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"Acute Pulmoary Oedema" OR "APO" OR "Acute Pulmonary Edema" OR "APE" OR "Acute Heart Failure Syndrome" OR "AHFS"

Fabrício Edler Macagnan, Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli, Thais Russomano
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence of how metabolic syndrome (MS) affects sympathovagal balance responses to acute physical effort (APE) and autonomic stimulation (AS). This study aimed to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) responses to the combined APE and AS challenges. METHODS: Fourteen subjects (8 men; 49.15 ± 8.67 years) divided into two groups: 7 healthy volunteers [control group (CG)] and 7 patients with MS. Sympathovagal balance [low frequency (LF)/high frequency (HF) ratio] was accessed by HRV through the beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) electrocardiogram...
October 17, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Morgan Hepburn-Brown, Jai Darvall, Gary Hammerschlag
An acute Pulmonary Embolism (aPE) is characterised by occlusion of one or more pulmonary arteries. Physiological disturbance may be minimal, but often cardiac output decreases as the right ventricle attempts to overcome increased afterload. Additionally, ventilation-perfusion mismatches can develop in affected vascular beds, reducing systemic oxygenation. Incidence is reported at 50-75 per 100,000 in Australia and New Zealand, with 30- day mortality rates ranging from 0.5% to over 20%. Incidence is likely to increase with the aging population, increased survival of patients with co-morbidities that are considered risk factors and improving sensitivity of imaging techniques...
October 15, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Flavien Zannini, Thomas Roret, Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Tiphaine Dhalleine, Nicolas Rouhier, Jérémy Couturier
In plants, the mitochondrial thioredoxin (TRX) system generally comprises only one or two isoforms belonging to the TRX h or o classes, being less well developed compared to the numerous isoforms found in chloroplasts. Unlike most other plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two TRXo isoforms whose physiological functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a structure⁻function analysis to unravel the respective properties of the duplicated TRXo1 and TRXo2 isoforms. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli , both recombinant proteins existed in an apo-monomeric form and in a homodimeric iron⁻sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridged form...
October 13, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Caroline C Philpott, Shyamalagauri Jadhav
Mammalian cells contain thousands of metalloproteins and have evolved sophisticated systems for ensuring that metal cofactors are correctly assembled and delivered to their proper destinations. Equally critical in this process are the strategies to avoid the insertion of the wrong metal cofactor into apo-proteins and to avoid the damage that redox-active metals can catalyze in the cellular milieu. Iron and zinc are the most abundant metal cofactors in cells and iron cofactors include heme, iron-sulfur clusters, and mono- and dinuclear iron centers...
October 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Dallas P Veitch, Michael W Weiner, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The overall goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI is a multisite, longitudinal, observational study that has collected many biomarkers since 2004. Recent publications highlight the multifactorial nature of late-onset AD. We discuss selected topics that provide insights into AD progression and outline how this knowledge may improve clinical trials. METHODS: We used standard methods to identify nearly 600 publications using ADNI data from 2016 and 2017 (listed in Supplementary material and searchable at http://adni...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Melissa Lamar, Lei Yu, Leah H Rubin, Bryan D James, Lisa L Barnes, Jose Marcelo Farfel, Chris Gaiteri, Aron S Buchman, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease neuropathology; less is known about the relationship between APOE and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) neuropathology. METHODS: We investigated associations of APOE status with arteriolosclerosis, macroinfarcts and microinfarcts, and atherosclerosis in 1383 adults (65.9-108.2 years at death) with and without dementia. Excluding ε2/ε4 carriers, multivariable regressions for each CVD-related neuropathology compared ε4 and ε2 carriers to ε3/ε3 carriers adjusting for confounders including age and Alzheimer's neuropathology...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Maxime M Bos, Raymond Noordam, Gerard J Blauw, P Eline Slagboom, Patrick C N Rensen, Diana van Heemst
Candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies found that genetic variation in APOE is robustly associated with multiple age-related diseases and longevity. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an apolipoprotein that plays an important role in triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. In literature, especially the ApoE ɛ4 isoform has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as compared to the "neutral" ApoE ɛ3 isoform...
October 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Noriko Sugasawa, Ayako Katagi, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Taisuke Nakayama, Chika Nishio, Hiroko Takumi, Fumiharu Higashiguchi, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata, Tetsuya Kitagawa
OBJECTIVE: Hesperidin, an abundant flavonoid in citrus fruit, and its aglycone, hesperetin, have been reported to possess various physiological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and antihypertensive activities. In this study, we investigated whether α-glucosyl hesperidin and water-dispersible hesperetin have protective effects on atherosclerotic progression in apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo-E KO) mice. METHODS: Ten-week-old male Apo-E KO mice were randomly assigned a regular high-fat diet, a high-fat diet with 0...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Alessandra Feraco, Massimiliano Caprio
Atherosclerosis is due to a chronic inflammatory response affecting vascular endothelium and is promoted by several factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. To date, there is evidence to support a role for circulating aldosterone as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mouse models have been generated to study cellular and molecular processes leading to atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we describe a protocol that takes advantage of continuous infusion of aldosterone in ApoE-/- mice and generates atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic root after 4 weeks of treatment...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alby Elias, Tia Cummins, Regan Tyrrell, Fiona Lamb, Vincent Dore, Robert Williams, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Malcolm Hopwood, Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe
BACKGROUND: An association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease has been suggested but little is known about amyloid-β and tau deposition in this syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To determine amyloid and tau burden and cognitive function in OSA in comparison to those without a diagnosis of OSA. METHODS: The status of OSA was determined by asking participants about history of polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA and the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mafalda Ramos de Matos, Catarina Ferreira, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Hilkka Soininen, André Janeiro, Isabel Santana, Inês Baldeiras, Maria Rosário Almeida, Alberto Lleó, Oriol Dols-Icardo, Daniel Alcolea, Luisa Benussi, Giuliano Binetti, Anna Paterlini, Roberta Ghidoni, Benedetta Nacmias, Olga Meulenbroek, Linda J C van Waalwijk van Doorn, H Bea Kuiperij, Lucrezia Hausner, Gunhild Waldemar, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Magda Tsolaki, Olymbia Gkatzima, Catarina Resende de Oliveira, Marcel M Verbeek, Jordi Clarimon, Mikko Hiltunen, Alexandre de Mendonça, Madalena Martins
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been extensively investigated in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field, and are now being applied in clinical practice. CSF amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) reflect disease pathology, and may be used as quantitative traits for genetic analyses, fostering the identification of new genetic factors and the proposal of novel biological pathways of the disease. In patients, the concentration of CSF Aβ1-42 is decreased due to the accumulation of Aβ1-42 in amyloid plaques in the brain, while t-tau and p-tau levels are increased, indicating the extent of neuronal damage...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou, Kevin McRae-McKee, Stephanie Evans, Frank de Wolf, Roy M Anderson
Despite the progressive nature of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, it is observed that many individuals that are diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in one clinical assessment, may return back to normal cognition (CN) in a subsequent assessment. Less frequently, such 'back-transitions' are also observed in people that had already been diagnosed with later stages of dementia. In this study, an analysis was performed on two longitudinal cohort datasets provided by 1) the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and 2) the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre (NACC)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Si Eun Kim, Sookyoung Woo, Seon Woo Kim, Juhee Chin, Hee Jin Kim, Byung In Lee, Jinse Park, Kyung Won Park, Do-Young Kang, Young Noh, Byoung Seok Ye, Han Soo Yoo, Jin San Lee, Yeshin Kim, Seung Joo Kim, Soo Hyun Cho, Duk L Na, Samuel N Lockhart, Hyemin Jang, Sang Won Seo
BACKGROUND: Most clinical trials focus on amyloid-β positive (Aβ+) amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), but screening failures are high because only a half of patients with aMCI are positive on Aβ PET. Therefore, it becomes necessary for clinicians to predict which patients will have Aβ biomarker. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare clinical factors, neuropsychological (NP) profiles, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype between Aβ+ aMCI and Aβ- aMCI and to develop a clinically useful prediction model of Aβ positivity on PET (PET-Aβ+) in aMCI using a nomogram...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Changan Liu, Jacqueline Chyr, Weiling Zhao, Yungang Xu, Zhiwei Ji, Hua Tan, Claudio Soto, Xiaobo Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although genome-wide association study (GWAS) have reported hundreds of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes linked to AD, the mechanisms about how these SNPs modulate the development of AD remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed GWAS for three traits in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and one clinical trait in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Our analysis identified five most significant AD related SNPs (FDR < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Lin Zhu, Hao Shu, Duan Liu, Qihao Guo, Zan Wang, Zhijun Zhang
The presence of both apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are considered to be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the modulation of APOE ε4 affects intrinsic functional brain networks, both in healthy populations and in AD patients. However, it remains largely unclear whether and how ε4 allele modulates the brain's functional network architecture in subjects with aMCI. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph-theory approaches-functional connectivity strength (FCS), we investigate the topological organization of the whole-brain functional network in 28 aMCI ε4 carriers and 38 aMCI ε3ε3 carriers...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alejandro De Los Angeles, Insoo Hyun, Stephen Latham, John Elsworth, Eugene Redmond
The search for a better animal model to simulate human disease has been a "holy grail" of biomedical research for decades. Recent identification of different types of pluripotent stem cells (PS cells) and advances in chimera research might soon permit the generation of interspecies chimeras from closely related species, such as those between humans and other primates. Here, we suggest that the creation of human-primate chimeras - specifically, the transfer of human stem cells into (non-ape) primate hosts - could surpass the limitations of current monkey models of neurological and psychiatric disease, but would also raise important ethical considerations concerning the use of monkeys in invasive research...
October 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Xing Qiao, Lu Yang, Qun Gao, Shu Yang, Zhaojie Li, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the changes in free astaxanthin (F-AST) and astaxanthin esters (AST-E) in L. vannamei during iced storage and frozen storage were investigated. The liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) method was used to quantify molecular species of AST-E in shrimp during storage. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of auto-oxidation products, apo-12-astaxanthinal and apo-13-astaxanthinone DHA ester were identified as the major oxidation products of F-AST and AST-E in L...
October 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Atsushi Masuyama, Tomoya Mita, Kosuke Azuma, Yusuke Osonoi, Kenichi Nakajima, Hiromasa Goto, Yuya Nishida, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Masako Mitsumata, Hirotaka Watada
Autophagy is considered as an evolutionarily conserved cellular catabolic process. Defective autophagy has been implicated in various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we and others demonstrated that defective autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in SMCs on plaque instability in vivo. We generated mice with a defect atg7in which is an essential gene for autophagy, in SMCs by crossing Atg7f/f mice with transgelin (Tagln) Cre+/0 mice (Atg7cKO)...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ki Hong Choi, Ga Yeon Lee, Jin-Oh Choi, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Sang Eun Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Shung Chull Chae, Sang Hong Baek, Seok-Min Kang, Dong-Ju Choi, Byung-Su Yoo, Kye Hun Kim, Myeong-Chan Cho, Hyun-Young Park, Byung-Hee Oh
Background/Aims: It is unknown whether different β-blockers (BBs) have variable effects on long-term survival of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This study compares the effects of two BBs, carvedilol and bisoprolol, on survival in patients with HFrEF. Methods: The Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry is a prospective multicenter cohort that includes 5,625 patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF). We selected 3,016 patients with HFrEF and divided this study population into two groups: BB at discharge (n = 1,707) or no BB at discharge (n = 1,309)...
October 16, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Paul Kaufmann, Chantal Iobbi-Nivol, Silke Leimkühler
Molybdoenzymes are ubiquitous and play important roles in all kingdoms of life. The cofactors of these enzymes comprise the metal, molybdenum (Mo), which is bound to a special organic ligand system called molybdopterin (MPT). Additional small ligands are present at the Mo atom, including water, hydroxide, oxo-, sulfido-, or selenido-functionalities, and in some enzymes, amino acid ligand, such as serine, aspartate, cysteine, or selenocysteine that coordinate the cofactor to the peptide chain of the enzyme. The so-called molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is deeply buried within the protein at the end of a narrow funnel, giving access only to the substrate...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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