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Corpus callosum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331264/altered-levels-of-the-splicing-factor-muscleblind-modifies-cerebral-cortical-function-in-mouse-models-of-myotonic-dystrophy
#1
Gang Chen, Russell E Carter, John D Cleary, Tammy S Reid, Laura P Ranum, Maurice S Swanson, Timothy J Ebner
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a progressive, multisystem disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, and central nervous system. In both DM1 and DM2, microsatellite expansions of CUG and CCUG RNA repeats, respectively, accumulate and disrupt functions of alternative splicing factors, including muscleblind (MBNL) proteins. Grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the corpus callosum, likely underlie cognitive and executive function deficits in DM patients. However, little is known how cerebral cortical circuitry changes in DM...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322880/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-due-to-oxcarbazepine-withdrawal-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Chaoyang Jing, Lichao Sun, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Weihong Lin
Background Reversible splenial lesion syndrome is a distinct entity radiologically characterized by a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. According to previous reports, this condition may be associated with antiepileptic drug use or withdrawal. We herein report a case of reversible splenial lesion syndrome associated with oxcarbazepine withdrawal. Case Report A 39-year-old man presented with an 8-year history of epileptic seizures. During the previous 3 years, he had taken oxcarbazepine irregularly...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321969/the-two-year-progression-of-structural-and-functional-cerebral-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320530/the-amyloid-precursor-protein-derivative-app96-110-is-efficacious-following-intravenous-administration-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Stephanie L Plummer, Frances Corrigan, Emma Thornton, Joshua A Woenig, Robert Vink, Roberto Cappai, Corinna Van Den Heuvel
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neurological damage is ongoing through a complex cascade of primary and secondary injury events in the ensuing minutes, days and weeks. The delayed nature of secondary injury provides a valuable window of opportunity to limit the consequences with a timely treatment. Recently, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its derivative APP96-110 have shown encouraging neuroprotective activity following TBI following an intracerebroventricular administration. Nevertheless, its broader clinical utility would be enhanced by an intravenous (IV) administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320328/twenty-five-diagnoses-on-midline-images-of-the-brain-from-fetus-to-child-to-adult
#5
Asim F Choudhri, Harris L Cohen, Adeel Siddiqui, Vijay Pande, Ari M Blitz
Midsagittal images of the brain provide a wealth of anatomic information and may show abnormalities that are pathognomonic for particular diagnoses. Using an anatomy-based approach, the authors identify pertinent anatomic structures to serve as a checklist when evaluating these structures. Subregions evaluated include the corpus callosum, pituitary gland and sellar region, pineal gland and pineal region, brainstem, and cerebellum. The authors present 25 conditions with characteristic identifiable abnormalities at midsagittal imaging...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315714/brain-abnormalities-in-cognition-anxiety-and-depression-regulatory-regions-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#6
Nancy A Pike, Bhaswati Roy, Ritika Gupta, Sadhana Singh, Mary A Woo, Nancy J Halnon, Alan B Lewis, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. METHODS: Proton-density and T2-weighted images, using a 3...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315514/cytotoxic-edema-at-onset-in-west-syndrome-of-unknown-etiology-a-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Chikako Ogawa, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Tatsuya Fukasawa, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Naoko Ishihara, Yuji Ito, Yoko Sakaguchi, Yu Okai, Atsuko Ohno, Tomohiko Nakata, Yoshiteru Azuma, Ayako Hattori, Tetsuo Kubota, Takeshi Tsuji, Akihiro Hirakawa, Hisashi Kawai, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: To clarify longitudinal changes in white matter microstructures from the onset of disease in patients with West syndrome (WS) of unknown etiology. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was prospectively performed at onset and at 12 and 24 months old in 17 children with WS of unknown etiology. DTI was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tract-specific analysis (TSA) of 13 fiber tracts, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared with those of 42 age-matched controls...
January 8, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314444/a-kinase-anchor-protein-12-is-required-for-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-adult-white-matter
#8
Takakuni Maki, Yoon Kyung Choi, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Akihiro Shindo, Anna C Liang, Bum Ju Ahn, Emiri T Mandeville, Seiji Kaji, Kanako Itoh, Ji Hae Seo, Irwin H Gelman, Josephine Lok, Ryosuke Takahashi, Kyu-Won Kim, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to oligodendrocytes in cerebral white matter. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain to be fully defined, especially in adult brains. Recently, it has been suggested that signaling via A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12), a scaffolding protein that associates with intracellular molecules such as protein kinase A, may be involved in Schwann cell homeostasis and peripheral myelination. Here, we asked whether AKAP12 also regulates the mechanisms of myelination in the CNS...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309858/white-matter-tractography-of-the-neural-network-for-speech-motor-control-in-children-who-stutter
#9
Ehsan Misaghi, Zhaoran Zhang, Vincent L Gracco, Luc F De Nil, Deryk S Beal
Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental speech disorder with a phenotype characterized by speech sound repetitions, prolongations and silent blocks during speech production. Developmental stuttering affects 1% of the population and 5% of children. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in the major white matter tracts, including the arcuate fasciculus, corpus callosum, corticospinal, and frontal aslant tracts (FAT), are associated with the disorder in adults who stutter (AWS) but are less well studied in children who stutter (CWS)...
January 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306741/on-the-role-of-the-amygdala-for-experiencing-fatigue-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Katrin Hanken, Yoselin Francis, Andreas Kastrup, Paul Eling, Jan Klein, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Recently, we proposed a model explaining the origin of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This model assumes that the feeling of fatigue results from inflammation-induced information processing within interoceptive brain areas. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between self-reported cognitive fatigue and structural integrity of interoceptive brain areas in MS patients. METHODS: 95 MS patients and 28 healthy controls participated in this study...
December 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303451/traumatic-midline-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-on-initial-computed-tomography-as-a-marker-of-severe-diffuse-axonal-injury
#11
Daddy Mata-Mbemba, Shunji Mugikura, Atsuhiro Nakagawa, Takaki Murata, Kiyoshi Ishii, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teiji Tominaga, Shoki Takahashi, Kei Takase
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that midline (interhemispheric or perimesencephalic) traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) on initial CT may implicate the same shearing mechanism that underlies severe diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS The authors enrolled 270 consecutive patients (mean age [± SD] 43 ± 23.3 years) with a history of head trauma who had undergone initial CT within 24 hours and brain MRI within 30 days. Six initial CT findings, including intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and tSAH, were used as candidate predictors of DAI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301872/prefrontal-cortico-striatal-disconnection-blocks-the-acquisition-of-goal-directed-action
#12
Genevra Hart, Laura A Bradfield, Bernard W Balleine
The acquisition of goal-directed action requires encoding the association between an action and its specific consequences or outcome. At a neural level, this encoding has been hypothesized to involve a prefrontal corticostriatal circuit involving the projection from the prelimbic cortex (PL) to the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS); however, no direct evidence for this claim has been reported. In a series of experiments, we performed functional disconnection of this pathway using targeted lesions of the anterior corpus callosum to disrupt contralateral corticostriatal projections with asymmetrical lesions of the PL and/or pDMS to block plasticity in this circuit in rats...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301668/brain-structural-correlates-of-subclinical-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-healthy-children
#13
Maria Suñol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Marta Subirà, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Carles Soriano-Mas
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are frequently observed in children and have been reported to predict a subsequent diagnosis of OC disorder (OCD). Therefore, identifying the putative neurobiological signatures of such risk is crucial, because it would allow for the characterization of the underpinnings of OCD without the interfering effects of chronicity, medication, or comorbidities, especially when interpreted within the context of OCD clinical heterogeneity and taking into account normal neurodevelopmental changes...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301568/surfen-a-proteoglycan-binding-agent-reduces-inflammation-but-inhibits-remyelination-in-murine-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Jordan R Warford, Anna-Claire Lamport, Derek R Clements, Alicia Malone, Barry E Kennedy, Youra Kim, Shashi A Gujar, David W Hoskin, Alexander S Easton
Proteoglycans are promising therapeutic targets in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), because they regulate many aspects of the immune response. This was studied using surfen, an agent that binds both heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Initial cell culture work on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) found that surfen reduced concentrations of the chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, with reduced messenger (m)RNA expression for Tumor Necrosis Factor, IL-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase...
January 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297156/deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-microstructural-integrity-and-dual-task-walking-in-older-people
#15
Tabassom Ghanavati, Myriam Sillevis Smitt, Stephen R Lord, Perminder Sachdev, Wei Wen, Nicole A Kochan, Henry Brodaty, Kim Delbaere
To examine neural, physiological and cognitive influences on gait speed under single and dual-task conditions. Sixty-two community-dwelling older people (aged 80.0 ± 4.2 years) participated in our study. Gait speed was assessed with a timed 20-meter walk under single and dual-task (reciting alternate letters of the alphabet) conditions. Participants also underwent tests to estimate physiological fall risk based on five measures of sensorimotor function, cognitive function across five domains, brain white matter (WM) hyperintensities and WM microstructural integrity by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA)...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289389/tubb3-e410k-syndrome-with-osteoporosis-and-cough-syncope-in-a-patient-previously-diagnosed-with-atypical-moebius-syndrome
#16
Yasuko Nakamura, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Zaha, Kenji Uematsu, Shigeaki Nonoyama
BACKGROUND: A heterozygous c.1228G > A p.E410K mutation in TUBB3 encoding neuronal-specific β-tubulin isotype 3 causes TUBB3 E410K syndrome, which exhibits a wide range of neurological and endocrinological abnormalities. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 31-year-old Japanese woman who was diagnosed with atypical Moebius syndrome because of congenital facial weakness and extraocular ophthalmoplegia sparing abduction. She suffered a femoral neck fracture at 23 years of age, and radiological and endocrinological studies revealed osteoporosis because of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism...
December 27, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288338/toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#17
Stefan Esser, Larissa Göpfrich, Kai Bihler, Eugenia Kress, Stella Nyamoya, Simone C Tauber, Tim Clarner, Matthias B Stope, Thomas Pufe, Markus Kipp, Lars-Ove Brandenburg
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by myelin abnormalities, oligodendrocyte pathology, and concomitant glia activation. The factors triggering gliosis and demyelination are currently not well characterized. New findings suggest an important role of the innate immune response in the initiation and progression of active demyelinating lesions. Especially during progressive disease, aberrant glia activation rather than the invasion of peripheral immune cells is accountable for progressive neuronal injury...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285982/effects-of-veliparib-on-microglial-activation-and-functional-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-and-pig
#18
Karen Irvine, Robin Bishop, Seok Joon Won, Jianguo Xu, Katherine Hamel, Valerie Coppes, Pardeep Singh, Andrew Sondag, Eric Rome, Jayinee Basu, Giordano Santos, S Scott Panter, Raymond Swanson
The inflammation response induced by brain trauma can impair recovery. This response requires several hours to fully develop, and thus provides a clinically relevant therapeutic window of opportunity. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress inflammatory responses, including brain microglial activation. Here we evaluated delayed treatment with veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor currently in clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic, in rats and pigs subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279239/retinal-and-optic-disc-vasculitis-in-susac-s-syndrome
#19
J L Sánchez-Vicente, F E Molina-Sócola, A Medina-Tapia, A Moruno-Rodríguez, S Gálvez-Carvajal, F López-Herrero
CASE REPORT: The case is presented of 42 year-old woman with no significant medical history, with severe headaches, nausea and vomiting, hearing loss, and alteration of mental status with disorientation and confusion. Ophthalmic examination showed optic disc hyperaemia in right eye, and focal areas of arteriolar occlusion in both eyes. Audiometry demonstrated bilateral neurosensory hypoacusis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed multiple small round hyperintense lesions located in the splenium, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, and white matter...
December 23, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279026/cortical-visual-connections-via-the-corpus-callosum-are-asymmetrical-in-human-infantile-esotropia
#20
Marcel P M Ten Tusscher, Anne Cees Houtman, Johan De Mey, Peter Van Schuerbeek
PURPOSE: Besides chiasmal hemidecussation, interhemispheric connections are likely important in human binocularity. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major fiber bundle in the mammalian brain which mostly connects homologous cortical areas in the two hemispheres. Visual interhemispheric connections were found abnormal in strabismic cats. No studies have investigated these pathways in humans with infantile strabismus. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was used in four subjects with infantile esotropia (IE) and nine control subjects with normal binocularity, in order to study interhemispheric fibers in the CC connecting the right and left primary visual cortical areas...
December 26, 2017: Strabismus
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