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Lung cancer review

Lin Zhou, Yuan Chang, Le Xu, Son Tung Nguyen Hoang, Zheng Liu, Qiang Fu, Zongming Lin, Jiejie Xu
Vascular mimicry (VM) refers to the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks, which promoted tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was evaluate the impact of VM on recurrence-free survival (RFS) in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Records from 202 patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) for UCB at Zhongshan Hospital between 2002 and 2014 were reviewed. The presence of VM was identified by CD31-PAS double staining. Positive VM staining occurred in 19.3% (39 of 202) UCB cases, and it was associated with increased risks of recurrence (Log-Rank p<0...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
L Rodríguez Caraballo, J Gómez-Chacón Villalban, P Rodríguez Iglesias, L Mangas Álvarez, A Marco Macián
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience in the use of the guided hook wire placement to undergo thoracoscopic resection of pulmonary metastases in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review, between January 2008 and December 2014 of the patients that were diagnosed with pulmonary metastases by image and who underwent a thoracoscopic metastasectomy. Patients in whom a CT- guided hook was done before the surgery were included. RESULTS: Eleven procedures were done in ten patients with a median age of 10 years (range 2-16 years)...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Yung-Hao Wong, Chia-Chiun Chiu, Chih-Lung Lin, Ting-Shou Chen, Bo-Ren Jheng, Yu-Ching Lee, Jeremy Chen, Bor-Sen Chen
In recent years, many systems biology approaches have been used with various cancers. The materials described here can be used to build bases to discover novel cancer therapy targets in connection with computer-aided drug design (CADD). A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer will provide more choices and correct strategies in the development of multiple target drug therapies, which is quite different from the traditional cancer single target therapy. Targeted therapy is one of the most powerful strategies against cancer and can also be applied to other diseases...
October 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Parikshaa Gupta, Dipanjan Haldar, Jasmine Naru, Pranab Dey, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Ranjana Walker Minz, Ritu Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Oncogenic viruses have recently been allied with lung carcinoma, however, the causal association has not been established till date. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV; subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in lung carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fine needle aspirates. METHODS: Fine needle aspirates of patients with lung carcinoma were included as cases...
October 24, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Neil M D'Souza, Penny Fang, Jennifer Logan, Jinzhong Yang, Wen Jiang, Jing Li
Malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly glioblastoma and brain metastases from a variety of disease sites, are difficult to treat despite advances in multimodality approaches consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). Recent successes of immunotherapeutic strategies including immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) via anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies against aggressive cancers, such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, have presented an exciting opportunity to translate these strategies for CNS malignancies...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Daniël A Korevaar, Laurence M Crombag, Jérémie F Cohen, René Spijker, Patrick M Bossuyt, Jouke T Annema
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend endosonography with fine-needle aspiration for mediastinal nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer, but most do not specify whether this should be through endobronchial endoscopy (EBUS), oesophageal endoscopy (EUS), or both. We assessed the added value and diagnostic accuracy of the combined use of EBUS and EUS. METHODS: For this systematic review and random effects meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science, without language restrictions, for studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and Feb 25, 2016...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Henning A Gaissert, Felix G Fernandez, Mark S Allen, William R Burfeind, Mark I Block, James M Donahue, John D Mitchell, Paul H Schipper, Mark W Onaitis, Andrzej S Kosinski, Jeffrey P Jacobs, David M Shahian, Benjamin D Kozower, Fred H Edwards, Emily A Conrad, G Alexander Patterson
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database has grown to more than 500,000 case records. Clinical research supported by the database is increasingly used to advance patient outcomes. This research review from the General Thoracic Surgery Database in 2014 and 2015 discusses 6 recent publications and an ongoing study on longitudinal outcomes in lung cancer surgery from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Task Force for Linked Registries and Longitudinal Follow-up. A lack of database variables specific for certain uncommon procedures limits the ability to study these operations; inclusion of clinical descriptors for selected infrequent but clinically important thoracic disorders is suggested...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
C Genova, A Alama, S Coco, E Rijavec, M G Dal Bello, I Vanni, F Biello, G Barletta, G Rossi, F Grossi
Vinflunine belongs to the class of vinca alkaloids and acts by disrupting the microtubule dynamics during cell cycle; this agent is currently available for previously treated advanced transitional cell carcinoma in Europe. The aim of this invited review is to evaluate the potential role of vinflunine for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Areas covered: The potential role of vinflunine in NSCLC is discussed on the basis of the available data, including full papers and meeting abstracts. Relevant preclinical studies describing the pharmacological properties of vinflunine are also included...
October 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Joanna Pancewicz-Wojtkiewicz
Lung cancer is the most common reason of cancer deaths and about 85% of these are non-small-cell lung cancer. Currently, lung cancer therapy is mainly based on the tumor node metastasis (TNM) disease staging and tumor histological classification. Despite therapeutic innovations, the prognosis for lung cancer patients has not significantly changed in the last years. Therefore, a proper understanding of cell signaling pathways involved in cancer pathogenesis seems to be essential for improvement in cancer therapy field...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Shuhang Wang, Yongping Song, Feifei Yan, Delong Liu
The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are becoming the first line of therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Acquired mutations in EGFR account for one of the major mechanisms of resistance to the TKIs. Three generations of EGFR TKIs have been used in clinical applications. AZD9291 (osimertinib; Tagrisso) is the first and only FDA approved third-generation EGFR TKI for T790M-positive advanced NSCLC patients. However, resistance to AZD9291 arises after 9-13 months of therapy...
October 21, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Lan-Eng Tan, Razak A M, Chor-Shen Lim
Patients with lung cancer often have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the impact of COPD on postresection survival of patients with lung cancer is unclear. This study evaluated the impact of COPD on survival of patients with lung cancer following pulmonary resection. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase until March 2016. Study outcomes were overall survival and pulmonary complication rate (pneumonia, bronchial fistula, and prolonged mechanical ventilation). 6 studies with a total of 3761 patients were included...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
J Chee, B W S R Robinson, R A Holt, J Creaney
Harnessing the immune system to fight cancer is an exciting advancement in lung cancer therapy. Anti-tumor immunity can be augmented by checkpoint blockade therapy, which removes the inhibition/brakes imposed on the immune system by the tumor. Checkpoint blockade therapy with anti-PD1/anti-PDL1 antibodies causes tumor regression in around 25% of lung cancer patients. In another approach, the immune system is forced or accelerated to attack the tumour, via augmentation of the anti-tumour response against mutations carried by each lung tumour...
October 18, 2016: Chest
Ingrid Broodman, Jan Lindemans, Jenny van Sten, Rainer Bischoff, Theo M Luider
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT screening may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. Alternatively, false-negative and indeterminate results may harm patients due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Gokoulakrichenane Loganadane, Florent Martinetti, Olaf Mercier, Samar Krhili, François-Georges Riet, Rodrigue Mbagui, Hanh To, Cécile Le Péchoux, Antonin Levy
Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) has become the standard treatment for peripheral medically non-operable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous attempts of trials to compare SABR and surgery have failed and new randomized studies (SABRtooth, STABLEMATES, and VALOR) are ongoing. While predictive factors of relapse have been extensively studied in patients receiving surgery, there is scarce data on such putative factors in SABR patients. The purpose of this review is to analyze such predictive factors through a critical review of the literature...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Giulia R Mosele, Gianfilippo Caggiari, Roberto M Scarpa, Carlo Doria
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the 10 most common cancers in both men and women. It comprises 2-3% of all malignancies. The most common site for metastasis from RCC is the lung (50% of patients), followed by the skeleton (20% to 50% of patients). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our consecutive series of 63 patients surgically treated for spinal metastases from RCC. The surgical treatment for spinal metastases varied in each patient. Factors influencing the choice of surgery included age, disease status, symptoms, morbidity of the patient, the location, the number of repetitive lesions and the existence of extra-osseous metastases...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Keiju Aokage, Junji Yoshida, Tomoyuki Hishida, Masahiro Tsuboi, Hisashi Saji, Morihito Okada, Kenji Suzuki, Syunichi Watanabe, Hisao Asamura
Since 'radical lobectomy' was reported by Cahan in 1960, the standard surgical care for lung cancer has been lobectomy, in which units of the lobe are excised with their specific regional hilar and mediastinal lymphatics. However, pulmonary function-preserving limited resection for lung cancer has gradually become more prevalent in the late 20th century. In 1995, Ginsberg et al. conducted a randomized controlled trial in which limited resection (segmentectomy and wide-wedge resection) and lobectomy for stage I lung cancer were compared and reported that limited resection should not be applied to healthy patients with clinical stage IA lung cancer...
October 20, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Atsushi Hata, Hidemi Suzuki, Takahiro Nakajima, Kazuhisa Tanaka, Taiki Fujiwara, Hironobu Wada, Takekazu Iwata, Shigetoshi Yoshida, Ichiro Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoma is often associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and the prognosis of lung cancer accompanied by ILD is unfavorable. In this study, cases of patients with primary lung cancer with or without ILD were reviewed to analyze surgical outcome, with special interest in the conformity of clinical and pathologic stages, pathologic findings of pleural invasion, malignant pleurisy first detected at the time of thoracotomy, and survival. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed for 1,264 primary lung cancer patients who underwent surgery from 2004 to 2015...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Min Hyun Cho, Sung Han Kim, Weon Seo Park, Jae Young Joung, Ho Kyung Seo, Jinsoo Chung, Kang Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6 % of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66 years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Marcello Migliore, Alessandra Criscione, Damiano Calvo, Francesco Borrata, Marco Nardini, Paola Di Masi, Mariapia Gangemi, Francesco Scalieri
Several studies have demonstrated that for complex surgical procedures, surgeons who treat more patients have better outcomes than their lower-volume counterparts. The aim of this paper is to review the experience with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomies in our small thoracic unit (group A), to understand whether our short-term results were different to the outcomes obtained by the same surgeon previously working in a high-volume unit (group B). Twenty six patients underwent VATS lobectomy. Hospital stay was on average 4...
October 21, 2016: Future Oncology
Alessia Pedoto, Dawn P Desiderio, David Amar, Robert J Downey
BACKGROUND: Spray cryotherapy (SCT) of airway lesions is used to effectively palliate respiratory symptoms related to airway obstruction, but significant intraoperative hemodynamic complications have been noted. We reviewed the experience at a single institution using SCT for the treatment of obstructive airway tumors. METHODS: A retrospective review of a single institution experience with intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic complications associated with SCT was performed...
November 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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