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Lung cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931587/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Sonam Puri, Michael Shafique, Jhanelle E Gray
Surgical resection ± chemotherapy ± radiation or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are established treatment modalities for resectable stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and concurrent chemotherapy with radiation is the therapy of choice for unresectable locally advanced disease. Despite treatment with curative intent, most patients subsequently relapse and develop distant disease. Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advancement in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. Therapy against programed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) is associated with a significant improvement in overall survival in stage IV disease, and these results have led to a great interest in evaluating these agents in earlier-stage NSCLC...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931180/quantitative-clinical-staging-for-patients-with-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#2
Ritu R Gill, Beow Y Yeap, Raphael Bueno, William G Richards
Background: Analysis of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) database revealed that clinical (cTNM) staging minimally stratified survival and was discrepant with pathological (pTNM) staging. To improve prognostic classification of MPM, alternative staging models based on quantitative parameters were explored. Methods: An institutional review board-approved MPM registry was queried to identify patients with available pathological and preoperative imaging data...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930538/role-of-tumor-derived-chemokines-in-osteolytic-bone-metastasis
#3
REVIEW
Salvatore J Coniglio
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. The bone marrow is a common destination for many malignant cancers, including breast carcinoma (BC), prostate carcinoma, multiple myeloma, lung carcinoma, uterine cancer, thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, and neuroblastoma. The molecular mechanism by which metastatic cancer are able to recognize, infiltrate, and colonize bone are still unclear. Chemokines are small soluble proteins which under normal physiological conditions mediate chemotactic trafficking of leukocytes to specific tissues in the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928786/antitumor-perspectives-of-oleuropein-and-its-metabolite-hydroxytyrosol-recent-updates
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Syed Amir Gilani, Shaista Khan, Muhammad Wasim Sajid, Rai Muhammad Amir
Olive fruit is a significant and promising source of potential bioactive compounds such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol (HT). It is the main glycoside in olives, the degradation of which results in the formation of hydroxytyrosol in olive oil. Both plays a significant role in the reduction of coronary heart diseases and a certain type of cancers. Both olive oil phenols have an effective role counter to cell proliferation, cell growth, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928382/malat1-a-long-non-coding-rna-highly-associated-with-human-cancers
#5
REVIEW
Miaomiao Zhao, Songpo Wang, Qi Li, Qing Ji, Piaoting Guo, Xiaowei Liu
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a well-known lncRNA associated with numerous diseases, particularly cancer, has received increased attention. The expression of MALAT1 was determined to be upregulated in numerous types of tumors and MALAT1 exhibited effects on tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. The abnormal expression of MALAT1 was identified in almost in every organ of the digestive system. MALAT1 performed an important role in the pathological alterations of organs that are associated with sex hormones and several reproductive system cancers...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927090/p16-ink4a-gene-promoter-methylation-as-a-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-updated-meta-analysis
#6
Lei Tuo, Sha Sha, Zhang Huayu, Ke Du
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the diagnostic performance of P16INK4a gene promoter methylation as a biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Two reviewers independently searched the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical Literature databases. Publications relevant to P16INK4a gene promoter methylation in serum or bronchoalveolar fluid/sputum were screened and included in this meta-analysis...
June 21, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926160/the-clinical-usefulness-of-optical-coherence-tomography-during-cancer-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Labrinus van Manen, Jouke Dijkstra, Claude Boccara, Emilie Benoit, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Michalina J Gora, J Sven D Mieog
INTRODUCTION: Tumor detection and visualization plays a key role in the clinical workflow of a patient with suspected cancer, both in the diagnosis and treatment. Several optical imaging techniques have been evaluated for guidance during oncological interventions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique which has been widely evaluated during the past decades. This review aims to determine the clinical usefulness of OCT during cancer interventions focussing on qualitative features, quantitative features and the diagnostic value of OCT...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925736/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-icis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#8
Kazue Yoneda, Naoko Imanishi, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Fumihiro Tanaka
Cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become a "game changer" in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its most clinically important advantage over traditional chemotherapy using cytotoxic agents are its long-term survival benefits, and some advanced NSCLC patients treated with an antibody against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have survived for 5 years or longer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are also potentially useful for earlier-stage NSCLC when used in combination with surgery or radiotherapy...
2018: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922090/extramedullary-hematopoiesis-secondary-to-malignant-solid-tumors-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Youting Bao, Zhichao Liu, Meiying Guo, Butuo Li, Xindong Sun, Linlin Wang
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) usually occurs in hematological disease, but more rarely develops in cases of malignant solid tumors. Due to its features on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that are atypical, EMH in tumor patients might easily be misdiagnosed as metastasis leading to the improper TNM staging and inappropriate therapy. Here, we reported the first case of pleural EMH occurring in a patient with esophageal carcinoma whose pleural lesion was first diagnosed as metastasis and confirmed EMH after the needle biopsy...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921500/measurement-of-copy-number-of-actn4-to-optimize-the-therapeutic-strategy-for-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Hirokazu Shoji, Nami Miura, Hideki Ueno, Kazufumi Honda
The standard therapeutic strategy recommended for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is typically chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Although the clinical benefit of chemotherapy alone versus CRT for LAPC has been compared in a number of clinical trials, the optimal therapy for LAPC remains unclear. Moreover, the clinical benefit derived from treatment in each clinical trial is a matter of controversy, and the superiority of one treatment over another has yet to be definitively demonstrated. The poor outcomes seen among patients with LAPC owe largely to the emergence of metastatic disease; therefore, accurately evaluating occult distant metastasis before choosing a therapeutic strategy could be expected to help stratify patients with LAPC into the most appropriate treatment regimen, namely local control or systemic therapy...
June 16, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920292/novel-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-protein-eight-tnfaip8-tipe-family-functions-and-downstream-targets-involved-in-cancer-progression
#11
Ganesan Padmavathi, Kishore Banik, Javadi Monisha, Devivasha Bordoloi, Shabnam Bano, Frank Arfuso, Gautam Sethi, Fan Lu, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α- induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8/TIPE) family is a death effector domain (DED)-containing protein family with four identified members: TNFAIP8 (TIPE), TNFAIP8L1 (TIPE1), TNFAIP8L2 (TIPE2), and TNFAIP8L3 (TIPE3). These proteins were found to play crucial roles in the regulation of immune homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer development. Intensive research in the past two decades revealed a strong correlation of TIPE proteins with development of various cancers including cancers of the bladder, blood, bone, breast, cervix, colon, esophagus, endometrium, stomach, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and thyroid gland...
June 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917320/efficacy-of-repeated-surgery-is-superior-to-that-of-non-surgery-for-recurrent-second-primary-lung-cancer-after-initial-operation-for-primary-lung-cancer
#12
Haitao Zhou, Xiaozheng Kang, Liang Dai, Wanpu Yan, Yongbo Yang, Yao Lin, Ke-Neng Chen
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to determine the oncological efficacy and surgical safety of multiple pulmonary resections (MPRs) after prior curative surgery for local regional recurrent or second primary lung cancers. METHODS: All cases of lung cancer included in our prospective database between January 2000 and July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The oncological efficacy endpoints for synchronous and metachronous MPR were five-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) rates after the second surgery...
June 19, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915924/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Takeshi Hirota, Shota Muraki, Ichiro Ieiri
The identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements in 2-5% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer led to rapid advances in the clinical development of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors are an effective treatment in preclinical models and patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-translocated cancers. Four anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors (crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, and brigatinib) have recently been approved. Post-marketing studies provided additional pharmacokinetic information on their pharmacokinetic parameters...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915896/targeting-egfr-in-lung-cancer-current-standards-and-developments
#14
REVIEW
Asunción Díaz-Serrano, Pablo Gella, Elisabeth Jiménez, Jon Zugazagoitia, Luis Paz-Ares Rodríguez
Lung cancer is the second most common malignant tumor and the leading cause of cancer death. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a distinct subtype of lung cancer comprising approximately 15-40% of non-squamous tumors. The development of first- and second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant tumors, and over the last few years has been the therapy of choice in the initial management of patients with activating mutations in EGFR, with some differences in efficacy and toxicity profile...
June 18, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915891/clinical-outcomes-of-african-american-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-on-nivolumab-in-a-single-community-based-cancer-center
#15
Andrew C Tiu, Rashmika Potdar, Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Muhammad Masab, Claudia Dourado
African Americans (AA) have the highest incidence and mortality rates with lung cancer. They are diagnosed at an earlier age with more advanced disease. Programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitor, Nivolumab, was approved as a second-line agent after failure of platinum-based therapy for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The original studies leading to the approval of Nivolumab had insufficient AA patients, thus there is still inadequate knowledge on treatment outcomes among AA patients...
June 18, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914100/an-update-on-predictive-biomarkers-for-treatment-selection-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Tamkin Ahmadzada, Steven Kao, Glen Reid, Michael Boyer, Annabelle Mahar, Wendy A Cooper
It is now widely established that management of lung cancer is much more complex and cannot be centered on the binary classification of small-cell versus non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer is now recognized as a highly heterogeneous disease that develops from genetic mutations and gene expression patterns, which initiate uncontrolled cellular growth, proliferation and progression, as well as immune evasion. Accurate biomarker assessment to determine the mutational status of driver mutations such as EGFR , ALK and ROS1 , which can be targeted by specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, is now essential for treatment decision making in advanced stage NSCLC and has shifted the treatment paradigm of NSCLC to more individualized therapy...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911108/emerging-application-of-genomics-guided-therapeutics-in-personalized-lung-cancer-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Aubhishek Zaman, Trever G Bivona
In lung cancer, genomics-driven comprehensive molecular profiling has identified novel chemically and immunologically addressable vulnerabilities, resulting in an increasing application of precision medicine by targeted inactivation of tumor oncogenes and immunogenic activation of host anti-tumor surveillance as modes of treatment. However, initially profound response of these targeted therapies is followed by relapse due to therapy-resistant residual disease states. Although distinct mechanisms and frameworks for therapy resistance have been proposed, accounting for and upfront prediction of resistance trajectories has been challenging...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910653/brain-metastases-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-are-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-checkpoint-inhibitors-now-viable-options
#18
REVIEW
S Morin-Ben Abdallah, A Wong
Significant progress has been made in the treatment of stage iv non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc); however, the prognosis of patients with brain metastases remains poor. Resection and radiation therapy remain standard options. This issue is an important one because 10% of patients with nsclc have brain metastases at diagnosis, and 25%-40% develop brain metastases during their disease. Standard chemotherapy does not cross the blood-brain barrier. However, there is new hope that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) used in patients with identified targetable mutations such as mutations of EGFR and rearrangements of ALK could have activity in the central nervous system (cns)...
June 2018: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910652/current-landscape-of-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
REVIEW
A Pabani, C A Butts
For patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) lacking a targetable molecular driver, the mainstay of treatment has been cytotoxic chemotherapy. The survival benefit of chemotherapy in this setting is modest and comes with the potential for significant toxicity. The introduction of immunotherapeutic agents targeting the programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) and the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has drastically changed the treatment paradigms for these patients. Three agents-atezolizumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab-have been shown to be superior to chemotherapy in the second-line setting...
June 2018: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910650/algorithm-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-or-metastatic-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-evidence-based-overview
#20
REVIEW
N Daaboul, G Nicholas, S A Laurie
The treatment of squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) is evolving. In the past, the backbone of treatment was chemotherapy, with very few other options available. Fortunately, that situation is changing, especially with a better understanding of tumour biology. Various strategies have been tried to improve patient outcomes. The most notable advance must be immunotherapy, which has revolutionized the treatment paradigm for lung cancer in patients without a driver mutation. Immunotherapy is now the treatment of choice in patients who have progressed after chemotherapy and is replacing chemotherapy as upfront therapy in a selected population...
June 2018: Current Oncology
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