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Lung cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#1
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821979/the-prognostic-impact-of-combined-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema-in-patients-with-clinical-stage-ia-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Tomoyoshi Takenaka, Kiyomi Furuya, Koji Yamazaki, Naoko Miura, Kana Tsutsui, Sadanori Takeo
PURPOSE: We evaluated the long-term outcomes of clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who underwent lobectomy. METHODS: We reviewed the chest computed tomography (CT) findings and divided the patients into normal, fibrosis, emphysema and CPFE groups. We evaluated the relationships among the CT findings, the clinicopathological findings and postoperative survival. RESULTS: The patients were classified into the following groups based on the preoperative chest CT findings: normal lung, n = 187; emphysema, n = 62; fibrosis, n = 8; and CPFE, n = 17...
August 18, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820511/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-dignity-therapy-life-plan-intervention-for-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#3
Ann Marie Dose, Joleen M Hubbard, Aaron S Mansfield, Pamela J McCabe, Catherine A Krecke, Jeff A Sloan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a dignity therapy/life plan intervention in the outpatient oncology setting.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: Pilot descriptive study.
. SETTING: Outpatient clinic in a tertiary oncology center. 
. PARTICIPANTS: 18 patients within 12 months after diagnosis undergoing treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer or non-small cell lung cancer.
. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: Patients received dignity therapy, consisting of a focused life review/values clarification interview session and two subsequent sessions to produce a generativity document, which they can use later as they wish...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819503/-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-cervix-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Soufiane Baggar, Hajar Ouahbi, Meryem Azegrar, Fatima Zahra El M'rabet, Samia Arifi, Nawfel Mellas
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gynecologic tract are unusual, accounting for only 2% of the cervical cancers. Given the rarity of these tumors and the absence of randomized trials, their diagnosis and treatment programmes are difficult and are essentially based on those of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. As in the case of the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung and despite multimodal treatment they are associated with a poor prognosis. We here report a new case of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix and, throught a literature review, we highlight the various aspects of this rare entity...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819419/osteopontin-a-promising-biomarker-for-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Ran Wei, Janet Pik Ching Wong, Hang Fai Kwok
Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, has emerged as a potentially valuable biomarker for diagnosing and treating cancers. Recent research focuses on its involvement in tumor biology including the cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and pharmacological effects of OPN in cancer development could lead to new targets for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment. This review explains how the structurally conserved domains of OPN are associated with OPN signaling mediators and CD44, and how the conserved OPN domains determine biological functions...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819388/role-of-y-box-protein-1-in-cancer-as-potential-biomarker-and-novel-therapeutic-target
#6
REVIEW
Pramod Kumar Maurya, Alok Mishra, Birendra Singh Yadav, Swati Singh, Prashant Kumar, Amit Chaudhary, Shweta Srivastava, Suriya Narayan Murugesan, Ashutosh Mani
The Y-box binding protein (YB-1) is known to be a multifunctional transcription and translation factor during expression of several proteins. It is a vital oncoprotein that regulates cancer cell progression and proliferation. YB-1 is over-expressed in various human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oesophageal cancer and glioblastoma. Nuclear expression of YB-1 is found to be associated with multidrug resistance and cancer cell progression. YB-1 is reported to regulate many cellular signalling pathways in different types of cancer proliferation...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818625/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crth2-dp2-beyond-allergy-and-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Katharina Jandl, Akos Heinemann
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 has been in the focus of research for quite a long time, but its biological effects and its roles in human disease are still not fully characterized. When in 2001 a second major PGD2 receptor termed chemoattractant receptor homologue expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2; alternative name DP2) was discovered, diverse investigations started to shed more light on the complex and often controversial actions of the prostaglandin. With various immunomodulating effects, such as induction of migration, activation, and cytokine release of leukocytes observed both in vivo and in vitro, CRTH2 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of allergic diseases...
August 14, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818606/recent-advances-in-targeting-ros1-in-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Jessica J Lin, Alice T Shaw
ROS1 is a validated therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a phase I study, the multi-targeted MET/ALK/ROS1 inhibitor crizotinib demonstrated remarkable efficacy in ROS1-rearranged NSCLCs, and consequently gained approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the European Medicines Agency in 2016. However, similar to other oncogene-driven lung cancers, ROS1-rearranged lung cancers treated with crizotinib eventually acquire resistance, leading to disease relapse. Novel ROS1 inhibitors and therapeutic strategies are therefore needed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818019/pembrolizumab-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-review-of-current-evidence
#9
Karim Rihawi, Francesco Gelsomino, Francesca Sperandi, Barbara Melotti, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Laura Casolari, Andrea Ardizzoni
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are considered one of the most important breakthroughs in cancer treatment of the past decade; notably, different studies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors have reported impressive clinical activity and durable responses in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These findings have led to the changing of the current therapeutic algorithm of advanced NSCLC, adding a new standard first-line treatment option for patients with PD-L1-positive tumors...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817180/preventable-and-mitigable-adverse-events-in-cancer-care-measuring-risk-and-harm-across-the-continuum
#10
Allison Lipitz-Snyderman, David Pfister, David Classen, Coral L Atoria, Aileen Killen, Andrew S Epstein, Christopher Anderson, Elizabeth Fortier, Saul N Weingart
BACKGROUND: Patient safety is a critical concern in clinical oncology, but the ability to measure adverse events (AEs) across cancer care is limited by a narrow focus on treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of AEs among cancer patients across inpatient and outpatient settings. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 400 adult patients selected by stratified random sampling who had breast (n = 128), colorectal (n = 136), or lung cancer (n = 136) treated at a comprehensive cancer center in 2012...
August 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816165/incidence-and-predictors-of-pericardial-effusion-after-chemoradiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Matthew S Ning, Linglong Tang, Daniel R Gomez, Ting Xu, Yangkun Luo, Jinhai Huo, Elie Mouhayar, Zhongxing Liao
PURPOSE: Findings from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617 suggested that collateral radiation to the heart may contribute to early death in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, reports of cardiac toxicity after thoracic radiation therapy (RT) remain limited. Because pericardial disease is the most common cardiac complication of thoracic RT, we investigated the incidence of and risk factors for pericardial effusion (PCE) in patients enrolled in a phase 2 prospective randomized study of intensity modulated RT versus proton therapy for locally advanced NSCLC...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816141/combined-radiation-therapy-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Zishuo I Hu, Alice Y Ho, Heather L McArthur
PURPOSE: Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors has shown durable responses in a number of solid tumors, including melanoma, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. However, most breast cancers are resistant to monotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors. Radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to have a number of immunostimulatory effects, including priming the immune system, recruiting immune cells to the tumor environment, and altering the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment. RT therefore represents a promising adjuvant therapy to checkpoint blockade in breast cancer...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815334/clinical-characteristics-of-patient-selection-and-imaging-predictors-of-outcome-in-solid-tumors-treated-with-checkpoint-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Sabrina Rossi, Luca Toschi, Angelo Castello, Fabio Grizzi, Luigi Mansi, Egesta Lopci
The rapidly evolving knowledge on tumor immunology and the continuous implementation of immunotherapy in cancer have recently led to the FDA and EMA approval of several checkpoint inhibitors as immunotherapic agents in clinical practice. Anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PDL-1 antibodies are becoming standard of care in advanced melanoma, as well as in relapsed or metastatic lung and kidney cancer, demonstrating higher and longer response compared to standard chemotherapy. These encouraging results have fostered the evaluation of these antibodies either alone or in combination with other therapies in several dozen clinical trials for the treatment of multiple tumor types...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815066/anaesthesia-during-oesophagectomy
#14
REVIEW
Denise P Veelo, Bart F Geerts
In this review, we will provide an overview of the current state of the art of perioperative practices for open and laparoscopic oesophagus surgery from the anaesthetist's perspective. Morbidity and mortality after oesophagectomy is still high despite multidisciplinary and enhanced recovery pathways showing promising results. The anaesthetist has an important role in the complex care of the oesophageal cancer patient. Minimizing unnecessary fluid administration, adequate pain management, hypotension, and protective lung ventilation are examples of proven strategies that can improve outcome after this high-risk surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813627/the-impact-on-resource-utilization-of-supportive-care-consults-on-patients-at-the-university-of-north-carolina-hospital-2010-2012
#15
Kristen Westfall, Dominic Moore, Matthew Meeneghan, Sandra Jarr, John Valgus, Stephen Bernard
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have a high rate of emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient hospitalizations (IHs) that may be reduced by use of outpatient palliative care services. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the outpatient adult palliative care service at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospital, begun in 2008, reduced the frequency of ED visits and IH during a two-year period. DESIGN: The charts of patients with lung cancer or head and neck cancer seen by the supportive care service from 2010 to 2011, and of a contemporaneous set of potential consults that were not seen, were retrospectively reviewed to determine the impact of this care delivery model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813112/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tests-for-cancer
#16
André Tito Pereira Bueno, Vladimir Lisboa Capelasso, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812378/bevacizumab-in-advanced-lung-cancer-state-of-the-art
#17
Sandra Assoun, Solenn Brosseau, Christelle Steinmetz, Valérie Gounant, Gérard Zalcman
Despite recent advances in metastatic lung cancer treatment with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecules targeting addictive genomic abnormalities, prognosis of most of the patients remains unfavorable. Combination approaches with older drugs, such as bevacizumab, should be thus envisioned. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal anti-VEGF antibody, approved by the US FDA and the EMA in first-line and maintenance settings of advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, in association with platinum-based chemotherapy...
August 16, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810296/-prognostic-study-of-visceral-pleural-invasion-by-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-with-tumor-size-%C3%A2-3-cm
#18
T Y Chen, H W Ma, R R Jin, C Xu, H J Hua, G X Song, W M Zhang, Z H Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between visceral pleural invasion (VPI) and other clinicopathological features in lung adenocarcinoma with tumor size ≤3 cm, and to investigate the impact of VPI on the patients' prognosis. Methods: The clinical and pathological features were retrospectively reviewed in 231 cases of lung adenocarcinoma with the largest diameter of tumor ≤3 cm, following complete resection and systemic lymphadenectomy. VPI was divided into three grades, PL0, PL1 and PL2 according to modified Hammar classification for lung cancer upon elastic fiber staining...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809463/dose-escalated-radiation-therapy-is-associated-with-better-overall-survival-in-patients-with-bone-metastases-from-solid-tumors-a-propensity-score-matched-study
#19
Yung-Chih Chou, Chien-Yu Lin, Ping-Ching Pai, Chen-Kan Tseng, Cheng-En Hsieh, Kai-Ping Chang, Cheng-Lung Hsu, Chun-Ta Liao, Chun-Chieh Wang, Shy-Chyi Chin, Tzu-Chen Yen, Tsung-Ying Ho, Ji-Hong Hong, Kin-Fong Lei, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Ngan-Ming Tsang
We aimed to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients with bone metastases (BM) from solid tumors after standard-dose radiotherapy ([RT]; 30 Gy administered in 10 fractions; EQD2Gy  = 32.5 Gy) and dose-escalated RT (EQD2Gy  > 32.5 Gy). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 1795 patients (median age, 62.3 years; age range, 18-96 years) with BM from solid tumors who were referred for RT to our institute between 2000 and 2013. These patients were assigned to the standard-dose (n = 1125; 63%) and dose-escalated (n = 670; 37%) RT groups...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808491/distribution-patterns-of-the-metastases-of-the-lung-carcinoma-in-relation-to-histological-type-of-the-primary-tumor-an-autopsy-study
#20
Ivana Savic Milovanovic, Mihailo Stjepanovic, Dragan Mitrovic
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is among leading causes of death worldwide. Different histological types of the lung carcinoma show significant differences in behavior. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the distribution patterns of metastases of different lung cancer histological types in autopsied individuals. METHODS: Protocols from all autopsies performed at the Institute of Pathology from 2008 till 2014 were reviewed retrospectively, and information on individuals' age, sex, histological type of primary lung cancer, presence and location of metastases, and causes of death were recorded...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
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