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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736116/central-nervous-system-anomalies-in-craniofacial-microsomia-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
R W Renkema, C J J M Caron, E B Wolvius, D J Dunaway, C R Forrest, B L Padwa, M J Koudstaal
Extracraniofacial anomalies, including central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, may occur in craniofacial microsomia (CFM). This systematic review was performed to provide an overview of the literature on the prevalence and types of CNS anomalies and developmental disorders in CFM, in order to improve the recognition and possible treatment of these anomalies. A systematic search was conducted and data on the number of patients, patient characteristics, type and prevalence of CNS anomalies or developmental delay, and correlations between CFM and CNS anomalies were extracted...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729930/structural-differences-in-impaired-verbal-fluency-in-essential-tremor-patients-compared-to-healthy-controls
#2
Esther A Pelzer, Christian Nelles, David J Pedrosa, Carsten Eggers, Lothar Burghaus, Corina Melzer, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to identify differences in grey and white matter in essential tremor patients compared to controls in the non-motor domain, using the example of impaired verbal fluency. BACKGROUND: A disturbance of verbal fluency in essential tremor patients compared to healthy controls is behaviorally well described. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze structural differences in grey and white matter in 19 essential tremor patients compared to 23 age- and gender-matched controls...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728157/3-d-volume-assessment-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-cerebellar-vermis-using-various-volume-acquisition-and-post-processing-protocols
#3
Veronika Frisova, Martina Srutova, Jon Hyett
OBJECTIVES: To determine which 3-D techniques are most effective for "real time" prenatal ultrasound assessment of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. METHODS: A prospective study involving 100 consecutive normal singleton pregnancies attending routine anomaly scan at 19-23 weeks' gestation. Midsagittal structures of the fetal brain were assessed using six different methods of 3-D image acquisition and three post-processing techniques. The quality of the resulting images were then assessed and scored by a second operator...
July 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726543/differences-in-brain-architecture-in-remote-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Aishwarya Rajesh, Gillian E Cooke, Jim M Monti, Andrew Jahn, Ana M Daugherty, Arthur Kramer
Mild TBI (mTBI) is brain trauma from an external impact with a loss of consciousness less than 30 minutes. MTBI results in several biopsychosocial impairments with pronounced cognitive deficits, thought to resolve within three months of injury. Previous research suggests that these impairments are due to a temporary inability to appropriately allocate neural resources in response to cognitive demands. Our study questioned this assumption and instead hypothesized that mTBI was associated with long-term neural disruptions and compromised brain structure integrity...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722234/minocycline-reduces-microgliosis-and-improves-subcortical-white-matter-function-in-a-model-of-cerebral-vascular-disease
#5
Yasmina Manso, Philip R Holland, Akihiro Kitamura, Stefan Szymkowiak, Jessica Duncombe, Edel Hennessy, James L Searcy, Martina Marangoni, Andrew D Randall, Jon T Brown, Barry W McColl, Karen Horsburgh
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a key mechanism associated with white matter disruption in cerebral vascular disease and dementia. In a mouse model relevant to studying cerebral vascular disease, we have previously shown that cerebral hypoperfusion disrupts axon-glial integrity and the distribution of key paranodal and internodal proteins in subcortical myelinated axons. This disruption of myelinated axons is accompanied by increased microglia and cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypoperfusion impairs the functional integrity of white matter, its relation with axon-glial integrity and microglial number, and whether by targeting microglia these effects can be improved...
July 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721933/transient-lesions-of-the-splenium-of-the-corpus-callosum-following-rapid-withdrawal-of-levetiracetam
#6
Ryo Sawagashira, Hisashi Narita, Naoki Hashimoto, Tsugiko Kurita, Shin Nakagawa, Takuya Saitoh, Ichiro Kusumi
Transient lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum are characterized by MRI findings. The lesions are very rare, but significant from a clinical standpoint as differential diagnoses include serious conditions such as encephalitis, meningitis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In addition, it is reported that some are attributed to the withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Here, we present a case of transient lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum following rapid withdrawal of levetiracetam alone...
July 19, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721394/interhemispheric-disconnectivity-in-the-sensorimotor-network-in-bipolar-disorder-revealed-by-functional-connectivity-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis
#7
Takuya Ishida, Tomohiro Donishi, Jun Iwatani, Shinichi Yamada, Shun Takahashi, Satoshi Ukai, Kazuhiro Shinosaki, Masaki Terada, Yoshiki Kaneoke
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities via the corpus callosum in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), which might be a key pathophysiological basis of emotional processing alterations in BD. METHODS: We performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 24 healthy control (HC) and 22 BD subjects. Next, we analyzed the neural networks with independent component analysis (ICA) in 32HC and 25 BD subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718234/paediatrics-brain-imaging-in-epilepsy-common-presenting-symptoms-and-spectrum-of-abnormalities-detected-on-mri
#8
Azmat Ali, Faiza Akram, Ghayyur Khan, Shaukat Hussain
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder can present at any age and has a number of aetiologies with underlying brain disease being the most common aetiology. Brain imaging becomes important and mandatory in the work up for epilepsy in localization and lateralization of the seizure focus. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Radiology Ayub Medical Teaching Institution Abbottabad from 1st March 2015 to 31st March 2016...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718218/impact-of-prenatal-immune-challenge-on-the-demyelination-injury-during-adulthood
#9
Abdeslam Mouihate, Hessah Al-Hashash, Sarah Rakhshani-Moghadam, Samah Kalakh
AIM: Brain inflammation is associated with several brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease characterized by demyelination. Whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation in the white matter during adulthood is unclear. In the present study, we used a well-established experimental model of focal demyelination to assess whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats were injected with either lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, ip) or pyrogen-free saline...
July 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715355/repeated-exposure-to-sucrose-for-procedural-pain-in-mouse-pups-leads-to-long-term-widespread-brain-alterations
#10
Sophie Tremblay, Manon Ranger, Cecil M Y Chau, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Liisa Holsti, Daniel Goldowitz, Ruth E Grunau
Oral sucrose is administered routinely to reduce pain of minor procedures in premature infants and is recommended as standard care in international guidelines. No human or animal studies on effects of early repeated sucrose exposure on long-term brain development have been done in the context of pain. We evaluated the effects of repeated neonatal sucrose treatment before an intervention on long-term brain structure in mouse pups. Neonatal C57Bl/6J mice (n = 109) were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments (vehicle vs sucrose) and one of 3 interventions (handling, touch, or needle-prick)...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714429/structural-brain-correlations-of-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-tests-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Nuria Bargallo, Carme Uribe, Anna Campabadal, Alexandra Abos, Carme Junque
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is relevant because it is a marker for evolution to dementia. However, the selection of suitable tests to evaluate separate cognitive domains in mild cognitive impairment related to PD remains an open question. The current work aims to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of several visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests using the same sample and a multimodal MRI approach. METHODS: The study included 36 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and education...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714395/five-decades-of-cuprizone-an-updated-model-to-replicate-demyelinating-diseases
#12
Jose M Vega-Riquer, Gerardo Mendez-Victoriano, Raul A Morales-Luckie, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others comprise a group of demyelinating diseases characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter of the brain. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology of these diseases...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712990/supervoxel-based-statistical-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#13
Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Qing Zhang, Jianlin Wu, Jian Lv, Defeng Wang
To study white matter changes in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), we developed a new statistical analysis method based on supervoxels for diffusion tensor imaging. Twenty patients with SPD and eighteen healthy controls were recruited from a pool of 3000 first-year university undergraduates, and underwent MRI using a 3T scanner. Diffusion tensors were first normalized into ICBM-152 space followed by a supervoxel segmentation based on graph clustering to segment white matter tensors into diffusion homogeneous supervoxels...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712330/the-role-of-abnormalities-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-social-cognition-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Skye McDonald, Jacqueline A Rushby, Katie I Dalton, Samantha K Allen, Nicklas Parks
The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711407/severe-neuroimaging-anomalies-are-usually-associated-with-random-x-inactivation-in-leucocytes-circulating-dna-in-x-linked-dominant-incontinentia-pigmenti
#15
Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Smail Hadj-Rabia, Judite Oliveira Santos, Elodie Bal, Isabelle Desguerre, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Isabelle An, Asma Smahi, Christine Bodemer, Arnold Munnich, Julie Steffann, Nathalie Boddaert
Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) is a skin disorder with neurological impairment in 30% of cases. The most common disease causing mutation is a deletion of exons 4-10 of the IKBKG gene, located on chromosome Xq28, with skewed X-chromosome inactivation in females, but few cases of random X-inactivation have been reported. We have correlated brain anomalies with X-chromosome inactivation status determined on leucocytes circulating DNA. We reviewed MRI of 18 girls with genetically proven IP. We found three patterns of MRI, normal MRI (n=5), mild white matter abnormalities with cortical and corpus callosum atrophy (n=6), and severe cortical abnormalities suggesting a vascular disease (n=7)...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710533/performance-evaluation-of-a-pre-computed-brain-response-atlas-in-dummy-head-impacts
#16
Wei Zhao, Calvin Kuo, Lyndia Wu, David B Camarillo, Songbai Ji
A pre-computed brain response atlas (pcBRA) may have the potential to accelerate the investigation of the biomechanical mechanisms of traumatic brain injury on a large-scale. In this study, we further enhance the technique and evaluate its performance using six degree-of-freedom angular velocity profiles from dummy head impacts. Using the pcBRA to simplify profiles into acceleration-only shapes, sufficiently accurate strain estimates were obtained for impacts with a major dominating velocity peak. However, they were largely under-estimated when substantial deceleration occurred that reversed the direction of the angular velocity...
July 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709144/the-spectrum-of-peri-ictal-mri-changes-four-illustrative-cases
#17
Jennifer Williams, Gerard Mullins, Norman Delanty, Bede Peter, Colin P Doherty
PURPOSE: Seizure induced neuronal hyperexcitability and increased unmet metabolic neuronal demand results in failure of the sodium/potassium ATP pump. Sodium and water accumulates intracellularly with cellular swelling and reduced extracellular volume demonstrating hyperintensity on DWI and reduced ADC. The aim of this study was to describe 4 clinical cases where we identified abnormalities in diffusion restriction in the acute peri-ictal period and followed them longitudinally. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the emergency department, clinical consultation service and epilepsy monitoring unit of two tertiary referral centres...
July 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708864/abnormal-lateralization-of-fine-motor-actions-in-tourette-syndrome-persists-into-adulthood
#18
D Martino, C Delorme, E Pelosin, A Hartmann, Y Worbe, L Avanzino
Youth with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit, compared to healthy, abnormal ability to lateralize digital sequential tasks. It is unknown whether this trait is related to inter-hemispheric connections, and whether it is preserved or lost in patients with TS persisting through adult life. We studied 13 adult TS patients and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. All participants undertook: 1) a finger opposition task, performed with the right hand (RH) only or with both hands, using a sensor-engineered glove in synchrony with a metronome at 2 Hz; we calculated a lateralization index [(single RH-bimanual RH)/single RH X 100) for percentage of correct movements (%CORR); 2) MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography of inter-hemispheric corpus callosum (CC) connections between supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortices (M1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708729/t2-weighted-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-differentiation-of-cerebral-fat-embolism-from-diffuse-axonal-injury
#19
Aaron M Rutman, Elliot J Rapp, Daniel S Hippe, Baoanh Vu, Mahmud Mossa-Basha
OBJECTIVE: This study differentiates cerebral fat embolism (CFE) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Consecutive CFE and DAI cases were retrospectively selected. Hemorrhages were characterized by number, size/shape, and distribution, whereas DWI lesions by pattern. The number of hemorrhages was compared using the Mann-Whitney test with adjustment for multiple comparisons, whereas DWI abnormality was compared using Fisher exact test...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707277/open-label-allopregnanolone-treatment-of-men-with-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#20
J Y Wang, A M Trivedi, N R Carrillo, J Yang, A Schneider, C Giulivi, P Adams, F Tassone, K Kim, S M Rivera, N Lubarr, C-Y Wu, R W Irwin, R D Brinton, J M Olichney, M A Rogawski, R J Hagerman
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 45% of male and 16% of female carriers of the FMR1 premutation over the age of 50 years. Currently, no effective treatment is available. We performed an open-label intervention study to assess whether allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid promoting regeneration and repair, can improve clinical symptoms, brain activity, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in patients with FXTAS. Six patients underwent weekly intravenous infusions of allopregnanolone (2-6 mg over 30 min) for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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