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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644999/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-cingulum-bundle-and-corpus-callosum-in-schizophrenia-vs-bipolar-disorder
#1
Igor Nenadić, Anna Hoof, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Heinrich Sauer, Daniel Güllmar
Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls...
May 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643354/diffusion-mri-microstructure-models-with-in-vivo-human-brain-connectome-data-results-from-a-multi-group-comparison
#2
Uran Ferizi, Benoit Scherrer, Torben Schneider, Mohammad Alipoor, Odin Eufracio, Rutger H J Fick, Rachid Deriche, Markus Nilsson, Ana K Loya-Olivas, Mariano Rivera, Dirk H J Poot, Alonso Ramirez-Manzanares, Jose L Marroquin, Ariel Rokem, Christian Pötter, Robert F Dougherty, Ken Sakaie, Claudia Wheeler-Kingshott, Simon K Warfield, Thomas Witzel, Lawrence L Wald, José G Raya, Daniel C Alexander
A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, model comparison to date focuses only on specific subclasses, e.g. compartment models or signal models, and little or no information is available in the literature on how performance varies among the different types of models. To address this deficiency, we organized the 'White Matter Modeling Challenge' during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference...
June 23, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641772/susac-syndrome-a-differential-diagnosis-of-white-matter-lesions
#3
Mariano Marrodan, Jorge Correale, Lucas Alessandro, Mariela Amaya, Maria Eugenia Fracaro, Alejandro Alfredo Köhler, Marcela Fiol
INTRODUCTION: Susac Syndrome is an autoimmune endotheliopathy affecting capillaries and precapillary arterioles of the brain, inner ear and retina. The classic symptom triad includes visual disturbances, hypoacusia, and encephalopathy, but is rarely fully manifest at onset. The syndrome typically follows an active fluctuating monophasic course. Typical imaging findings on brain magnetic resonance show central fiber microischemias/microinfarctions of the corpus callosum known as "snow balls", as well as lineal infarcts and upper callosal fiber involvement...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641168/aicardi-syndrome-and-cognitive-abilities-a-report-of-five-cases
#4
Mia Tuft, Ylva Østby, Karl O Nakken, Caroline Lund
Aicardi syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with agenesis of corpus callosum, chorioretinal lacunae, and infantile spasms as the main features. The outcome is in general severe, with poor cognitive development and difficult-to-treat epilepsy. In this study, we assessed the level of cognitive function of five girls with Aicardi syndrome, using normed population based tests and questionnaires. Their cognitive abilities varied from mild to profound intellectual disabilities. The more severe the epilepsy, the poorer were the cognitive skills...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640803/brain-network-eigenmodes-provide-a-robust-and-compact-representation-of-the-structural-connectome-in-health-and-disease
#5
Maxwell B Wang, Julia P Owen, Pratik Mukherjee, Ashish Raj
Recent research has demonstrated the use of the structural connectome as a powerful tool to characterize the network architecture of the brain and potentially generate biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In particular, the anatomic embedding of the edges of the cerebral graph have been postulated to elucidate the relative importance of white matter tracts to the overall network connectivity, explaining the varying effects of localized white matter pathology on cognition and behavior. Here, we demonstrate the use of a linear diffusion model to quantify the impact of these perturbations on brain connectivity...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638718/substance-p-nk1-receptor-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum-during-postnatal-development
#6
Paolo Barbaresi, Emanuela Mensà, Guendalina Bastioli, Salvatore Amoroso
INTRODUCTION: The expression of substance P (SP) receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1) was studied in the rat corpus callosum (cc) from postnatal day 0 (the first 24 hr from birth, P0) to P30. METHODS: We used immunocytochemistry to study the presence of intracallosal NK1-immunopositive neurons (NK1IP-n) during cc development. RESULTS: NK1IP-n first appeared on P5. Their number increased significantly between P5 and P10, it remained almost constant between P10 and P15, then declined slightly until P30...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#7
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#8
Olena Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar Borlongan, Alex Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421 and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634705/how-does-pregnancy-affect-the-patients-with-pituitary-adenomas-a-study-on-113-pregnancies-from-turkey
#9
Z Karaca, S Yarman, I Ozbas, P Kadioglu, M Akturk, F Kilicli, H S Dokmetas, R Colak, H Atmaca, Z Canturk, Y Altuntas, N Ozbey, N Hatipoglu, F Tanriverdi, K Unluhizarci, F Kelestimur
OBJECTIVE: Data regarding pregnancies in relation to pituitary tumors are limited. The effects of pregnancy on pituitary adenomas and the effects of adenoma itself (hormonal activity, mass effects and pituitary insufficiency) and/or treatment on the ongoing gestation and developing fetus were evaluated. METHODS: The study was a retrospective study. A questionnaire involving questions regarding medical history before index gestation, history of related pregnancy, result of index gestation and postpartum follow-up of the patients was filled by the investigator in one of the eight Referral Endocrinology Centers from Turkey...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632103/developmental-characteristics-of-disparate-bimanual-movement-skills-in-typically-developing-children
#10
Julian Rudisch, Jenny Butler, Hooshang Izadi, Deirdre Birtles, Dido Green
Mastery of many tasks in daily life requires role differentiated bimanual hand use with high spatiotemporal cooperation and minimal interference. The authors investigated developmental changes in the performance of a disparate bimanual movement task requiring sequenced movements. Age groups were attributed to changes in CNS structures critical for bimanual control such as the corpus callosum (CC) and the prefrontal cortex; young children (5-6 years old), older children (7-9 years old), and adolescents (10-16 years old)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631093/myelin-regulatory-factor-drives-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Greg J Duncan, Jason R Plemel, Peggy Assinck, Sohrab B Manesh, Fraser G W Muir, Ryan Hirata, Matan Berson, Jie Liu, Michael Wegner, Ben Emery, G R Wayne Moore, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Remyelination is limited in the majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in most lesions. This observation has led to the view that a failure of OPCs to fully differentiate underlies remyelination failure. OPC differentiation requires intricate transcriptional regulation, which may be disrupted in chronic MS lesions. The expression of few transcription factors has been differentially compared between remyelinating lesions and lesions refractory to remyelination...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#12
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624465/muscle-pathology-in-vici-syndrome-a-case-study-with-a-novel-mutation-in-epg5-and-a-summary-of-the-literature
#13
Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Niklas Darin, Anders Oldfors
Vici syndrome is a disorder characterized by myopathy, cardiomyopathy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, immunodeficiency, cataracts, hypopigmentation, microcephaly, gross developmental delay and failure to thrive. It is caused by mutations in EPG5, which encodes a protein involved in the autophagy pathway. Although myopathy is part of the syndrome, few publications have described the muscle pathology. We present a detailed morphological analysis in a boy with Vici syndrome due to a novel homozygous one-base deletion in EPG5 (c...
May 8, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623837/abnormal-asymmetry-in-benign-epilepsy-with-unilateral-and-bilateral-centrotemporal-spikes-a-combined-fmri-and-dti-study
#14
Weifang Cao, Yaodan Zhang, Changyue Hou, Fei Yang, Jinnan Gong, Sisi Jiang, Yue Huang, Ruhui Xiao, Cheng Luo, Xiaoming Wang, Dezhong Yao
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy associated with either unilateral or bilateral epileptic discharge. Asymmetry as an important characteristic of the human brain is beneficial for brain functions. However, little is known about on asymmetry of BECTS patients with different epileptic spikes pattern. In the present study, we investigated functional and structural asymmetries in unilateral spikes BECTS (U_BECTS) patients and bilateral spikes BECTS (B_BECTS) patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging...
June 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622625/cigarette-smoking-is-associated-with-amplified-age-related-volume-loss-in-subcortical-brain-regions
#15
Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff, Karmen K Yoder, Donna E Murray
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging studies of cigarette smoking-related effects on human brain structure have primarily employed voxel-based morphometry, and the most consistently reported finding was smaller volumes or lower density in anterior frontal regions and the insula. Much less is known about the effects of smoking on subcortical regions. We compared smokers and non-smokers on regional subcortical volumes, and predicted that smokers demonstrate greater age-related volume loss across subcortical regions than non-smokers...
June 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622125/early-onset-shapiro-syndrome-variant-treated-with-pizotifen-a-case-report
#16
Laura Denegri, Giulia Prato, Maria Margherita Mancardi, Cristina Schiaffino, Pasquale Striano, Maria Giuseppina Baglietto
Shapiro Syndrome is a rare entity defined by the triad of recurrent spontaneous hypothermia, hyperhidrosis, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported so far and there are only few cases without a complete agenesis of corpus callosum ("Shapiro Syndrome Variant"). In this article, we report the clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging data of a patient with early-onset Shapiro Syndrome Variant. The case study describes a 4-year-old patient with episodes characterized by generalized hyperhidrosis, hypotonia, impaired consciousness, and hypothermia with onset before the first year of age...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619605/the-prognostic-value-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-term-newborns-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-following-asphyxia
#17
Paul E Sijens, Katharina Wischniowsky, Hendrik J Ter Horst
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: At the age of 6.0±1.8days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated with therapeutic hypothermia, were quantified by multivoxel proton MRS of a volume cranial to the corpus callosum, containing both gray and white matter. At the age of 30months the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III was performed...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619074/novel-oligodendroglial-alpha-synuclein-viral-vector-models-of-multiple-system-atrophy-studies-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#18
Ronald J Mandel, David J Marmion, Deniz Kirik, Yaping Chu, Clifford Heindel, Thomas McCown, Steven J Gray, Jeffrey H Kordower
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a horrible and unrelenting neurodegenerative disorder with an uncertain etiology and pathophysiology. MSA is a unique proteinopathy in which alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulates preferentially in oligodendroglia rather than neurons. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) of α-syn are thought to elicit changes in oligodendrocyte function, such as reduced neurotrophic support and demyelination, leading to neurodegeneration. To date, only a murine model using one of three promoters exist to study this disease...
June 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618415/disconnections-of-cortico-subcortical-pathways-related-to-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-leukoaraiosis-a-preliminary-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#19
Jun-Liang Yuan, Shuang-Kun Wang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Lei-Lei Teng, Hua Jiang, Hua Gu, Wen-Li Hu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the relation between the microstructural integrity of white matter using the technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and changes of cognition in leukoaraiosis (LA). METHODS: Fifty patients with LA and 50 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited consecutively. The average values of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified both within white matter lesions (WMLs) and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) from the regions of interest (ROIs)...
June 16, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618406/an-analysis-of-outcome-of-endoscopic-fenestration-of-cavum-septum-pellucidum-cyst-more-grey-than-black-and-white
#20
Suhas Udayakumaran, Chiazor U Onyia, Sandhya Cherkil
BACKGROUND: Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum vergae are actually fluid-filled, generally communicating midline cavities located between the third ventricle and corpus callosum. There have been various reports of their association with many behavioral and psychiatric disorders. Infrequently, they have been associated with an obstructive hydrocephalus-like picture. Although the structure and management of CSP has long been known, it has been an enigma as far as functional significance and management indications are concerned...
June 10, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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