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Lung cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684314/efficacy-of-endosonographic-procedures-in-mediastinal-re-staging-of-lung-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-diagnostic-accuracy-meta-analysis
#1
Valliappan Muthu, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The optimal modality for re-staging the mediastinum following neoadjuvant therapy for lung cancer remains unclear. Surgical methods are currently considered the reference standard. Herein, we evaluate the role of endosonographic techniques for mediastinal re-staging in lung cancer. METHODS: Systematic review of PubMed and EmBase databases was performed to identify studies utilizing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or a combination (CUS) for mediastinal re-staging following induction therapy for stage III lung cancer...
April 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684106/urine-antigen-detection-as-an-aid-to-diagnose-invasive-aspergillosis
#2
Kieren A Marr, Kausik Datta, Seema Mehta, Darin B Ostrander, Michelle Rock, Jesse Francis, Marta Feldmesser
Background: Establishing rapid diagnoses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is priority, given poor outcomes of late therapy. Non-culture based tests that detect galactomannan and β-D glucan are available, but are technically cumbersome and rely on invasive sampling (blood or bronchoalveolar lavage). Methods: We optimized a lateral flow dipstick assay using the galactofuranose -specific monoclonal antibody (mAb476), which was previously shown to recognize urine antigens after Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in an`imals...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683727/bone-turnover-markers-and-novel-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-bone-metastases
#3
Jiangli Lang, Qian Zhao, Yuedong He, Xijie Yu
CONTEXT: Lung cancer still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Bone is one of preferred metastatic sites for lung cancer cells. So far, both accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of lung cancer bone metastases are difficult. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to evaluate roles of bone turnover markers (BTMs), microRNAs (miRNAs), dickkopf1 (DKK1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in lung cancer bone metastases...
April 23, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682899/generalization-and-representativeness-of-phase-iii-immune-checkpoint-blockade-trials-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Shin Hye Yoo, Bhumsuk Keam, Miso Kim, Tae Min Kim, Dong-Wan Kim, Dae Seog Heo
BACKGROUND: Strict eligibility criteria for patient enrollment in phase III trials raise questions regarding generalization to ineligible patients. We evaluated whether pivotal phase III trials of immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) represent the overall population of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: We reviewed the inclusion and exclusion criteria of three phase III trials (CheckMate057, CheckMate017, and KEYNOTE-010). Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC patients diagnosed from 2011 to 2013 at Seoul National University Hospital (cohort 1) were reviewed...
April 22, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682534/the-progress-of-t-cell-immunity-related-to-prognosis-in-gastric-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Ming Wei, Duo Shen, Sachin Mulmi Shrestha, Juan Liu, Junyi Zhang, Ying Yin
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy all over the world, and the factors that can affect progress and prognosis of the gastric cancer patients are various, such as TNM stages, invasive depth, and lymph node metastasis ratio. T cell immunity is important component of human immunity system and immunity responding to tumor and dysfunction or imbalance of T cell immunity will lead to serious outcomes for body. T cell immunity includes many different types of cells, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, memory cell, and so on, and each of them has special function on antitumor response or tumor immune escape which is revealed in lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and so on...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682513/lung-cancer-stem-cells-origin-characteristics-and-therapy
#6
REVIEW
D Prabavathy, Y Swarnalatha, Niveditha Ramadoss
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have gained an increasing attention recently in cancer research. CSCs have ability to generate new tumor through their stem cell properties, essentially self-renewal potential and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Extensive evidences report that CSCs are resistant to many conventional therapies and mediate tumor recurrence. CSCs of lung cancer are well recognized by their specific markers such as CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 together with the CSC characteristics including spheroid and colony formation...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681814/non-gestational-choriocarcinoma-with-widespread-metastases-presenting-with-type-1-respiratory-failure-in-a-39-year-old-female-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Louisa Stockton, Elizabeth Green, Baljeet Kaur, Emma De Winton
Introduction: Non-gestational choriocarcinoma (NGCC) is an extremely rare cancer. We report a case presenting in extremis. Case Report: A 39-year-old woman presented with type 1 respiratory failure with a 1-month history of breathlessness. Computed tomography (CT) revealed widespread metastatic disease involving the lungs, liver, pancreas, and breast. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was markedly raised. Over 72 h, she deteriorated and was started on high-flow nasal cannula to facilitate discussions and for comfort...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681596/is-surgery-after-chemoradiotherapy-feasible-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-superior-vena-cava-invasion
#8
Hiroki Sato, Junichi Soh, Katsuyuki Hotta, Kuniaki Katsui, Susumu Kanazawa, Katsuyuki Kiura, Shinichi Toyooka
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of surgery after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced-non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) with superior vena cava (SVC) resection in terms of prognosis and early and late postoperative course. METHODS: The medical records of NSCLC patients who underwent surgery after CRT at our institution between January 2001 and March 2016 were reviewed. We evaluated the feasibility of surgery with SVC resection after CRT...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681201/cost-effectiveness-vs-affordability-in-the-age-of-immuno-oncology-cancer-drugs
#9
George Dranitsaris, Xiaofu Zhu, Georges Adunlin, Mark D Vincent
After years of setback, cancer immunotherapy has begun to yield clinical dividends, which are changing the treatment landscape and offering cancer patients the potential for long-term survival, reduced treatment-related toxicity and improved quality-of-life. Using the immune system to treat cancer is known as 'Immuno-oncology' (IO) and agents are sub-classified by their ability to enhance anti-tumor response or to direct the immune system to attack cancer cells via tumor-associated antigens. Areas covered: Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of several IO agents in many disease sites such as early and advanced stage melanoma, advanced non-small cell lung cancer, bladder, head and neck, gastric, kidney as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680834/high-dose-radiotherapy-as-neoadjuvant-treatment-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Aaron M Allen, Tzippy Shochat, Dov Flex, Mordechai R Kramer, Alona Zer, Nir Peled, Elizabeta Dudnik, Eyal Fenig, Milton Saute
BACKGROUND: Trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) provides a benefit in progression-free survival but not overall survival. We sought to determine if a high dose of radiation could be delivered safely and provide a clinical benefit. METHODS: Consecutive patients with stage IIIA or IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery were reviewed with IRB approval. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients were treated from November 2007 to May 2014...
April 20, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678530/improved-overall-survival-and-locoregional-disease-control-with-concurrent-pd-1-pathway-inhibitors-and-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-lung-cancer-patients-with-brain-metastases
#11
Emily Schapira, Harper Hubbeling, Beow Y Yeap, William A Mehan, Alice T Shaw, Kevin Oh, Justin F Gainor, Helen A Shih
PURPOSE: Despite the emerging role of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway inhibitors for patients with advanced lung cancer, a paucity of data are available on the activity of these agents among patients with brain metastases. We investigated the outcomes of PD-1 pathway inhibitors and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of patients with brain metastases from lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases consecutively treated with PD-1 pathway inhibitors and SRS at our institution from 2012 to 2017...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678519/oncologic-equivalence-of-minimally-invasive-lobectomy-the-scientific-and-practical-arguments
#12
REVIEW
Todd L Demmy, Sai Yendamuri, Thomas A D'Amico, William R Burfeind
BACKGROUND: Despite the slow adoption of Minimally Invasive Lobectomy (MIL), it is now a preferred approach for early lung cancer. Nevertheless, ongoing concerns regarding MIL oncologic effectiveness has led to calls for prospective, randomized trials. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of on-line databases, collected readings and other scholarly experiences of the experienced authors were used to construct this review. All available reports containing long-term survival comparisons for open versus MIL were tabulated...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677028/treatment-of-tobacco-dependence-current-state-of-the-art
#13
Hasmeena Kathuria, Frank T Leone, Enid R Neptune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' requirement to integrate tobacco treatment with lung cancer screening (LCS) has served as a catalyst for motivating pulmonary medicine clinicians to improve upon their ability to effectively treat tobacco dependence. To do so, clinicians need to be well versed in the behavioral and pharmacologic tools that promote smoking cessation. RECENT FINDINGS: The current review outlines current strategies for treating tobacco dependence, focusing on the important interplay between counseling and pharmacotherapy...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676470/role-of-mirnas-in-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Arif Uddin, Supriyo Chakraborty
Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths all over the world, among both men and women, with an incidence of over 200,000 new cases per year coupled with a very high mortality rate. LC comprises of two major clinicopathological categories: small-cell (SCLC) and nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, usually 18-25 nucleotides long, which repress protein translation through binding to complementary target mRNAs. The miRNAs regulate many biological processes including cell cycle regulation, cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, neuronal patterning, and aging...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675948/pattern-of-care-and-survival-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-alk-nsclc-in-an-australian-metropolitan-tertiary-referral-centre-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#15
Malinda Itchins, Sarah A Hayes, Anthony J Gill, Wendy Cooper, Rachel O'Connell, Viive M Howell, Stephen J Clarke, Nick Pavlakis
AIM: To report on the pattern of care and survival of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (ALK+NSCLC) in a real-world retrospective cohort from an Australian tertiary referral center. METHODS: Individuals with a pathological diagnosis of ALK+NSCLC via immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization and a radiological diagnosis of stage IV disease were eligible. Patients were identified via the Pathology Department specimen database and electronic patient chart review...
April 19, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675747/retreatment-with-pembrolizumab-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-previously-treated-with-nivolumab-emerging-reports-of-12-cases
#16
Kohei Fujita, Naohiro Uchida, Osamu Kanai, Misato Okamura, Koichi Nakatani, Tadashi Mio
PURPOSE: After approval of anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 antibodies, treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has drastically changed. However, even in patients with favorable effects, therapeutic efficacy does not last long. Recently, retreatment with anti-PD-1 antibody has received attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retreatment with pembrolizumab in NSCLC patients previously treated with nivolumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed NSCLC patients retreated with pembrolizumab who were previously treated with nivolumab...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675110/evaluation-of-detection-methods-and-values-of-circulating-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Sumin Guo, Michael G Martin, Cheng Tian, Jinglin Cui, Lishi Wang, Shucai Wu, Weikuan Gu
Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the world. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role of the incidence, progression, and metastasis in lung cancer. Angiogenesis inhibitors are used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and the molecular biomarkers are also being assessed to predict treatment response/therapeutic response and patients' prognosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates angiogenesis. Due to its predictive values of prognosis on NSCLC, a large number of methods have been developed and evaluated to detect VEGF levels in a variety of studies...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672125/submassive-pulmonary-embolism
#18
Parth M Rali, Gerard J Criner
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) presents a spectrum of hemodynamic consequences ranging from being asymptomatic to a life-threatening medical emergency. Management of sub massive and massive PE often involves clinicians from multiple specialties that can potentially delay the development of a unified treatment plan. Additionally, patients with submassive PE can deteriorate after their presentation and require escalation of care. Underlying comorbidities like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer, congestive heart failure and interstitial lung disease can impact the patient's hemodynamic ability to tolerate submassive PE...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671943/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-context-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Giuseppe Bronte, Sara Bravaccini, Enrico Bronte, Marco Angelo Burgio, Christian Rolfo, Angelo Delmonte, Lucio Crinò
The identification of oncogenic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the development of targeted drugs. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) target lung tumours bearing EGFR-activating mutations. This new therapeutic strategy has greatly improved tumour response rates. However, drug resistance invariably occurs during TKI-based treatment. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the resistance mechanisms identified in EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with TKIs...
April 19, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670880/targeting-tumor-associated-macrophages-as-a-potential-strategy-to-enhance-the-response-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Luca Cassetta, Takanori Kitamura
Inhibition of immune checkpoint pathways in CD8+ T cell is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of solid tumors that has shown significant anti-tumor effects and is now approved by the FDA to treat patients with melanoma and lung cancer. However the response to this therapy is limited to a certain fraction of patients and tumor types, for reasons still unknown. To ensure success of this treatment, CD8+ T cells, the main target of the checkpoint inhibitors, should exert full cytotoxicity against tumor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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