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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667441/long-term-consumption-of-western-diet-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-and-aortic-remodeling-in-rats-implication-of-rho-kinase-signaling
#1
Rania A Elrashidy, Jing Zhang, Guiming Liu
Western diet (WD), rich in saturated fat and sugars, has become a risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, however, its effect on endothelial function and vascular remodeling is not fully elucidated. Recent evidence suggests cross-talk between Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway and cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the effect of WD on aortic remodeling and the contribution of ROCK signaling. Eight week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow diet (SD) or high fructose/ high-fat diet, typically as in WD...
April 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663407/ground-beef-high-in-total-fat-and-saturated-fatty-acids-decreases-x-receptor-signaling-targets-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-men-and-women
#2
Seong H Choi, Ghazal Gharahmany, Rosemary L Walzem, Thomas H Meade, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that consumption of saturated fatty acids in the form of high-fat ground beef for 5 weeks would depress liver X receptor signaling targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that changes in gene expression would be associated with the corresponding changes in lipoprotein cholesterol (C) concentrations. Older men (n = 5, age 68.0 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (n = 7, age 60.9 ± 3.1 years) were assigned randomly to consume ground-beef containing 18% total fat (18F) or 25% total fat (25F), five patties per week for 5 weeks with an intervening 4-week washout period...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663401/variants-in-the-ppargc1a-gene-may-influence-the-effect-of-fat-intake-on-resting-metabolic-rate-in-obese-women
#3
Sajjad Moradi, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Zhila Maghbooli, Ahmed A Abdurahman, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
Recent studies have shown that dietary intake and genetic variants play a decisive role in the risk of obesity. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the interaction between dietary fat and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on the level of resting metabolic rate (RMR). We enrolled 288 Iranian overweight and obese women in this cross-sectional study. We sequenced the 648 b.p. DNA in Exon 8 of PPARGC1A gene. We analyzed the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs11290186 and rs2970847, in this region. All participants were assessed for RMR, dietary intake, and body composition...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659963/saturated-fats-from-butter-but-not-from-cheese-increase-hdl-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-from-j774-macrophages-in-men-and-women-with-abdominal-obesity
#4
Didier Brassard, Benoît J Arsenault, Marjorie Boyer, Daniela Bernic, Maude Tessier-Grenier, Denis Talbot, Angelo Tremblay, Emile Levy, Bela Asztalos, Peter J H Jones, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. Objective: In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659954/the-ossabaw-pig-is-a-suitable-translational-model-to-evaluate-dietary-patterns-and-coronary-artery-disease-risk
#5
Nirupa R Matthan, Gloria Solano-Aguilar, Huicui Meng, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Audrey Goldbaum, Maura E Walker, Saebyeol Jang, Sukla Lakshman, Aleksey Molokin, Yue Xie, Ethiopia Beshah, James Stanley, Joseph F Urban, Alice H Lichtenstein
Background: Animal models that mimic diet-induced human pathogenesis of chronic diseases are of increasing importance in preclinical studies. The Ossabaw pig is an established model for obesity-related metabolic disorders when fed extreme diets in caloric excess. Objective: To increase the translational nature of this model, we evaluated the effect of diets resembling 2 human dietary patterns, the Western diet (WD) and the Heart Healthy Diet (HHD), without or with atorvastatin (-S or +S) therapy, on cardiometabolic risk factors and atherosclerosis development...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659690/perspective-challenges-and-controversial-issues-in-the-dietary-guidelines-for-americans-1980-2015
#6
Marion Nestle
Since 1980, every edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) has recommended increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, but reduced consumption of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium and, therefore, their primary food sources. Every edition has generated controversy, mainly from producers of foods affected by "eat less" recommendations, particularly meat. Objections to the 2015 DGAs focused on environmental as well as scientific issues, but also on purported conflicts of interest among members of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652436/quick-changes-of-milk-fatty-acids-after-inclusion-or-suppression-of-linseed-oil-in-the-diet-of-goats
#7
Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Alfonso Cívico, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Nieves Núñez Sánchez, Manuela Juárez, Francisco Peña Blanco, Andrés L Martínez Marín
BACKGROUND: Lipid supplementation of ruminant diet is an excellent tool to improve the nutritional quality of dairy fat. The purpose of this research was to monitor in detail the goat milk fatty acid (FA) profile during the first 24 h after linseed oil (LO) supplementation or suppression in the diet. Particular emphasis was placed in the changes of FA with bioactive properties. Milk fat was analysed by gas chromatography from milkings at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after diet shift. RESULTS: The α-linolenic acid levels increased 12 h after LO incorporation in the diet and decreased 3 h after oil suppression...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649154/chemical-and-nutritional-composition-of-terminalia-ferdinandiana-kakadu-plum-kernels-a-novel-nutrition-source
#8
Saleha Akter, Michael E Netzel, Mary T Fletcher, Ujang Tinggi, Yasmina Sultanbawa
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645315/cell-and-molecular-mechanisms-behind-diet-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Yenniffer Ávalos, Bredford Kerr, Manuel Maliqueo, Mauricio Dorfman
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation in the hypothalamus, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Current studies have revealed the involvement of different cell types as well as cell and molecular mechanisms that contribute to diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation (DIHI) and DIO. Since the discovery that high-fat diet and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increase the expression of hypothalamic cytokines prior to weight gain, research has focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, and what the role of inflammation in the obesity pathogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643271/japan-diet-intake-changes-serum-phospholipid-fatty-acid-compositions-in-middle-aged-men-a-pilot-study
#10
Yuri Shijo, Chizuko Maruyama, Eri Nakamura, Rena Nakano, Mitsuha Shima, Asumi Mae, Yuuna Okabe, Sunmi Park, Noriko Kameyama, Satomi Hirai
AIM: The Japan Diet nutritional education program effects on serum fatty acid compositions for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan were examined. METHODS: Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class and were recommended to consume Japan Diet volumes (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, konjak, mushrooms, and unrefined cereals and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks) for 6 weeks...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628045/musings-about-the-role-dietary-fats-after-40-years-of-fatty-acid-research
#11
REVIEW
Robert A Gibson
Since the 1950's nutrition recommendations have focussed on the replacement of saturated fats in the diet with polyunsaturated fats, a strategy that continues to this day. Despite supporting evidence from clinical trials for the advantages of Mediterranean diets, there has been less attention paid to the role of monounsaturated fats. It has been known for many years that diets high in linoleic acid (LA) compete for the incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids into tissues. What is also clear is that diets rich in LA are not free from concerns and the discovery of oxlams, oxygenated derivatives of LA, having potent inflammatory effects may help us question the dogma of LA rich diets...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626394/microbiome-and-health-ramifications-of-intelligent-deception
#12
George B Stefano, Rachel Fine, Richard M Kream
Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitating medical consequences of a progressively narrowed high caloric diet incorporating processed carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fat and cholesterol, are translated into a global epidemic of obesity linked to metabolic and endocrine disorders, which, in part, emerged from the enhancement of our longevity...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626089/stearic-acid-induces-cd11c-expression-in-proinflammatory-macrophages-via-epidermal-fatty-acid-binding-protein
#13
Jun Zeng, Yuwen Zhang, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Shujun Liu, David A Bernlohr, Edward R Sauter, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Obesity is associated with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FAs) and proinflammatory CD11c+ macrophages. However, whether and how free FAs contribute to CD11c+ macrophage differentiation and proinflammatory functions remain unclear. Here we report that dietary saturated FAs, but not unsaturated FAs, promoted the differentiation and function of CD11c+ macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that stearic acid (SA) significantly induced CD11c expression in monocytes through activation of the nuclear retinoid acid receptor...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620664/adult-renal-neuroblastoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Ming-De Huang, Li-Sheng Hsu, Huei-Chieh Chuang, Wei-Yu Lin, Wei-Hsiu Lin, Chih-Wei Yen, Min-Lang Chen
RATIONALE: Adult renal neuroblastoma (NB) is extremely rare, and there have been only a few cases previously described in the literature. We report a case of adult renal NB and summarize the clinical and imaging features of the reported cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of gross hematuria that had persisted for a month. Nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a hypodense right renal mass without calcification...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616827/dietary-fats-and-cardiovascular-health-a-summary-of-the-scientific-evidence-and-current-debate
#15
Elena Fattore, Elena Massa
This narrative review summarises the main studies of the role of the different fatty acids in coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the current scientific debate on dietary recommendations. Reduction and substitution of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are still the main dietary recommendation to prevent CHD and CVD. In the last few years, however, the strength of the scientific evidence underlying this dietary advice has been questioned...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609950/the-effect-of-fatty-acid-binding-in-the-acid-isomerizations-of-albumin-investigated-with-a-continuous-acidification-method
#16
Alessandra Del Giudice, Luciano Galantini, Cedric Dicko, Nicolae V Pavel
The protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is known to undergo conformational transitions towards partially unfolded forms triggered by acidification below pH 4.5. The extent of Fatty Acids (FA) binding has been thought to have an impact on the conformational equilibrium between the native and acid forms and to be a possible explanation for the observation of more than one band in early electrophoretic migration experiments at pH 4. We compared the acid-induced unfolding processes of commercial FA-free HSA, commercial "fatted" HSA and FA-HSA complexes, prepared at FA:HSA molar ratios between 1 and 6 by simple mixing and equilibration...
March 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606629/trans-fats-inhibit-autophagy-induced-by-saturated-fatty-acids
#17
Allan Sauvat, Guo Chen, Kevin Müller, Mingming Tong, Fanny Aprahamian, Sylvère Durand, Giulia Cerrato, Lucillia Bezu, Marion Leduc, Joakim Franz, Patrick Rockenfeller, Junichi Sadoshima, Frank Madeo, Oliver Kepp, Guido Kroemer
Depending on the length of their carbon backbone and their saturation status, natural fatty acids have rather distinct biological effects. Thus, longevity of model organisms is increased by extra supply of the most abundant natural cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, but not by that of the most abundant saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Here, we systematically compared the capacity of different saturated, cis-unsaturated and alien (industrial or ruminant) trans-unsaturated fatty acids to provoke cellular stress in vitro, on cultured human cells expressing a battery of distinct biosensors that detect signs of autophagy, Golgi stress and the unfolded protein response...
March 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606145/are-dietary-inequalities-among-australian-adults-changing-a-nationally-representative-analysis-of-dietary-change-according-to-socioeconomic-position-between-1995-and-2011-13
#18
Dana Lee Olstad, Rebecca M Leech, Katherine M Livingstone, Kylie Ball, Beth Thomas, Jane Potter, Xenia Cleanthous, Rachael Reynolds, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Increasing inequalities in rates of obesity and chronic disease may be partly fuelled by increasing dietary inequalities, however very few nationally representative analyses of socioeconomic trends in dietary inequalities exist. The release of the 2011-13 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data allows investigation of change in dietary intake according to socioeconomic position (SEP) in Australia using a large, nationally representative sample, compared to the previous national survey in 1995...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605673/high-fat-diet-exacerbates-early-psoriatic-skin-inflammation-independent-of-obesity-saturated-fatty-acids-as-key-players
#19
Diana Herbert, Sandra Franz, Yulia Popkova, Ulf Anderegg, Jürgen Schiller, Katharina Schwede, Axel Lorz, Jan C Simon, Anja Saalbach
In obesity, hypertrophic adipocytes secret high amounts of adipocytokines resulting in low-grade inflammation- amplified by infiltrating pro-inflammatory macrophages, oxidative stress, hypoxia and lipolysis. It is known, that these chronic pro-inflammatory conditions support the development of type II diabetes and cardio vascular diseases, while mechanisms of obesity-related exacerbation of inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis are unclear. In this study, we uncover nutritional saturated fatty acids (SFAs) as major risk factors for the amplification of skin inflammation, independent of obesity-related parameters, like fat mass extension, adipocytokines and glucose homeostasis...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605323/effects-of-fat-supplementation-to-diets-high-in-nonforage-fiber-on-production-responses-of-midlactation-dairy-cows
#20
C M Ylioja, C Abney-Schulte, R Stock, B J Bradford
The effects of dietary nonforage fiber sources on production responses of lactating dairy cattle have been well described, but interactions with other components of the diet have been less thoroughly explored. We investigated the effects of adding 2 commonly fed fat sources to a ration featuring high levels of nonforage fiber supplied by a corn milling by-product. Midlactation Holstein cows were blocked by parity, stratified by days in milk, and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens (12 cows/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a 3 × 3 Latin square design, where the treatments consisted of prilled saturated fat (SAT; Energy Booster 100, Milk Specialties Co...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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