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David M Haas, Sarah Morgan, Karenrose Contreras, Savannah Enders
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by obstetricians. Infectious morbidity after cesarean delivery can have a tremendous impact on the postpartum woman's return to normal function and her ability to care for her baby. Despite the widespread use of prophylactic antibiotics, postoperative infectious morbidity still complicates cesarean deliveries. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010 and subsequently updated in 2012, and twice in 2014...
July 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lenka Doubravská, Radovan Uvízl, Tomáš Gabrhelík, Olga Klementová, Milan Kolář
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is an infection of the lung parenchyma. It is the second most frequent nosocomial infection and the leading cause of death from infection in critically ill patients. Hospital-acquired and, particularly, ventilator-associated pneumonia prolong the hospital stay and increase treatment costs. The clinical signs of pneumonia are rather non-specific, with limited possibilities to distinguish the lung condition from other nosological entities. The yield, effectiveness and cost of new rapid diagnostic procedures as well as early biochemical markers specific for pneumonia have not been sufficiently verified and clinical translation of technological innovations is slow...
March 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Ziyan Yang, Constantine Sedikides, Ruolei Gu, Yu L L Luo, Yuqi Wang, Huajian Cai
Narcissists are prone to risky decision-making, but why? This study tested-via behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures-two accounts: Deficiencies in error monitoring and deficiencies in action updating. High and low narcissists were engaged in a monetary gambling task by choosing between a high-risk and a low-risk option while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was being recorded. Two ERP components relevant to outcome evaluation-feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3-were analyzed, with the FRN serving as an index of error monitoring and the P3 as an index of action updating...
July 17, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Robert Steffen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Suvash Dawadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Hilary E Baldwin, Linda F Stein Gold, Kenneth B Gordon, Jeremy B Green, Craig L Leonardi, Roberta D Sengelmann
Updates on managing some of the most common dermatologic conditions for which patients seek care illuminated presentations at the Skin Disease Education Foundation's 42nd Annual Hawaii Dermatology Seminar®. This educational supplement summarizes the highlights of clinical sessions presented during this CME/CE conference. Treatment of psoriasis has continued to advance, with three interleukin (IL)-17 antagonists approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a fourth in phase 3 trials. An authority on the use of biologics in psoriasis presents current data on the safety and efficacy of these therapies...
June 2018: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Suthida Fairee, Santitham Prom-On, Booncharoen Sirinaovakul
In the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, the employed bee and the onlooker bee phase involve updating the candidate solutions by changing a value in one dimension, dubbed one-dimension update process. For some problems which the number of dimensions is very high, the one-dimension update process can cause the solution quality and convergence speed drop. This paper proposes a new algorithm, using reinforcement learning for solution updating in ABC algorithm, called R-ABC. After updating a solution by an employed bee, the new solution results in positive or negative reinforcement applied to the solution dimensions in the onlooker bee phase...
2018: PloS One
Florian Franz, Hanna Jechle, Verena Angerer, Melanie Pegoro, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Since the first detection of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in so-called 'legal high' products (e.g. 'Spice') sold as legal alternatives to marihuana, the rapid development of this class of designer drugs poses a great challenge for analytical laboratories. The aim of this study was the comprehensive validation of an up-to-date LC-MS/MS method for detection of SCs in human hair for the purpose of drug abstinence testing and evaluation of a pragmatic re-validation approach for frequent method adaption. The validation demonstrated low quantification limits (0...
May 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mariano Díaz, Elizabeth Granson, Jesica Taiman, Jonathan Alava, Tomás Gabrielli, Laura Mendoza
Naphazoline is a drug commonly used as a decongestant in adult patients. Its indication in Pediatrics is not frequent, being approved its use from the age of 12 for the toxic effects it possesses. Intoxication in children generates a potentially serious clinical picture. It is characterized by the immediate appearance of hypotonia, deterioration of the sensory, hypothermia and bradycardia of variable degree of clinical compromise. Although it is an infrequent intoxication, the anamnesis and the initial management of the patient are the key in the evolution...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
César H Meller, María E Carducci, José M Ceriani Cernadas, Lucas Otaño
Preterm premature rupture of membranes occurs in around 3% of pregnancies, and several aspects related to its management are still controversial. The objective of this update is to provide a detailed review of strategies aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality associated with this maternal condition. We will discuss the available evidence regarding the maternal use of antibiotics, the use of corticosteroids according to gestational age, the use of magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection, the use of tocolytic agents, and the best moment for and route of delivery...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Claudia Giunta Crescente, Milagro Soto de Facchin, Andreína M Acevedo Rodríguez
An odontogenic infection is a polymicrobial, mixed infection (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria). It comprises various clinical conditions, whose importance varies depending on their frequency and potential severity. It is the most common type of oral infection and its treatment involves up to 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions. Facial cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation of soft tissue that is not confined or limited to a specific region and tends to spread. The objective of this review is to update the aspects considered in the care of children with facial cellulitis of odontogenic origin and the multidisciplinary management between dentists and pediatricians...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Daniel W A Noble, Vaughn Stenhouse, Julia L Riley, Daniel A Warner, Geoffrey M While, Wei-Guo Du, Tobias Uller, Lisa E Schwanz
How temperature influences development has direct relevance to ascertaining the impact of climate change on natural populations. Reptiles have served as empirical models for understanding how the environment experienced by embryos can influence phenotypic variation, including sex ratio, phenology and survival. Such an understanding has important implications for basic eco-evolutionary theory and conservation efforts worldwide. While there is a burgeoning empirical literature of experimental manipulations of embryonic thermal environments, addressing widespread patterns at a comparative level has been hampered by the lack of accessible data in a format that is amendable to updates as new studies emerge...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Data
Octavio Arevalo, Roy Riascos, Pejman Rabiei, Arash Kamali, Flavia Nelson
The advent of magnetic resonance imaging has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology and natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). The ability of magnetic resonance imaging to show the evolution of MS lesions on sequential scans has brought it to be one of the endpoints in clinical trials for disease-modifying therapies. Based on the most updated consensus guidelines from the American (Consortium of MS Centers) and European (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) boards of experts in MS, this document shows the most relevant landmarks related to imaging findings, diagnostic criteria, indications to obtain a magnetic resonance, scan protocols and sequence options for patients with MS...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Regis Otaviano França Bezerra, Débora Zachello Recchimuzzi, Micaela Maciel Dos Santos Mota, Marcio Ricardo Taveira Garcia, Marcos Roberto de Menezes, Paulo Eduardo Mazo, Giovanni Guido Cerri
Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is becoming an important tool in oncology as a nonirradiating imaging technique since recent technological advances allowed the incorporation of high-quality imaging in an adequate time. Moreover, the noninjection of radioisotope/intravenous contrast, low cost compared with traditional nuclear medicine techniques, and fast acquisition times are another distinct feature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol and its main applications in the oncology setting...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Roland E Schmieder, Felix Mahfoud, Michel Azizi, Atul Pathak, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Abraham A Kroon, Christian Ott, Filippo Scalise, Giuseppe Mancia, Costas Tsioufis
: This ESH update was deemed necessary with the publication of new results of sham-controlled randomized blinded prospective trials with renal denervation (RDN). Proof of concept studies and first randomized trials (some were sham-controlled) displayed discrepant results about the efficacy of RDN. Three sham-controlled randomized trials of the 2.0 generation yielded now similarity in the average blood pressure decrease following RDN. Reduction of ambulatory blood pressure was approximately 5 to 7 mmHg and of office blood pressure 10 mmHg...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Nanna B Finnerup, Simon Haroutounian, Ralf Baron, Robert H Dworkin, Ian Gilron, Maija Haanpaa, Troels S Jensen, Peter R Kamerman, Ewan McNicol, Andrew Moore, Srinivasa N Raja, Niels T Andersen, Emily S Sena, Blair H Smith, Andrew Sc Rice, Nadine Attal
Multiple recent pharmacological clinical trials in neuropathic pain have failed to show beneficial effect of drugs with previously demonstrated efficacy, and estimates of drug efficacy seems to have decreased with accumulation of newer trials. However, this has not been systematically assessed. Here we analyze time-dependent changes in estimated treatment effect size in pharmacological trials together with factors that may contribute to decreases in estimated effect size. This study is a secondary analysis of data from a previous published NeuPSIG systematic review and meta-analysis, updated to include studies published up till March 2017...
July 12, 2018: Pain
Anita M Y Goh, Ellen Gaffy, Brendan Hallam, Briony Dow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many people living with dementia (PLWD) wish to continue living at home. The quality of home care services directly influences their ability to stay at home, their quality of life, and can promote independence for PLWD, and reduce burden for the family carer. For high-quality, effective, person-centred community-based dementia care, a knowledgeable and empathetic workforce is crucial. This article presents an up-to-date review and summary of the literature investigating dementia training programmes for community home care professionals and care workers, referred to collectively as home care workers (HCWs)...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Jose Nativi-Nicolau, Mathew S Maurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article provides an update about the recent advances in the diagnosis and management of the most common types of cardiac amyloidosis, including light chain, wild-type transthyretin (ATTRwt), and mutant transthyretin (ATTRm). RECENT FINDINGS: The document reviews the utility of diagnostic tools including innovative echocardiographic indices, magnetic resonance T1 mapping and measurement of extracellular volume, and the role and validation of bone scintigraphy for the noninvasive assessment of ATTR amyloidosis...
July 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
(no author information available yet)
This final rule will revise the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (Part C) regulations and Prescription Drug Benefit program (Part D) regulations to implement certain provisions of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act (CARA) to further reduce the number of beneficiaries who may potentially misuse or overdose on opioids while still having access to important treatment options; implement certain provisions of the 21st Century Cures Act; support innovative approaches to improve program quality, accessibility, and affordability; offer beneficiaries more choices and better care; improve the CMS customer experience and maintain high beneficiary satisfaction; address program integrity policies related to payments based on prescriber, provider and supplier status in MA, Medicare cost plan, Medicare Part D and the PACE programs; provide an update to the official Medicare Part D electronic prescribing standards; and clarify program requirements and certain technical changes regarding treatment of Medicare Part A and Part B appeal rights related to premiums adjustments...
April 16, 2018: Federal Register
(no author information available yet)
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is revising the portion of the VA Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD or rating schedule) that addresses the organs of special sense and schedule of ratings--eye. The final rule incorporates medical advances that have occurred since the last review, updates current medical terminology, and provides clearer evaluation criteria.
April 10, 2018: Federal Register
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