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Acute exacerbations of COPD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905537/the-relationship-between-airway-inflammation-and-exacerbation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Diahn Warng Perng, Pei Ku Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with abnormal inflammatory response and airflow limitation. Acute exacerbation involves increased inflammatory burden leading to worsening respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea and sputum production. Some COPD patients have frequent exacerbations (two or more exacerbations per year). A substantial proportion of COPD patients may remain stable without exacerbation. Bacterial and viral infections are the most common causative factors that breach airway stability and lead to exacerbation...
September 4, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893369/virulence-determinants-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-distribution-and-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#2
Luke V Blakeway, Aimee Tan, Ian R A Peak, Kate L Seib
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa. It frequently colonizes the nasopharynx asymptomatically, but is also an important causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children, and plays a significant role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. As the current treatment options for M. catarrhalis infection in OM and exacerbations of COPD are often ineffective, the development of an efficacious vaccine is warranted...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882909/effect-of-time-and-day-of-admission-on-hospital-care-quality-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbation-in-england-and-wales-single-cohort-study
#3
Christopher Michael Roberts, Derek Lowe, Emma Skipper, Michael C Steiner, Rupert Jones, Colin Gelder, John R Hurst, Gillian E Lowrey, Catherine Thompson, Robert A Stone
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if observed increased weekend mortality was associated with poorer quality of care for patients admitted to hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. DESIGN: Prospective case ascertainment cohort study. SETTING: 199 acute hospitals in England and Wales, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive COPD admissions, excluding subsequent readmissions, from 1 February to 30 April 2014 of whom 13 414 cases were entered into the study...
September 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870157/ten-important-articles-on-noninvasive-ventilation-in-critically-ill-patients-and-insights-for-the-future-a-report-of-expert-opinions
#4
A Cortegiani, V Russotto, M Antonelli, E Azoulay, A Carlucci, G Conti, A Demoule, M Ferrer, N S Hill, S Jaber, P Navalesi, P Pelosi, R Scala, C Gregoretti
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation is used worldwide in many settings. Its effectiveness has been proven for common clinical conditions in critical care such as cardiogenic pulmonary edema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Since the first pioneering studies of noninvasive ventilation in critical care in the late 1980s, thousands of studies and articles have been published on this topic. Interestingly, some aspects remain controversial (e.g. its use in de-novo hypoxemic respiratory failure, role of sedation, self-induced lung injury)...
September 4, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862873/increased-qt-dispersion-is-associated-with-reduced-overall-survival-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Yanna Lai, Anthony DeNardo, Selvanayagam Niranjan, Krishna B Sriram
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially acute exacerbations of COPD, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, including sudden cardiac death. Previous studies have reported that ECG abnormalities are common in stable COPD patients. However, the prognostic utility of ECG taken at the time of AECOPD is not known. In this study we sought to address this gap in knowledge pertaining to ECG parameters at time of AECOPD and overall survival. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our institution with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD...
September 1, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860740/clinical-implications-of-blood-eosinophil-count-in-patients-with-non-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-copd
#6
Jin Hwa Song, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Won-Yeon Lee, Ji Ye Jung, Joo Hun Park, Ki Suck Jung, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yong Bum Park, Deog Keom Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent studies that assessed the relevance of the blood eosinophil count as a biomarker in patients with COPD may have overestimated it because they included patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). We investigated the clinical implications of the blood eosinophil count in patients with non-ACOS COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a Korean COPD Subtype Study (KOCOSS) cohort, we selected patients with non-ACOS COPD after excluding ACOS patients according to Spanish criteria...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860738/risk-factors-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-destroyed-lungs-and-their-clinical-characteristics-compared-with-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Yong Suk Jo, Ju-Hee Park, Jung Kyu Lee, Eun Young Heo, Hee Soon Chung, Deog Kyeom Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with tuberculosis-destroyed lung (TDL), a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis. We identified the risk factors for PAH and their effects on acute exacerbation and mortality in patients with TDL, as well as the clinical differences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and PAH. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2010 through 2015 in a municipal referral hospital in South Korea...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854845/role-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-in-italy
#8
Marco Mantero, Stefano Aliberti, Chiara Azzari, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Francesco Blasi, Marta Di Pasquale
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of exacerbations due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during stable state. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational, cohort study including stable COPD patients, who were evaluated at least every 4 months over a 24-month period at the Respiratory Unit of the IRCCS Policlinico Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 2012 to 2015. Sputum samples were collected at enrollment during stable state to evaluate the frequency of S...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852826/asymmetric-dimethylarginine-predicts-long-term-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Alaadin Vögeli, Manuel Ottiger, Marc A Meier, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
INTRODUCTION: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is an activation of the L-arginine nitric oxide pathway. Pulmonary obstruction causes to elevated nitric oxide (NO) levels, which lead to higher production of the NO-inhibiting metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). METHODS: We investigated the association of L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA with clinical outcomes in a well-defined observational cohort of 150 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD...
August 29, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841915/expiratory-central-airway-collapse-in-stable-copd-and-during-exacerbations
#10
Paul Leong, Anne Tran, Jhanavi Rangaswamy, Laurence E Ruane, Michael W Fernando, Martin I MacDonald, Kenneth K Lau, Philip G Bardin
BACKGROUND: Tracheal obstruction resulting from expiratory tracheal deformation has been associated with respiratory symptoms and severe airway exacerbations. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute exacerbations (AECOPD) create large intrathoracic pressure swings which may increase tracheal deformation. Excessive central airway collapse (ECAC) may be diagnosed when the tracheal area on expiration is less than 50% of that on inspiration. The prevalence of ECAC in AECOPD and its temporal course have not been systematically studied...
August 25, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839989/factors-affecting-satisfaction-with-education-program-for-chronic-airway-disease-in-primary-care-settings
#11
Andrew Kim, Yong Il Hwang, Joo Hee Kim, Seung Hun Jang, Sunghoon Park, Ji Young Park, Ki-Suck Jung, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yong Bum Park, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Chin Kook Rhee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Ho-Kee Yum
BACKGROUND: A well-organized education program improved the patients' knowledge about their disease, inhaler technique and quality of life in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The effectiveness of the education program can be evaluated by assessing patients' satisfaction with the education program as well. In this study, we compared the patients' satisfaction with education program between COPD and asthma patients. METHODS: A total of 284 asthma and COPD patients were enrolled...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839985/sputum-mucin-1-is-increased-during-the-acute-phase-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbation
#12
Zeguang Zheng, Yafei Qi, Xiaoming Xu, Hua Jiang, Zhengtu Li, Quan Yang, Chenting Zhang, Kedong Zhang, Rongchang Chen, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu
BACKGROUND: Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a membrane tethered protein on airway epithelial cells. This protein is upregulated and plays an important anti-inflammatory role during acute lung inflammation. However, the relationship between sputum MUC1 level and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is unknown. METHODS: The levels of MUC1, IL-8, and TNF-α in induced sputum from 78 COPD patients were assessed by ELISA. The association between COPD exacerbation and MUC1 fragment levels was analyzed...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814851/effect-of-allergic-phenotype-on-treatment-response-to-inhaled-bronchodilators-with-or-without-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-patients-with-copd
#13
Shih-Lung Cheng, Hsu Hui Wang, Ching-Hsiung Lin
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder encompassing different phenotypes with different responses to treatment. The present 1-year, two-center hospital-based study investigated whether the plasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and/or eosinophil cell count could be used as biomarkers to stratify patients with COPD according to predicted responses to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)-based therapy. METHODS: A hospital-data based cohort study of COPD patients treated at two territory hospital centers was conducted for 1 year...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814850/increased-parasympathetic-cardiac-modulation-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-copd-how-should-we-interpret-it
#14
Erika Zavaglia Kabbach, Adriana Mazzuco, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Ramona Cabiddu, Aline Galvão Agnoleto, Jessica Fernanda Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Soares de Carvalho Junior, Renata Gonçalves Mendes
BACKGROUND: Cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) is impaired in patients with stable COPD. Exacerbation aggravates the patients' health status and functional capacity. While the clinical and functional effects of exacerbation are known, no studies investigated CAM during exacerbation and whether there is a relationship between CAM and functional capacity and dyspnea. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe COPD were enrolled into two groups: stable COPD (GSta, n=16) and acute exacerbation of COPD (GAE, n=16)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814848/pathophysiological-mechanism-of-long-term-noninvasive-ventilation-in-stable-hypercapnic-patients-with-copd-using-functional-respiratory-imaging
#15
Bita Hajian, Jan De Backer, Claire Sneyers, Francisca Ferreira, Katherine C Barboza, Glenn Leemans, Wim Vos, Wilfried De Backer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe COPD often develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Their prognosis worsens and they are more likely to develop exacerbations. This has major influence on the health-related quality of life. Currently, there is no information about the success of long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) among patients who receive NIV in acute settings. Also, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanism of NIV. METHODS: Ten Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stage III and IV COPD patients with respiratory failure who were hospitalized following acute exacerbation were treated with NIV using a Synchrony BiPAP device for 6 months...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811780/role-of-vitamin-d-in-reducing-number-of-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients
#16
Dur Muhammad Khan, Aziz Ullah, Fawad Ahmad Randhawa, Somia Iqtadar, Nasir Farooq Butt, Khadija Waheed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. METHODS: This randomized control trial was conducted at East Medical Ward Mayo Hospital Lahore from January to December 2015 as exacerbations of COPD are season dependent...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811772/values-of-procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-proteins-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-having-concomitant-bacterial-infection
#17
Yanyan Li, Linlin Xie, Shuzhen Xin, Kaishu Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in serum of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and to compare with the values of CRP in combination with PCT in the diagnosis and treatment of infective exacerbation of COPD. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-four patients who developed acute exacerbation of COPD and admitted to the Binzhou People's Hospital from March 2014 to December 2015 were selected...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810909/a-multi-center-randomized-controlled-open-label-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-eosinophil-guided-corticosteroid-sparing-therapy-in-hospitalised-patients-with-copd-exacerbations-the-cortico-steroid-reduction-in-copd-cortico-cop-study-protocol
#18
Pradeesh Sivapalan, Mia Moberg, Josefin Eklöf, Julie Janner, Jørgen Vestbo, Rasmus Rude Laub, Andrea Browatzki, Karin Armbruster, Jon Torgny Wilcke, Niels Seersholm, Ulla Møller Weinreich, Ingrid Louise Titlestad, Helle Frost Andreassen, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik, Uffe Bødtger, Thyge Lynghøj Nielsen, Ejvind Frausing Hansen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr Jensen
BACKGROUND: The most commonly applied treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a 5-day course of high-dose systemic corticosteroids. However, this treatment has not been shown to reduce mortality and can potentially have serious side effects. Recent research has shown that, presumably, only a subgroup of COPD patients identifieable by blood eosinophil count benefit from a rescue course of prednisolone. By applying a biomarker-guided strategy, the aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to reduce the use of systemic corticosteroids in AECOPD without influencing the outcome...
August 15, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810313/-efficacy-and-safety-of-tiotropium-respimat-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-systematic-review
#19
H D Cai, J Hou, Y N Lyu, L Xiong, M Z Lu, S L Wu
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to the Cochrane systematic evaluation. Methods: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, VIP and CBM, Wanfang Data were searched(from the foundation date to Jan. 2016) for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of patients with COPD. Two reviewers independently retrieved the RCTs according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the methodological quality of the included trials...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802586/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-nthi-directly-interfere-with-the-regulation-of-e-cadherin-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#20
Inga Kaufhold, Sünja Osbahr, Kensuke Shima, Sebastian Marwitz, Kristina Rohmann, Daniel Drömann, Torsten Goldmann, Klaus Dalhoff, Jan Rupp
Loss of epithelial barriers characterized by reduction of E-cadherin is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the effects of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections, associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, on the regulation of E-cadherin in host cells. NTHi infection decreased E-cadherin mRNA and protein-levels in lung epithelial cells. E-cadherin reduction was mediated by activation of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Slug...
August 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
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