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Lung cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649876/myasthenia-gravis-induced-by-nivolumab-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Shigeru Kawai, Takayo Ota, Hiroshi Tsukuda, Masahiro Fukuoka
A 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer presented with left eyelid ptosis and grade 4 creatine phosphokinase elevation after the 2nd cycle of nivolumab monotherapy. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in several trials. Dyspnea and muscle weakness developed rapidly with an acute exacerbation. She underwent plasmapheresis and intravenous immune globulin followed by treatment with low-dose prednisolone. She had gradual symptoms improvement...
June 26, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647837/targeting-metabolic-reprogramming-in-kras-driven-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Kenji Kawada, Kosuke Toda, Yoshiharu Sakai
Mutations of KRAS are found in a variety of human malignancies, including in pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer at high frequency. To date, no effective treatments that target mutant variants of KRAS have been introduced into clinical practice. In recent years, a number of studies have shown that the oncogene KRAS plays a critical role in controlling cancer metabolism by orchestrating multiple metabolic changes. One of the metabolic hallmarks of malignant tumor cells is their dependency on aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646771/efficacy-of-alectinib-in-central-nervous-system-metastases-in-crizotinib-resistant-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-comparison-of-recist-1-1-and-rano-hgg-criteria
#3
Leena Gandhi, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Alice T Shaw, Fabrice Barlesi, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Dong-Wan Kim, D Ross Camidge, Brett G M Hughes, James C-H Yang, Javier de Castro, Lucio Crino, Hervé Léna, Pascal Do, Sophie Golding, Walter Bordogna, Ali Zeaiter, Ahmed Kotb, Shirish Gadgeel
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) progression is common in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving crizotinib. Next-generation ALK inhibitors have shown activity against CNS metastases, but accurate assessment of response and progression is vital. Data from two phase II studies in crizotinib-refractory ALK+ NSCLC were pooled to examine the CNS efficacy of alectinib, a CNS-active ALK inhibitor, using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST version 1...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645115/a-comprehensive-review-of-heregulins-her3-and-her4-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Jose Mauricio Mota, Katharine Ann Collier, Ricardo Lima Barros Costa, Timothy Taxter, Aparna Kalyan, Caio A Leite, Young Kwang Chae, Francis J Giles, Benedito A Carneiro
Heregulins (HRGs) bind to the receptors HER3 or HER4, induce receptor dimerization, and trigger downstream signaling that leads to tumor progression and resistance to targeted therapies. Increased expression of HRGs has been associated with worse clinical prognosis; therefore, attempts to block HRG-dependent tumor growth have been pursued. This manuscript summarizes the function and signaling of HRGs and review the preclinical evidence of its involvement in carcinogenesis, prognosis, and treatment resistance in several malignancies such as colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645111/intersecting-transcriptomic-profiling-technologies-and-long-non-coding-rna-function-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-discovery-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-applications
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan Castillo, Theresa R Stueve, Crystal N Marconett
Previously thought of as junk transcripts and pseudogene remnants, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have come into their own over the last decade as an essential component of cellular activity, regulating a plethora of functions within multicellular organisms. lncRNAs are now known to participate in development, cellular homeostasis, immunological processes, and the development of disease. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified. However, movement beyond mere discovery to the understanding of molecular processes has been stymied by the complicated genomic structure, tissue-restricted expression, and diverse regulatory roles lncRNAs play...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643736/the-pitfalls-in-cytology-diagnosis-of-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-lung-and-their-treatment-response
#6
Debarshi Saha, Ankit Kumar, Sourjya Banerjee, M Nirupama, H B Sridevi, Priya Garg, Flora D Lobo
CONTEXT: Lung is the most common site of small cell carcinoma (SCLC) - a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC). SCLC comprises 15-20% of the invasive cancers of the lung. AIM: This study was conducted to appraise the accuracy and pitfalls of the diagnosis of PDNEC on cytology along with treatment responses if available. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study for 2 years yielded 21 cases on cytology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Slides of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes, the tumor, bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were used...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643093/the-impact-of-trained-radiographers-as-concurrent-readers-on-performance-and-reading-time-of-experienced-radiologists-in-the-uk-lung-cancer-screening-ukls-trial
#7
Arjun Nair, Nicholas J Screaton, John A Holemans, Diane Jones, Leigh Clements, Bruce Barton, Natalie Gartland, Stephen W Duffy, David R Baldwin, John K Field, David M Hansell, Anand Devaraj
OBJECTIVES: To compare radiologists' performance reading CTs independently with their performance using radiographers as concurrent readers in lung cancer screening. METHODS: 369 consecutive baseline CTs performed for the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) trial were double-read by radiologists reading either independently or concurrently with a radiographer. In concurrent reading, the radiologist reviewed radiographer-identified nodules and then detected any additional nodules...
June 22, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#8
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy A Mathe, Joseph McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641893/recent-development-of-transition-metal-complexes-with-in-vivo-antitumor-activity
#9
Jia-Xin Liang, Hai-Jing Zhong, Guanjun Yang, Kasipandi Vellaisamy, Dik-Lung Ma, Chung-Hang Leung
The often severe side effects displayed by currently used platinum and ruthenium complexes have motivated researchers to design and develop transition metal-based anti-tumor agents with reduced toxicity. Distinct from organic anti-tumor drugs, transition metal complexes possess several properties that render them as promising scaffolds for anti-cancer drug discovery. While a vast number of metal complexes have been synthesized and reported to be promising and potent in vitro anticancer active compounds, fewer have shown efficacy in in vivo models...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641702/-prospect-and-current-situation-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-%C3%A2-in-first-line-treatment-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#10
Haiyang Wang, Xiaoqing Yu, Yun Fan
With the breakthroughs achieved of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors monotherapy as first-line and second-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the treatment strategy is gradually evolving and optimizing. Immune combination therapy expands the benefit population and improves the curative effect. A series of randomized phase III trials are ongoing. In this review, we discuss the prospect and current situation of immune checkpoint inhibitors in first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC patients...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641701/-recent-advances-and-future-strategies-for-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Weipeng Shao, Xiaowei Wang, Deruo Liu
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant tumor with a very high mortality rate. The current standard of care includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The clinical benefit of therapies was disappointing. Recently, many clinical trials about target therapy and immunotherapy are processing. This review will focus on current therapy and future research direction of SCLC.
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641700/-molecular-imaging-in-vivo-detection-of-egfr-mutations-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Danjing Luo, Jin'an Ma, Jinming Zhang, Yanzhong Zhao
An ever increasing number of drugs directed as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) bring a new revolution for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy, and many large scales of studies show that only people with EGFR-sensitive mutation can benefit from these drugs. The main method of EGFR mutation detection is to analyze the DNA sequence of EGFR, which can be the lung cancer tissue, pleural fluid tumor cells, circulating tumor cells and peripheral blood free DNA obtained by surgery or puncture, the biggest drawback is that the heterogeneity of EGFR mutation cannot be analyzed...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641699/-quantitative-imaging-assessment-of-tumor-response-to-chemoradiation-%C3%A2-in-lung-cancer
#13
Yuxin Jiao, Yanping Ren, Xiangpeng Zheng
Precision medicine demands accurate assessment of tumor response to therapies with the purpose of timely optimization or adjustment of the given treatment regimens. Chemoradiation remains the standard of care in advanced lung cancers and imaging-based noninvasive response evaluation could improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce treatment-related severe side effects. In this review, we overviewed the applications and pitfalls of major imaging modalities in response evaluation in lung cancer from a quantitative perspective...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641155/depression-and-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Y Jia, F Li, Y F Liu, J P Zhao, M M Leng, L Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between depression and incident cancer risk. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Risk ratios (RRs) were used to measure effect size. A random-effects model was applied to synthesize the associations between depression and cancer risk...
June 19, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640902/hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-and-antiviral-prophylaxis-during-lung-cancer-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Yu-Tuan Wu, Xin Li, Zi-Li Liu, Zhou Xu, Wei Dai, Ke Zhang, Jiu-Song Wu, Bilal Arshad, Kai-Nan Wu, Ling-Quan Kong
BACKGROUND: Antiviral drugs have been recommended as prophylaxis for the reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, screening and antiviral prophylaxis for lung cancer remain controversial because of insufficient evidence. PURPOSE: In this study, we investigate the absolute risk for HBV reactivation and the prophylactic effects of antiviral drugs in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive lung cancer patients during chemotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639854/rapid-on-site-evaluation-of-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspirations-for-the-diagnosis-of-lung-cancer-a-perspective-from-members-of-the-pulmonary-pathology-society
#16
Deepali Jain, Timothy Craig Allen, Dara L Aisner, Mary Beth Beasley, Philip T Cagle, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Lida P Hariri, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Ross Miller, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Sara E Monaco, Andre Moreira, Kirtee Raparia, Natasha Rekhtman, Anja Christiane Roden, Sinchita Roy Chowdhuri, Gilda da Cunha Santos, Erik Thunnissen, Giancarlo Troncone, Marina Vivero
CONTEXT: - Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as a very useful tool in the field of diagnostic respiratory cytology. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of EBUS-TBNA not only has the potential to improve diagnostic yield of the procedure but also to triage samples for predictive molecular testing to guide personalized treatments for lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: - To provide an overview of the current status of the literature regarding ROSE of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lung cancer...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638792/immunotherapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-unleash-its-potential-through-novel-combinations
#17
REVIEW
Songchuan Guo, Merly Contratto, George Miller, Lawrence Leichman, Jennifer Wu
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the United States, with poor response to current standard of care, short progression-free and overall survival. Immunotherapies that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death protein-1, and programmed death-ligand 1 checkpoints have shown remarkable activities in several cancers such as melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer due to high numbers of somatic mutations, combined with cytotoxic T-cell responses...
June 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638445/association-of-mage-a1-6-expression-with-lung-cancer-progression
#18
Eunjue Yi, Ji-Eun Chang, Chosun Leem, Chang-Ho Jeon, Sanghoon Jheon
The melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) genes are known to be expressed in various kinds of tumors including lung cancer. Although they are studied as targets for immunotherapy and tools for early detection of lung cancer, the correlation between MAGE expression and the prognosis in lung cancer has not been clarified. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between MAGE A1-6 gene expression and the clinical prognosis in lung cancer. Bone marrow aspirations were performed in 60 patients who were diagnosed as lung cancer and underwent lung cancer surgery between 2007 and 2008...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638274/hypoxia-regulated-microrna-210-overexpression-is-associated-with-tumor-development-and-progression-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#19
Hung-Lung Ke, Wei-Ming Li, Hui-Hui Lin, Wei-Chi Hsu, Ya-Ling Hsu, Lin-Li Chang, Chun-Nung Huang, Ching-Chia Li, Hsin-Ping Chang, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Chien-Feng Li, Wen-Jeng Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia has been shown to facilitate tumor progression. Hypoxia-regulated microRNA-210 (miR-210) may play an important role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of miR-210 expression in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). METHODS: Eighty-three UTUC patients participated in this study. All of them provided cancer tissue samples and 50 of them provided non-cancerous urothelium samples. Clinicopathologic data were collected by reviewing medical records...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637487/the-nf1-somatic-mutational-landscape-in-sporadic-human-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Philpott, Hannah Tovell, Ian M Frayling, David N Cooper, Meena Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) #162200) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome. Heritable constitutional mutations in the NF1 gene result in dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway and are causative of NF1. The major known function of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is to downregulate RAS. NF1 exhibits variable clinical expression and is characterized by benign cutaneous lesions including neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules, as well as a predisposition to various types of malignancy, such as breast cancer and leukaemia...
June 21, 2017: Human Genomics
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