
Use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote for severe cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity has expanded in the veterinary world in the past decade. Despite advances in understanding of potential mechanisms of action of antidotal ILE, knowledge gaps remain in efficacy, appropriate dosing rates for various toxicants, and potential adverse reactions. Use of ILE in management of toxicoses of veterinary patients should be considered investigational, and should not be first-line treatment of most toxicoses, especially where established treatment protocols have good likelihood of positive outcomes...
August 14, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112293/what-is-in-the-name-understanding-terminologies-of-patient-centered-person-centered-and-patient-directed-care
#3
EDITORIAL
Raman Kumar, Vijay Kumar Chattu
The traditional "medical model" of health care has a paternalistic approach where patients are reassured and not decision makers, but some individuals and families prefer it. But there are some other confusing terminologies in health-care delivery and quality improvement namely patient-centered, person-centered, and patient-directed care. By changing the language, it is emphasizing that people are more than diseases and their socioeconomic determinants can affect their disease trajectories and care choices...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110162/resurrection-biology-aged-acetylcholinesterase-brought-back-to-life
#4
Daniel M Quinn
Organophosphorus agents such as sarin and soman that phosphylate the active site serine of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase are notorious and pernicious, not only because they have been used by tyrants to effect mass murder of their own populations but also because they are sought by terrorists to inflict mass casualties on civilian populations. These threats underscore the need to develop effective antidotes against such agents. Phosphylation of acetylcholinesterase produces two adducts, an initial neutral adduct that can be reactivated with oxime nucleophiles, and a subsequent monoanionic adduct (called aged acetylcholinesterase) which has proven over two generations to be impervious to reactivation...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109760/from-mars-to-magic-the-remarkable-journey-through-time-and-space-of-the-grading-of-recommendations-assessment-development-and-evaluation-initiative
#5
Peter C Wyer
For over 30 years, "evidence-based" clinical guidelines remained entrenched in an oversimplified, design-based, framework for rating the strength of evidence supporting clinical recommendations. The approach frequently equated the rating of evidence with that of the recommendations themselves. "Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)" has emerged as a proposed antidote to obsolete guideline methodology. GRADE sponsors and collaborators are in the process of attempting to amplify and extend the framework to encompass implementation and adaptation of guidelines, above and beyond the evaluation and rating of clinical research...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109745/antiinflammation-constituents-from-curcuma-zedoaroides
#6
Pattreeya Tungcharoen, Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul, Pimpimon Tansakul, Seikou Nakamura, Hisashi Matsuda, Supinya Tewtrakul
Curcuma zedoaroides, a Zingiberaceae species, has been used for snake bite antidote and wound care in Thailand. Seven compounds were isolated from the bioactive chloroform extract consisted of one new guaiane sesquiterpene lactone, 5-epiphaeocaulisin A (4) and one new diarylheptanoid, 1,2,3,5-tetrahydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane (7), together with five known guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones including gweicurculactone (1), zedoalactone B (2), phaeocaulisin C (3), zedoalactone H (5), and zedoalactone E (6)...
August 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094774/the-toxicology-investigators-consortium-case-registry-the-2017-annual-report
#7
Lynn A Farrugia, Sean H Rhyee, Sharan L Campleman, Bryan Judge, Louise Kao, Anthony Pizon, Lauren Porter, Anne M Riederer, Timothy Wiegand, Diane Calello, Paul M Wax, Jeffrey Brent
The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry was established by the American College of Medical Toxicology in 2010. The Registry collects data from participating sites with the agreement that all bedside medical toxicology consultations will be entered. The objective of this eighth annual report is to summarize the Registry's 2017 data and activity with its additional 7577 cases. Cases were identified for inclusion in this report by a query of the ToxIC database for any case entered from 1 January to 31 December 2017...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094773/monitoring-dose-response-of-cyanide-antidote-dimethyl-trisulfide-in-rabbits-using-diffuse-optical-spectroscopy
#8
Jangwoen Lee, Gary Rockwood, Brian Logue, Erica Manandhar, Ilona Petrikovics, Changhoon Han, Vik Bebarta, Sari B Mahon, Tanya Burney, Matthew Brenner
INTRODUCTION: Cyanide (CN) poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current CN exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is capable of reacting with CN to form the less toxic thiocyanate with high efficiency, even without the sulfurtransferase rhodanese. We investigated a soluble DMTS formulation with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification which could be delivered via intramuscular (IM) injection in a mass casualty situation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092658/approaches-to-direct-oral-anticoagulant-selection-in-practice
#9
Bridget Paravattil, Hazem Elewa
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) carry many advantages over warfarin and are now considered first line or an alternative for mnay thromboembolic disorders. With the emergence of 5 DOAC agents to the market as well as the accumulating evidence gathered from head-to-head comparisons between the agents, we attempt to provide direction for clinicians when selecting the most appropriate DOAC agent. Important aspects such as efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness, approved indications, and other drug-related factors will be addressed to highlight the major similarities and diversities among the DOACs...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086798/medical-management-of-victims-contaminated-with-radionuclides-after-a-dirty-bomb-attack
#10
Alexis Rump, Benjamin Becker, Stefan Eder, Andreas Lamkowski, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
A wide spectrum of scenarios may lead to radiation incidents and the liberation of radioactive material. In the case of a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb", there is a risk of mechanical and thermal trauma, external irradiation, superficial contamination and incorporation of radioactive material. The first treatment priority must be given to the care of trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, as the health effects of radiation occur with latency. Radionuclide incorporation will lead to a longer-lasting irradiation from inside the body, associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082186/pediatric-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-settled-in-an-emergency-room-for-a-propafenone-intentional-intoxication
#11
Marco Marano, Bianca M Goffredo, Mara Pisani, Sergio Filippelli, Corrado Cecchetti, Fabrizio Drago, Maria A Barbieri, Joseph Nunziata, Leonardo Genuini, Matteo Di Nardo
The use of drugs in suicide attempts is becoming more and more frequent among adolescents. Intentional intoxication with propafenone is very rare and mainly reported in adults associated with other drugs. The therapeutic approach is symptomatic, since there is no specific antidote for propafenone. We present a pediatric case of intentional ingestion of 1.8 g of propafenone that caused refractory cardiogenic shock. The patient was successfully rescued with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency room of a secondary level peripheral hospital...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076381/relaxation-dynamics-in-magnetic-antidot-lattice-arrays-of-co-pt-with-perpendicular-anisotropy
#12
Sougata Mallick, Swapna Sindhu Mishra, Subhankar Bedanta
The topic of magnetic antidot lattice (MAL) arrays has drawn attention from both fundamental research as well as from application point of view. MAL arrays are promising candidates for making domain engineering in thin films. For various applications it is necessary to understand the magnetization reversal mechanism as well as the relaxation dynamics. In this context we have studied magnetic antidot lattice (MAL) arrays of Co/Pt with perpendicular anisotropy fabricated by combination of photolithography and sputtering deposition...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073093/reversal-strategies-for-intracranial-hemorrhage-related-to-direct-oral-anticoagulant-medications
#13
REVIEW
Alok Dabi, Aristides P Koutrouvelis
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a new class of anticoagulants that directly inhibit either thrombin or factor Xa in the coagulation cascade. They are being increasingly used instead of warfarin or other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Adverse side effects of DOACs may result in hemorrhagic complications, including life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), though to a much lesser degree than VKAs. Currently there are relatively limited indications for DOACS but their usage is certain to expand with the availability of their respective specific reversal agents...
2018: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071719/radiosynthesis-ex-vivo-biodistribution-and-in-vivo-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-evaluations-of-11c-2-pyridinealdoxime-methiodide-11c-2-pam-a-first-in-class-antidote-tracer-for-organophosphate-intoxication
#14
Keil D Neumann, Joseph E Blecha, Thomas R Hayes, Tony Huynh, Chih-Kai Chao, Nicolas Guilloteau, Kurt R Zinn, Henry F VanBrocklin, Charles Mark Thompson, John M Gerdes
2-Pyridinealdoxime methiodide (2-PAM) is a widely used antidote for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) exposure that reactivates the target protein acetylcholinesterase. Carbon-11 2-PAM was prepared to more fully understand the in vivo mode of action, distribution and dynamic qualities of this important countermeasure. Alkylation of 2-pyridinealdoxime with [11C]CH3I provided the first-in-class [11C]2-PAM tracer in 3.5 % decay corrected radiochemical yield from [11C]CH3I , >99% radiochemical purity and 4,831 Ci/mmol molar activity...
August 2, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071587/botulinum-neurotoxin-diversity-from-a-gene-centered-view
#15
Roger M Benoit
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) rank amongst the most potent toxins known. The factors responsible for the emergence of the many known and yet unknown BoNT variants remain elusive. It also remains unclear why anaerobic bacteria that are widely distributed in our environment and normally do not pose a threat to humans, produce such deadly toxins. Even the possibility of accidental toxicity to humans has not been excluded. Here, I review the notion that BoNTs may have specifically evolved to target vertebrates...
August 1, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065214/inactivation-of-venom-pla%C3%A2-alleviates-myonecrosis-and-facilitates-muscle-regeneration-in-envenomed-mice-a-time-course-observation
#16
Huixiang Xiao, Haoran Li, Denghong Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Shimin Sun, Chunhong Huang
Snake venom is a complex cocktail of toxins which induces a series of clinical and pathophysiological manifestations in victims, including severe local tissue damage and systemic alterations. Deinagkistrodon acutus ( D. acutus ) ranks among the "big four" life-threatening venomous species in China, whose venom possesses strong myotoxicity and hematotoxicity that often lead to permanent disability or muscle atrophy. Varespladib, an inhibitor of mammalian phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), has been recently reproposed as an effective antidote against snakebite envenomation...
July 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059899/education-is-the-antidote-individual-and-community-level-effects-of-maternal-education-on-child-immunizations-in-nigeria
#17
Rebekah Burroway, Andrew Hargrove
Nigeria is an interesting case study because it outperforms other lower middle-income countries in economic development, yet ranks among the lowest in the world in immunization coverage rates. Combining multi-level modeling with spatial data techniques, this study investigates the individual- and community-level factors that influence the likelihood that a child is fully immunized, underscoring the importance of maternal education for improving child health. Drawing on data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Global Administrative Areas database, the analysis pools data on children aged 12-24 months across 455 communities...
July 21, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055297/acute-organophosphate-poisoning-17-years-of-experience-of-the-national-poison-control-center-in-serbia
#18
Vučinić Slavica, Bokonjić Dubravko, Jokanović Milan
Based on human toxicity studies, by appropriate regulatory decisions, the number of organophosphates (OP) on Serbian market has reduced significantly over the last two decades, followed by a gradual decrease in the number of poisonings by organophoshates, treated at the National Poison Control Centre (NPCC). METHODOLOGY: The aim of this retrospective study is to present data regarding the clinical management of poisoning with OP pesticides at the NPCC, that we collected during the 17 years period (1998-2014)...
July 25, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055253/the-genus-ficus-moracea-used-in-diet-its-plant-diversity-distribution-traditional-uses-and-ethnopharmacological-importance
#19
REVIEW
Yinxian Shi, Aye Mya Mon, Yu Zhang, Yao Fu, Chen Wang, Xuefei Yang, Yuhua Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A new field of enthnopharmacology has opened, where pharmacological studies draw their attention from the conventional only-medicine approach towards the dietary dimension. The uses of Ficus species in the human diet have been extensively documented by ethnobotanical field surveyors. Overlap commonly exist between the dietary and medicinal selection of Ficus species but not for choices of the plant parts and development stages, which leave a large space for ethnopharmacological study...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050599/-accidents-in-patients-under-anticoagulant-therapy-in-the-department-of-cardiology-at-the-yalgado-ouedraogo-teaching-hospital-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#20
Georges Rosario Christian Millogo, Jonas Koudougou Kologo, Georges Kinda, Nobila Valentin Yaméogo, Jean Baptiste Tougma, Yibar Kambiré, Anna Tall Thiam, Benoît Sanon, Jean Yves Toguyeni, André Samadoulougou, Patrice Zabsonré
This study aimed to evaluate the profile of patients hospitalized for anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study within the Department of Cardiology at the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, in Ouagadougou, over a period of 2 years from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2008. All hospitalized patients with anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage were included in the study. The average age of patients was 49,31 ± 17,68 years, the sex-ratio was 2,17. Myocardial infarction was the first indication for anticoagulant treatment, with a rate of 21...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
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