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Lung cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222111/a-meta-analysis-of-the-abscopal-effect-in-preclinical-models-is-the-biologically-effective-dose-a-relevant-physical-trigger
#1
Raffaella Marconi, Silvia Strolin, Gianluca Bossi, Lidia Strigari
BACKGROUND: Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are considered crucial in translational cancer research and clinical implementation of novel treatments. This is of paramount relevance in radiobiology, especially for any technological developments permitted to deliver high doses in single or oligo-fractionated regimens, such as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). In this context, clinical success in cancer treatment needs to be guaranteed, sparing normal tissue and preventing the potential spread of disease or local recurrence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220258/impact-of-denosumab-use-on-the-survival-of-untreated-non-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastases
#2
Hibiki Udagawa, Seiji Niho, Keisuke Kirita, Shigeki Umemura, Shingo Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Yoh, Koichi Goto
PURPOSE: Denosumab reduces the incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs) in solid tumor patients with bone metastases (BM). However, there have been no detailed reports of the efficacy of denosumab in untreated non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with BM. METHODS: The medical records of patients with untreated non-squamous NSCLC and BM at diagnosis at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. The overall survival (OS) and the time to SREs were analyzed according to the treatment for the BM...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219878/features-of-a-mobile-support-app-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-literature-review-and-current-applications
#3
Drishty D Sobnath, Nada Philip, Reem Kayyali, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara, Barbara Pierscionek, Anouk W Vaes, Martijn A Spruit, Evangelos Kaimakamis
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious long-term lung disease in which the airflow from the lungs is progressively reduced. By 2030, COPD will become the third cause of mortality and seventh cause of morbidity worldwide. With advances in technology and mobile communications, significant progress in the mobile health (mHealth) sector has been recently observed. Mobile phones with app capabilities (smartphones) are now considered as potential media for the self-management of certain types of diseases such as asthma, cancer, COPD, or cardiovascular diseases...
February 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219213/-clinical-application-value-of-prognostic-nutritional-index-for-predicting-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
W J Xu, Y M Kang, L Zhou, F F Chen, Y H Song, C Q Zhang
Objective: To explore the clinical application value of prognostic nutritional index(PNI) for predicting overall survival(OS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 123 patients with histologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and their clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. The PNI was calculated as 10×serum albumin value+ 5×total lymphocyte countin peripheral blood.Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the potential prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219203/-precision-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-harboring-egfr-mutation
#5
D M Yuan, Y Song
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become the preferred treatment option for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) according to major practice guidelines. Gefitinib, elortinib and icotinib formed the cornerstone of first-line EGFR-TKIs in the clinical practice in our country. Now, with the continuously emerging of new types of EGFR-TKIs and ever-increasing publication of clinical trial results on afatinib, AZD9291 and other TKIs, we have more first-line choices for patients with EGFR mutations...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219200/-application-strategies-of-the-third-generation-egfr-tki-in-the-context-of-precision-medicine
#6
J Zhao, S J Zhang, C C Zhou
With the advances in molecular detection technology and the emergence of various targeted agents, we have entered the era of precision medicine across the whole process of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation, the most common driver, have been developed from the first generation to the third generation, improving the survival and life quality of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It is critically important how to rank these targeted agents and arrange combination therapies, and this review will focus on the strategies of the third-generation EGFR-TKI in the context of precision medicine...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219077/radiopathological-features-and-identification-of-mycobacterial-infections-in-granulomatous-nodules-resected-from-the-lung
#7
Yumi Sakakibara, Yoshimi Suzuki, Toshihide Fujie, Takumi Akashi, Tadatsune Iida, Yasunari Miyazaki, Yoshinobu Eishi, Naohiko Inase
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary granulomas are sometimes resected because they resemble lung cancer and false-positive findings come through from positron emission tomography (PET) using 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Mycobacterial infection is a common cause of granulomas. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopathological features and the methods for identifying mycobacterial infections in granulomatous nodules resected from the lung. METHODS: Thirty-five solitary lesions resected because of suspected lung cancer were enrolled, including 22 nonfungal granulomatous lesions and 13 benign lesions as controls...
February 21, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217015/the-pearl-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-preoperative-assessment-of-patients-with-potentially-operable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-its-clinical-impact
#8
Boom Ting Kung, Ting Kun Au Yong, Cheuk Man Tong
The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the clinical impact and efficacy of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) on management decisions for patients suffering from clinically operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A retrospective review of 186 potentially operable NSCLC patients who underwent whole-body PET/CT examination in 2012 was performed. The patients were further analyzed via the electronic patient record (ePR) system for relevant findings...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216278/outcomes-of-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-bone-metastases-in-the-targeted-therapy-era
#9
Sarathi Kalra, Jonathan Verma, Bradley J Atkinson, Surena F Matin, Christopher G Wood, Jose A Karam, Sue-Hwa Lin, Robert L Satcher, Pheroze Tamboli, Kanishka Sircar, Priya Rao, Paul G Corn, Nizar M Tannir, Eric Jonasch
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases (BMs) occur commonly in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved the outcomes for patients with mRCC. However, data on the outcomes of mRCC patients with BMs treated with TKIs are limited. We describe the outcomes of patients with BMs treated with TKI therapy and compare them with the outcomes from a pre-TKI group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using an institutional tumor registry, a retrospective review of patients with mRCC from 2002 to 2003 and 2006 to 2007 was performed...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215024/pharmacogenomics-of-platinum-based-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focusing-on-dna-repair-systems
#10
REVIEW
Yi Xiong, Bi-Yun Huang, Ji-Ye Yin
Drug therapy for non-small cell lung cancer consists mainly of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. However, toxicity, drug resistance, and high risk of death have been seen in the clinic, which means there is a need for optimizing the use of medications. Platinum resistance could be mediated by a series of DNA repair pathways, and therefore, these pathways should be taken into account for optimizing drug using. The goal of pharmacogenomics is to elucidate genetic factors, such as DNA repair genes, which might underlie drug efficacy and effectiveness, and to improve therapeutic effects or guide personalized therapy as well...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213726/pd-1-and-pd-l1-antibodies-in-cancer-current-status-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Arjun Vasant Balar, Jeffrey S Weber
Immunotherapy has moved to the center stage of cancer treatment with the recent success of trials in solid tumors with PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade. Programmed death-1 or PD-1 is a checkpoint molecule on T cells that plays a vital role in limiting adaptive immune responses and preventing autoimmune and auto-inflammatory reactivity in the normal host. In cancer patients, PD-1 expression is very high on T cells in the tumor microenvironment, and PD-L1, its primary ligand, is variably expressed on tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells within tumors, providing a potent inhibitory influence within the tumor microenvironment...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213657/the-roles-of-uvb-and-vitamin-d-in-reducing-risk-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-clinical-trials-and-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Meis Moukayed, William B Grant
Global cancer incidence and mortality rates are high and increasing. Thus, it is imperative to find novel solutions to preventing cancer incidence and treating it at an affordable yet efficacious manner. The solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis was first proposed in 1980 based on a geographical ecological study. Since then, numerous ecological and observational studies as well as studies of mechanisms have provided support for the hypothesis. However, observational studies have not provided consistent support, in part due to using a single blood draw from any season to use for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in prospective studies with long follow-up times...
February 17, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213330/drug-discovery-strategies-in-the-field-of-tumor-energy-metabolism-limitations-by-metabolic-flexibility-and-metabolic-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#13
REVIEW
N D Amoedo, E Obre, R Rossignol
The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213008/the-prognostic-impact-of-tumor-volume-on-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Xiao-Dong Su, Hao-Jun Xie, Qian-Wen Liu, Yun-Xian Mo, Hao Long, Tie-Hua Rong
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of tumor volume (TV) on patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after complete resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 274 patients with stage I NSCLC who had received preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) scans and complete resection. TV was semi-automatically measured from chest CT scans by using an imaging software program...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212997/differential-expression-and-prognostic-significance-of-glut1-according-to-histologic-type-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-its-association-with-volume-dependent-parameters
#15
Young Wha Koh, Su Jin Lee, Seong Yong Park
BACKGROUND: We evaluated glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression, together with volume-based(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) parameters, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and examined the prognostic significance of those parameters according to its histologic subtype. METHOD: A total of 269 patients, who underwent surgical resection for NSCLC, were reviewed retrospectively. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) values were measured by preoperative (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212993/efficacy-according-to-blind-independent-central-review-post-hoc-analyses-from-the-phase-iii-randomized-multicenter-ipass-study-of-first-line-gefitinib-versus-carboplatin-paclitaxel-in-asian-patients-with-egfr-mutation-positive-advanced-nsclc
#16
Yi-Long Wu, Nagahiro Saijo, Sumitra Thongprasert, J C-H Yang, Baohui Han, Benjamin Margono, Busayamas Chewaskulyong, Patrapim Sunpaweravong, Yuichiro Ohe, Yukito Ichinose, Jin-Ji Yang, Tony S K Mok, Helen Young, Vincent Haddad, Yuri Rukazenkov, Masahiro Fukuoka
OBJECTIVE: The Phase III, randomized, open-label IPASS study (NCT00322452) of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) gefitinib versus carboplatin/paclitaxel for Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed that investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) were significantly prolonged in patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC who received gefitinib versus patients with EGFR mutation-negative NSCLC...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209717/autophagy-metabolism-and-cancer
#17
Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Eileen White
Macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) is a process that collects cytoplasmic components, particularly mitochondria, and degrades them in lysosomes. In mammalian systems, basal autophagy levels are normally low but are profoundly stimulated by starvation and essential for survival. Cancer cells up-regulate autophagy and can be more autophagy-dependent than most normal tissues. Genetic deficiency in essential autophagy genes in tumors in many autochthonous mouse models for cancer reduces tumor growth. In K-ras(G12D)-driven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other models, autophagy sustains metabolism and survival...
February 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208826/anticancer-activities-of-c18-c19-c20-and-bis-diterpenoid-alkaloids-derived-from-genus-aconitum
#18
REVIEW
Meng-Yue Ren, Qing-Tian Yu, Chun-Yu Shi, Jia-Bo Luo
Cancer is one of the most common lethal diseases, and natural products have been extensively studied as anticancer agents considering their availability, low toxicity, and economic affordability. Plants belonging to the genus Aconitum have been widely used medically in many Asian countries since ancient times. These plants have been proven effective for treating several types of cancer, such as lung, stomach, and liver cancers. The main effective components of Aconitum plants are diterpenoid alkaloids-which are divided into C18-, C19-, C20-, and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids-are reportedly some of the most promising, naturally abundant compounds for treating cancer...
February 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208579/role-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Guangbo Liu, Fen Pei, Fengqing Yang, Lingxiao Li, Amit Dipak Amin, Songnian Liu, J Ross Buchan, William C Cho
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes 85% of all lung cancers, and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis and resistance to both radiation and chemotherapy warrant further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of NSCLC and the development of new, more efficacious therapeutics. The processes of autophagy and apoptosis, which induce degradation of proteins and organelles or cell death upon cellular stress, are crucial in the pathophysiology of NSCLC. The close interplay between autophagy and apoptosis through shared signaling pathways complicates our understanding of how NSCLC pathophysiology is regulated...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207548/egfr-mutation-testing-in-blood-for-guiding-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-in-patients-with-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Jin-Qiu Yuan, Yue-Lun Zhang, Hai-Tao Li, Chen Mao
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in tumor tissue is now a common practice in selecting non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, tumor tissues are often absent or insufficient for the testing. Blood is a potential substitute providing a noninvasive, easily accessible and repeatedly measureable source of genotypic information. However which is the best blood EGFR mutation testing method remains unclear...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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