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Acute exacerbations of COPD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722760/patients-and-their-family-members-experiences-of-participation-in-care-following-an-acute-exacerbation-in-copd-a-phenomenological-hermeneutic-study
#1
Ingrid Charlotte Andersen, Thora Grothe Thomsen, Poul Bruun, Uffe Bodtger, Lise Hounsgaard
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their family members relating to both participation in care during hospitalization for an acute exacerbation in COPD, and to the subsequent day-to-day care at home. BACKGROUND: When recovering from an exacerbation, the challenges associated with an unpredictable health condition dominate everyday life for patients and can involve their family members...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719893/treatment-of-copd-exacerbation-in-switzerland-results-and-recommendations-of-the-european-copd-audit
#2
Michael Buess, Daniel Schilter, Tino Schneider, Marc Maurer, Heinz Borer, Robert Thurnheer, Erich Köhler, Lilian Junker, Kathleen Jahn, Michael Grob, Jochen Rüdiger, Thomas Geiser, Erich Helfenstein, Markus Solèr, René Fiechter, Thomas Sigrist, Patrick Brun, Jürg Barandun, Eva Koltai, José Luis López-Campos, Sylvia Hartl, Michael Roberts, Desiree M Schumann, Michael Tamm, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: The European COPD Audit initiated by the European Respiratory Society (ERS) evaluated the management of hospital admissions due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in several European countries. Data on the treatment of severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) in Switzerland are scarce. OBJECTIVES: In light of the GOLD 2010 guidelines, this work aims to examine the quality of care for AECOPD and to provide specific recommendations for the management of severe AECOPD in Switzerland...
July 19, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718320/oral-prednisolone-for-4-days-does-not-increase-exercise-tolerance-in-men-with-copd
#3
S L Karlsson, V Backer, Nina Skavlan Godtfredsen
One of the primary objectives in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is preventing decrease in lung function and reducing the annual number of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). An oral course of systemic corticosteroids is a commonly used treatment in AECOPD. We hypothesize that this treatment also increases exercise performance and decreases muscle fatigue. In a randomized double-blinded, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated 14 men (8 on prednisolone 37.5 mg vs. 6 on placebo) with severe and very severe COPD...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716643/reduced-risk-of-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-after-bariatric-surgery-a-self-controlled-case-series-study
#4
Tadahiro Goto, Yusuke Tsugawa, Mohammad Kamal Faridi, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Obesity is common among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with increased COPD morbidities. However, little is known about the impact of weight reduction on COPD-related outcomes in obese patients. METHODS: Using the population-based emergency department (ED) and inpatient sample in three U.S. states (California, Florida, and Nebraska), we performed a self-controlled case series study of 481 obese adults (aged 40-65 years) with COPD who underwent bariatric surgery...
July 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707030/-update-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure
#5
REVIEW
F Seiler, F C Trudzinski, M Kredel, C Lotz, P M Lepper, R M Muellenbach
BACKGROUND: Hypercapnic respiratory failure is a frequent problem in critical care and mainly affects patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In recent years, the usage of extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) has been increasing. OBJECTIVE: Summarizing the state of the art in the management of hypercapnic respiratory failure with special regard to the role of ECCO2R. METHODS: Review based on a selective literature search and the clinical and scientific experience of the authors...
July 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706919/microbiome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
REVIEW
Eduard Monsó
The introduction of culture-independent techniques for the microbiological analysis of respiratory samples has confirmed that the respiratory system hosts a large number of microorganisms, which include a wide range of bacteria. The regular exposure to tobacco smoke changes the microbiome in healthy smokers, first in the oropharynx, increasing the presence of a restricted number of genera which attain high relative abundance, a pattern that may be considered as dysbiosis. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), microbiome analyses of sputum samples have demonstrated an important decline in bacterial diversity, with a change to a restricted flora with an overrepresentation of the Proteobacteria phylum, which include most of the bacteria commonly considered as potentially pathogenic microorganisms, paralleled by a decline in the relative abundance of microorganisms part of the Firmicutes phylum...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702957/non-invasive-ventilation-for-the-management-of-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-due-to-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Christian R Osadnik, Vanessa S Tee, Kristin V Carson-Chahhoud, Joanna Picot, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) is commonly used to treat patients admitted to hospital with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) secondary to an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of NIV applied in conjunction with usual care versus usual care involving no mechanical ventilation alone in adults with AHRF due to AECOPD. The aim of this review is to update the evidence base with the goals of supporting clinical practice and providing recommendations for future evaluation and research...
July 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690603/oropharyngeal-and-sputum-microbiomes-are-similar-following-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Hai-Yue Liu, Shi-Yu Zhang, Wan-Ying Yang, Xiao-Fang Su, Yan He, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jin Su
Growing evidence suggests that the airway microbiota might be involved in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Understanding this relationship requires examination of a large-scale population for a long duration to accurately monitor changes in the microbiome. This type of longitudinal study requires an appropriate sampling strategy; two options are the collection of sputum or oropharyngeal swabs. Comparative analysis of the changes that occur in these two specimen types has not been previously performed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684903/serum-levels-of-igfbp7-are-elevated-during-acute-exacerbation-in-copd-patients
#9
Wenjing Ruan, Minliang Wu, Liuhong Shi, Fengying Li, Liangliang Dong, Yuanhua Qiu, Xiaohong Wu, Kejing Ying
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) level in the serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during acute exacerbation (AE). METHODS: The study population consisted of 47 AECOPD patients, including 25 patients enrolled between January 2011 and February 2011 (the first group) and 22 patients enrolled from December 2011 to August 2012 (the second group) and 29 healthy controls...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679605/discontinuing-noninvasive-ventilation-in-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Jacobo Sellares, Miquel Ferrer, Antonio Anton, Hugo Loureiro, Carolina Bencosme, Rodrigo Alonso, Pilar Martinez-Olondris, Javier Sayas, Patricia Peñacoba, Antoni Torres
We assessed whether prolongation of nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) after recovery from acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with NIV could prevent subsequent relapse of AHRF.A randomised controlled trial was performed in 120 COPD patients without previous domiciliary ventilation, admitted for AHRF and treated with NIV. When the episode was resolved and patients tolerated unassisted breathing for 4 h, they were randomly allocated to receive three additional nights of NIV (n=61) or direct NIV discontinuation (n=59)...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677357/asthma-copd-overlap-shows-favorable-clinical-outcomes-compared-to-pure-copd-in-a-korean-copd-cohort
#11
Hye Jung Park, Min Kwang Byun, Hyung Jung Kim, Chul Min Ahn, Jin Hwa Lee, Kyeong Cheol Shin, Soo Taek Uh, Seung Won Ra, Kwang Ha Yoo, Ki Suck Jung
PURPOSE: Comparisons of the characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) have been the focus of several studies since the diseases were defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. However, no consensus is available yet. In this study, we aimed to compare the characteristics of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) and COPD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1,504 patients with COPD in a Korean COPD Subtype Study cohort...
September 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676846/inactivation-of-the-thymidylate-synthase-thya-in-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-modulates-antibiotic-resistance-and-has-a-strong-impact-on-its-interplay-with-the-host-airways
#12
Irene Rodríguez-Arce, Sara Martí, Begoña Euba, Ariadna Fernández-Calvet, Javier Moleres, Nahikari López-López, Montserrat Barberán, José Ramos-Vivas, Fe Tubau, Carmen Losa, Carmen Ardanuy, José Leiva, José E Yuste, Junkal Garmendia
Antibacterial treatment with cotrimoxazol (TxS), a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, generates resistance by, among others, acquisition of thymidine auxotrophy associated with mutations in the thymidylate synthase gene thyA, which can modify the biology of infection. The opportunistic pathogen non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is frequently encountered in the lower airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and associated with acute exacerbation of COPD symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672914/the-levels-of-serum-pro-calcitonin-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-during-acute-exacerbation
#13
Dejie Gao, Xincan Chen, He Wu, Haidong Wei, Jinling Wu
The level of of procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) was investigated. Total of 20 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD who were admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Binzhou Center Hospital in the period of October 2012 to April 2015 were enrolled in the AECOPD group. According to the color of the sputum, the patients with AECOPD were divided into purulent sputum group (n=8) and non-purulent sputum group (n=12). In addition, 15 healthy people from the outpatient medical center were also selected as healthy control group...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668356/frequency-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-an-analysis-of-the-spiromics-cohort
#14
MeiLan K Han, Pedro M Quibrera, Elizabeth E Carretta, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Russell P Bowler, Christopher B Cooper, Alejandro Comellas, David J Couper, Jeffrey L Curtis, Gerard Criner, Mark T Dransfield, Nadia N Hansel, Eric A Hoffman, Richard E Kanner, Jerry A Krishnan, Carlos H Martinez, Cheryl B Pirozzi, Wanda K O'Neal, Stephen Rennard, Donald P Tashkin, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Prescott Woodruff, Robert Paine, Fernando J Martinez
BACKGROUND: Present treatment strategies to stratify exacerbation risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rely on a history of two or more events in the previous year. We aimed to understand year to year variability in exacerbations and factors associated with consistent exacerbations over time. METHODS: In this longitudinal, prospective analysis of exacerbations in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort, we analysed patients aged 40-80 years with COPD for whom 3 years of prospective data were available, identified through various means including care at academic and non-academic medical centres, word of mouth, and existing patient registries...
June 28, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665906/characteristics-of-patients-with-congestive-heart-failure-or-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-readmissions-within-30-days-following-an-acute-exacerbation
#15
Austin Castillo, Hawa Edriss, Kavitha Selvan, Kenneth Nugent
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program targets Medicare patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and penalizes hospitals that have increased 30-day readmission rates for these patients. The main goals of this study were to determine the clinical explanations for readmissions within 30 days, to identify possible deficiencies in patient care, and to identify typical characteristics of patients who were readmitted to the hospital...
July 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663321/time-to-move-from-prognostication-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-heart-disease-in-acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#16
EDITORIAL
Sara Roversi, Nathaniel M Hawkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659497/immune-checkpoints-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Tom M A Wilkinson
Cell-mediated immune responses are vital to the body's defence against infection and play a key role in tumour immunity. T-cell activation and cytotoxic function is tightly regulated by a series of immune-regulatory receptor-ligand interactions or immune checkpoints. These controls limit immune-mediated damage, particularly in the context of chronic infection. However, prolonged signalling through these axes can lead to progressive loss of T-cell function, termed exhaustion.Understanding of the biology of checkpoints and that exhaustion is reversible has been key to the development of new therapies directed at reversing the dysfunctional status of T-cells, which are dramatically improving outcomes of cancer treatment...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658755/occurrence-of-copd-in-patients-with-respiratory-allergy-a-clinico-spirometric-evaluation-in-a-tertiary-hospital-kolkata
#18
Sujoy Mukherjee, Goutam Banerjee, Debajyoti Das, Anil Baran Singha Mahapatra
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is established as the most important causative factor responsible for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Occurrence of allergy in COPD patients causes acute exacerbation of this disease, but role of allergy is not established in aetiopathogenesis of COPD. AIM: The present study was aimed at evaluation of occurrence of COPD in patients having symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate occurrence of COPD in patients having respiratory allergic symptoms by routine spirometric screening...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654201/long-acting-beta2-agonists-versus-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonists-in-patients-with-stable-copd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Wang-Chun Chen, Chi-Hsien Huang, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Inn-Wen Chong, Kuo-An Chu, Yung-Che Chen, Jong-Rung Tsai, Cheng-Hung Lee, Yu-Feng Wei
Several long-acting bronchodilators have been developed and are widely used as first-line treatment in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the initial choice of therapy is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical efficacy and safety of long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) in patients with stable COPD. We searched several databases and manufacturers' websites to identify relevant randomized clinical trials for meta-analysis...
June 27, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644389/chronic-respiratory-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-what-is-the-role-of-antibiotics
#20
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Antonio Anzueto
Chronic infections are associated with exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The major objective of the management of these patients is the prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations. Patients that have increased sputum production, associated with purulence and worsening shortness of breath, are the ones that will benefit from antibiotic therapy. It is important to give the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent treatment failure, relapse, and the emergence of resistant pathogens...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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