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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245028/on-site-evaluation-of-wagyu-beef-carcasses-based-on-the-monounsaturated-oleic-and-saturated-fatty-acid-composition-using-a-handheld-fiber-optic-near-infrared-spectrometer
#1
S Piao, T Okura, M Irie
The fat quality is an important aspect, especially for Wagyu beef. A handheld fiber-optic near-infrared spectrometer for on-site evaluation of beef fat quality was developed, and the interactance spectra of the intermuscular fat from 833 Wagyu carcasses at 12 markets were measured. The calibration model was transferred to five slave instruments using twenty-six block samples. The performance of one slave instrument was verified at five meat markets (n=360). The coefficients of determination of the slave instrument for monounsaturated, oleic, and saturated fatty acid compositions determined by gas chromatography and near-infrared measurements were 0...
November 27, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242527/correlates-of-overall-and-central-obesity-in-adults-from-seven-european-countries-findings-from-the-food4me-study
#2
Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Alexander Affleck, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, J Alfredo Martinez, Cyril F M Marsaux, Wim H M Saris, Clare B O'Donovan, Hannah Forster, Clara Woolhead, Eileen R Gibney, Marianne C Walsh, Lorraine Brennan, Mike Gibney, George Moschonis, Christina-Paulina Lambrinou, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios, Anna L Macready, Rosalind Fallaize, Julie A Lovegrove, Silvia Kolossa, Hannelore Daniel, Iwona Traczyk, Christian A Drevon, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237573/identification-of-cytochrome-b5-cytb-5-1-and-cytb-5-2-in-c-elegans-evidence-for-differential-regulation-of-scd
#3
Baoshen He, Jingjing Zhang, Yanli Wang, Yamei Li, Xiaoju Zou, Bin Liang
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) play crucial roles in living organisms regarding development, energy metabolism, stress resistance, etc. The biosynthesis of UFAs starts from the introduction of the first double bond by stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), converting saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This desaturation is considered to be an aerobic process that requires cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome b5 and SCD. However, this enzyme system remains elusive in Caenorhabditis elegans...
December 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236551/the-association-between-index-of-nutritional-quality-inq-and-glioma-and-evaluation-of-nutrient-intakes-of-these-patients-a-case-control-study
#4
Mehdi Shayanfar, Farhad Vahid, Zeinab Faghfoori, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Reza Goodarzi
INTRODUCTION: Glioma is the most common adult brain tumors. Dietary factors may play a role in the etiology of glioma. The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) provides a general overview for the nutrient content of a food or a diet. This study aimed to investigate the association between INQ and glioma and nutrient intakes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was included 128 patients and 256 controls. Dietary intakes of the subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and FFQ-derived dietary data were used to calculate INQ scores...
December 13, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235560/effect-of-high-milk-and-sugar-sweetened-and-non-caloric-soft-drink-intake-on-insulin-sensitivity-after-6-months-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Sara Engel, Tine Tholstrup, Jens M Bruun, Arne Astrup, Bjørn Richelsen, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Milk contributes with saturated fat, but randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of dairy on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) where dairy is given as whole foods are scarce. The objective of our study was to investigate the long-term effects of semi-skimmed milk on insulin sensitivity and further to compare milk with sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A secondary analysis of a 6-month RCT with 60 overweight and obese subjects randomly assigned to 1 L/d of either milk (1...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234684/changes-in-the-diaphragm-lipid-content-after-administration-of-streptozotocin-and-high-fat-diet-regime
#6
Bartlomiej Lukaszuk, Agnieszka Miklosz, Malgorzata Zendzian-Piotrowska, Beata Wojcik, Jan Gorski, Adrian Chabowski
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped skeletal muscle indispensable for breathing. Its activity contributes up to 70% of the total ventilatory function at rest. In comparison to other skeletal muscles, it is distinguished by an oxidative phenotype and uninterrupted cyclic contraction pattern. Surprisingly, the research regarding diaphragm diabetic phenotype particularly in the light of lipid-induced insulin resistance is virtually nonexistent. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control, streptozotocin-induced (STZ) type-1 diabetes, and rodents fed with high-fat diet (HFD)...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229955/effect-of-whole-milk-compared-with-skimmed-milk-on-fasting-blood-lipids-in-healthy-adults-a-3-week-randomized-crossover-study
#7
Sara Engel, Mie Elhauge, Tine Tholstrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary guidelines have for decades recommended choosing low-fat dairy products due to the high content of saturated fat in dairy known to increase blood concentration of LDL cholesterol. However, meta-analyses including observational studies show no association between overall dairy intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and even point to an inverse association with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to compare the effects of whole milk (3.5% fat) with skimmed milk (0...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229564/alternative-myplate-menus-effects-of-ultra-processed-foods-on-saturated-fat-sugar-and-sodium-content
#8
Marilyn Tseng, Dawn B Neill, Stephanie F Teaford, Aydin Nazmi
OBJECTIVE: Compare saturated fat, sugar, and sodium in the US Department of Agriculture sample menu with a version in which menu items were replaced with comparable ultra-processed foods. DESIGN AND SETTING: The authors modified 7 days of a US Department of Agriculture sample menu providing approximately 2,000 kcal/d by replacing foods with comparable ultra-processed alternatives and then visited 2 chain supermarkets in San Luis Obispo, CA (August, 2016) to locate shopping list items for the 2 menu versions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228750/dietary-fat-intake-and-risk-of-esophageal-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#9
Du He, Xue Huang, Zai-Ping Wang, Dian Chen, Jun Chen, Chun-Yan Duan
Dietary fat intake is potentially associated with the onset of esophageal carcinoma (EC), but evidence from observational studies has remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the role of fat intake in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant studies. Study-specific relative risks (RR) for the highest versus the lowest intake categories and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled using a random-effects model...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224879/plant-oil-supplements-reduce-methane-emissions-and-improve-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-dairy-cows-fed-grass-silage-based-diets-without-affecting-milk-yield
#10
A R Bayat, I Tapio, J Vilkki, K J Shingfield, H Leskinen
Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221432/sex-and-ethnic-racial-specific-risk-factors-for-gallbladder-disease
#11
Jane C Figueiredo, Christopher Haiman, Jacqueline Porcel, James Buxbaum, Daniel Stram, Neal Tambe, Wendy Cozen, Lynne Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Veronica Wendy Setiawan
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a highly prevalent condition; however, little is known about potential differences in risk factors by sex and ethnicity/race. Our aim was to evaluate dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors and GBD in multiethnic populations. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis from the Multiethnic Cohort study who self-identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 32,103), African American (n = 30,209), Japanese (n = 35,987), Native Hawaiian (n = 6942) and Latino (n = 39,168)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218417/intensive-dietary-intervention-promoting-the-mediterranean-diet-in-people-with-high-cardiometabolic-risk-a-non-randomized-study
#12
M Grimaldi, O Ciano, M Manzo, M Rispoli, M Guglielmi, A Limardi, P Calatola, M Lucibello, S Pardo, B Capaldo, G Riccardi
AIMS: Mediterranean diet (MD) is acknowledged to exert a number of beneficial health effects. We assessed the efficacy and the durability of a 3-month intensive dietary intervention aimed at implementing the MD on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects at high risk. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen subjects participated in the study (71 assigned to the intensive intervention and 45 to the conventional intervention). The intensive intervention consisted of 12 weekly group educational meetings and a free-of-charge supply of meals prepared according to the MD model...
December 7, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215310/apolipoprotein-e4-mediates-insulin-resistance-associated-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-the-post-prandial-response
#13
Lance A Johnson, Eileen Ruth Torres, Sydney Weber Boutros, Esha Patel, Tunde Akinyeke, Nabil J Alkayed, Jacob Raber
Metabolic dysfunction, commonly a result of diets high in saturated fats and sugar, is associated with impaired cognitive function and an increased risk of age-related cognitive decline (ACD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared to the E3 isoform of apolipoprotein (apoE), the E4 isoform is a major genetic risk factor for ACD, AD, and for developing cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges, including dietary challenges such as a high-fat diet (HFD). Both insulin resistance (IR) and E4 are associated with metabolic and vascular impairments...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211883/carcass-characteristics-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-wild-living-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-l
#14
P Janiszewski, D Murawska, V Hanzal, M Gesek, D Michalik, M Zawacka
The aim of this study was to determine the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of wild-living mallards. The experimental materials comprised 30 mallards (1:1 sex ratio) harvested during the hunting season in northeastern Poland. The carcasses were transported to the laboratory where they were weighed individually, plucked, dressed, and dissected. The proximate chemical composition and physicochemical properties of meat and the fatty acid profile of breast muscle lipids were determined, and a histological analysis was performed...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210119/diets-rich-in-saturated-fat-and-fructose-induce-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviours-in-the-rat-is-there-a-role-for-lipid-peroxidation
#15
Silvia Gancheva, Bistra Galunska, Maria Zhelyazkova-Savova
Epidemiological studies reveal associations between obesity/metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. We assessed behavioural changes in rats fed diets enriched in fat and fructose in different proportions and correlated the observed alterations with biochemical changes induced by the diets. Three groups of rats were used as follows: control (C) animals fed regular rat chow, rats fed high-fat diet (HF) and rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFHF). HF and HFHF animals were also given a 10% fructose solution as drinking water...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209462/dietary-intakes-of-adolescents-from-food-insecure-households-analysis-of-data-from-the-6th-2013-2015-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#16
Mariam Nakitto, Kana Asano, Injoo Choi, Jihyun Yoon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at evaluating the dietary intakes of Korean adolescents affected by food insecurity, in comparison with those who were food secure. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study used one day 24-hour dietary recall data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study subjects consisted of 1,453 adolescents of whom 695 were middle school-aged and 758 were high school-aged. Food security status was assessed using the 18-item questionnaire...
December 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202860/a-giant-popliteal-lipoblastoma-in-a-23-month-old-girl-a-case-report
#17
Shogo Hashimoto, Kazutaka Kikuta, Tetsuya Sekita, Robert Nakayama, Shinichiro Takayama, Aya Sasaki, Kaori Kameyama, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Lipoblastomas are rare benign tumors that arise from embryonic white fat and almost always occur in babies and children. Here, we report a case of a giant popliteal lipoblastoma in a 23-month-old Japanese girl that was successfully treated via complete resection. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 23-month-old Japanese girl. At 6 months of age, she presented at a nearby hospital with a mass on the popliteal side of her lower right leg. She had no symptoms and was diagnosed as having a benign adipose tumor via magnetic resonance imaging...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200450/an-analysis-of-california-pharmacy-and-medical-students-dietary-and-lifestyle-practices
#18
Nathalie Bergeron, Sebastian Al-Saiegh, Eric J Ip
Objective. To assess dietary and lifestyle practices of pharmacy and medical students in California and investigate whether they adhered to behaviors consistent with current dietary and exercise guidelines. Methods. The Block Brief 2000 Food Frequency Questionnaire and a supplemental survey assessing demographics, exercise, and dietary behaviors were administered to students across 10 California pharmacy and medical schools. Results. While the majority of students consumed sodium <2300 mg/day (73%) and dietary cholesterol <300 mg/day (84%), only 50% had a saturated fat intake ≤10% total kcal, 13% met fiber intake goals, 10% consumed ≥8 servings/day of fruit and vegetables, and 41% exercised ≥150 minutes/week...
October 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199499/a-nutritional-evaluation-of-various-typical-italian-breakfast-products-a-comparison-of-macronutrient-composition-and-glycaemic-index-values
#19
Marta Cossu, Laura Chiavaroli, Margherita Dall'Asta, Veronica Francinelli, Francesca Scazzina, Furio Brighenti
Breakfast foods with lower glycaemic responses are associated with better body weight control. Glycaemic index (GI) values of some commonly consumed breakfast foods in Italy were determined and compared, along with macronutrients. Cakes/pastries were low-medium GI (44-60), with high-sugar and saturated fat and low-fibre. Generally, mueslis and breads were medium GI (62-66 and 59-76, respectively) with higher fibre and lower saturated fat and sugar. The addition of spreads to bread lowered GI (47-66) but increased sugar and saturated fat...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199181/takeaway-meal-consumption-and-risk-markers-for-coronary-heart-disease-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-in-children-aged-9-10-years-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Angela S Donin, Claire M Nightingale, Chris G Owen, Alicja R Rudnicka, Derek G Cook, Peter H Whincup
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between takeaway meal consumption and risk markers for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity risk markers in children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, school-based observational study. SETTING: 85 primary schools across London, Birmingham and Leicester. PARTICIPANTS: 1948 UK primary school children in year 5, aged 9-10 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Children reported their frequency of takeaway meal consumption, completed a 24-hour dietary recall, had physical measurements and provided a fasting blood sample...
December 3, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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