Read by QxMD icon Read

Corpus callosum

Da-Zhi Guo, Lin Xiao, Yi-Jun Liu, Chen Shen, Hui-Fang Lou, Yan Lv, Shu-Yi Pan
This study aimed to investigate the role of cathepsin D (CathD) in central nervous system (CNS) myelination and its possible mechanism. By using CathD knockout mice in conjunction with immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and western blot assays, the myelination of the CNS and the development of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vivo and in vitro were observed. Endocytosis assays, real-time-lapse experiments and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate the location and movement of proteolipid protein in oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
March 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
J J Brudvig, J T Cain, G G Schmidt-Grimminger, D J Stumpo, K J Roux, P J Blackshear, J M Weimer
Axons of the corpus callosum (CC), the white matter tract that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain, receive instruction from a number of chemoattractant and chemorepulsant cues during their initial navigation towards and across the midline. While it has long been known that the CC is malformed in the absence of Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), evidence for a direct role of MARCKS in axon navigation has been lacking. Here, we show that MARCKS is necessary for Netrin-1 (NTN1) signaling through the DCC receptor, which is critical for axon guidance decisions...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ruobing Huang, Ana Namburete, Alison Noble
We present a general framework for automatic segmentation of fetal brain structures in ultrasound images inspired by recent advances in machine learning. The approach is based on a region descriptor that characterizes the shape and local intensity context of different neurological structures without explicit models. To validate our framework, we present experiments to segment two fetal brain structures of clinical importance that have quite different ultrasonic appearances-the corpus callosum (CC) and the choroid plexus (CP)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Evan P Pasha, Alex C Birdsill, Stephanie Oleson, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley
Sex differences in cerebral white matter (WM) aging have been debated extensively over the past 2 decades without unequivocal resolution. We aimed to determine if the effects of age and arterial stiffness on WM microstructure differ between sexes. Artery elasticity via carotid artery compliance (CAC) and WM diffusion metrics via diffusion tensor image-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in 155 (87 females) middle-aged (40-62 years) adults. Males demonstrated poorer water diffusion metrics in WM than women in the corpus callosum body, cingulum, and cingulum (hippocampal)...
February 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Leilei Mao, Tuo Yang, Xin Li, Xia Lei, Yang Sun, Yongfang Zhao, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Baoliang Sun, Feng Zhang
The major pathophysiological process of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is chronic cerebral ischemia, which causes disintegration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), neuronal death, and white matter injury. This study aims to test whether sulforaphane (Sfn), a natural activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reduces the chronic ischemic injury and cognitive dysfunction after VCI. Experimental VCI was induced in rats by permanent occlusion of both common carotid arteries for six weeks...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Tomohiro Sakaguchi, Tamara Žigman, Danijela Petković Ramadža, Lana Omerza, Silvija Pušeljić, Zrinka Ereš Hrvaćanin, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Ivo Barić
Biallelic mutations in the post-GPI attachment to proteins 3 ( PGAP3 ) gene cause hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome 4 (HPMRS4), which is characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, severe psychomotor developmental delay, seizures, and facial dysmorphism. To date, 15 PGAP3 mutations have been reported in humans. Here we report a novel homozygous PGAP3 mutation (c.314C>A, p.Pro105Gln) in a Croatian patient and fully describe the clinical features.
2018: Human Genome Variation
Reza Naeimi, Fatemeh Safarpour, Mona Hashemian, Hamed Tashakorian, Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Curcumin has been introduced as effective anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of several inflammatory disorders. Despite the wide range pharmacological activities, clinical application of curcumin is restricted mainly due to the low water solubility of this substance. More recently, we could remarkably improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin by its encapsulation in chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (CS-ALG-STPP NPs). In this study, the anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of curcumin-loaded NPs were evaluated in lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination model...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Giulia Coarelli, Silvia Romano, Lorena Travaglini, Michela Ferraldeschi, Francesco Nicita, Maria Spadaro, Arianna Fornasiero, Marina Frontali, Marco Salvetti, Enrico Bertini, Giovanni Ristori
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders characterized primarily by a pyramidal syndrome with lower limb spasticity, which can manifest as pure HSP or associated with a number of neurological or non-neurological signs (i.e., complicated HSPs). The clinical variability of HSPs is associated with a wide genetic heterogeneity, with more than eighty causative genes known. Recently, next generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed increasing genetic definition in such a heterogeneous group of disorders...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
B Cannerfelt, J Nystedt, A Jönsen, J Lätt, D van Westen, A Lilja, A Bengtsson, P Nilsson, J Mårtensson, P C Sundgren
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of white matter lesions, atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum, and their correlation with cognitive dysfunction (CD), in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Seventy SLE patients and 25 healthy individuals (HIs) were included in the study. To evaluate the different SLE and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) definition schemes, patients were grouped both according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition, as well as the more stringent ACR-Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics definition...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
K J Heaphy-Henault, C V Guimaraes, A R Mehollin-Ray, C I Cassady, W Zhang, N K Desai, M J Paldino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Congenital aqueductal stenosis is a common cause of prenatal ventriculomegaly. An accurate diagnosis provides prognostic information and may guide obstetric management. The purpose of this study was to identify specific anatomic findings on prenatal MR imaging that can be used as predictors of congenital aqueductal stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prenatal and postnatal MRIs of fetuses referred to our institution for ventriculomegaly between June 2008 and August 2015 were reviewed...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
J Zhang, M Liu, L Zhou, Z B Zhang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang, Y Wu
Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging features of hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) due to mutations in DARS, and to identify DARS mutations responsible for HBSL. Methods: Data on 2 HBSL patients who were admitted to the pediatric department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2009 through December 2016 were reviewed and the 2 patients were followed up. Targeted next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were employed to identify potential genetic variations of the children and their parents...
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Max Shutran, David Mosbach, Zachary Tataryn, Knarik Arkun, Julian K Wu
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare tumors of peripheral nerves that are notable for their locally aggressive nature, ability to metastasize, poor prognosis, and association with Neurofibromatosis type I. We present the case of a patient with a trigeminal nerve MPNST who developed an unusual metastasis to the corpus callosum, in the absence of any other central nervous system or systemic metastatic disease. We review the pathology and presentation of MPNST...
March 5, 2018: Neurosurgery
Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, David Gómez-Andrés, Juan Andrés Martín-Gonzalo, Irene Rodríguez-Andonaegui, Javier López-López, Samuel Ignacio Pascual-Pascual, Estrella Rausell
The Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) are a group of heterogeneous disorders with a wide spectrum of underlying neural pathology, and hence HSP patients express a variety of gait abnormalities. Classification of these phenotypes may help in monitoring disease progression and personalizing therapies. This is currently managed by measuring values of some kinematic and spatio-temporal parameters at certain moments during the gait cycle, either in the doctor´s surgery room or after very precise measurements produced by instrumental gait analysis (IGA)...
2018: PloS One
F Mulas, P Roca
INTRODUCTION: The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. AIM: To review the current advances in these common aspects. DEVELOPMENT: Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Vanessa Siffredi, Vicki Anderson, Alissandra McIlroy, Amanda G Wood, Richard J Leventer, Megan M Spencer-Smith
OBJECTIVES: Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), characterized by developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is one of the most common congenital brain malformations. To date, there are limited data on the neuropsychological consequences of AgCC and factors that modulate different outcomes, especially in children. This study aimed to describe general intellectual, academic, executive, social and behavioral functioning in a cohort of school-aged children presenting for clinical services to a hospital and diagnosed with AgCC...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Ying Yu, Peicai Fu, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
Cerebral white matter is vulnerable to ischemic condition. However, no effective treatment to alleviate or restore the myelin damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been found. Na+ -K+ -Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), a Na+ -K+ -Cl- cotransporter widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), involves in regulation of cell swelling, EAA release, cell apoptosis, and proliferation. Nevertheless, the role of NKCC1 in chronic hypoperfusion-induced white matter lesions (WMLs) has not been explored...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Hyun Kyong Shon, Shin Hye Kim, Sohee Yoon, Chan Young Shin, Tae Geol Lee
Brain imaging using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been reported to produce the distorted biomolecular distributions due to the cholesterol-induced matrix effect when cholesterol migrates to the surface, particularly in white matter, which contains a high level of cholesterol. Frozen-hydrated analysis has been used to inhibit the movement of cholesterol in the brain. In this paper, the authors propose new sample preparation and drying methods that can be used to obtain accurate biomolecular images at room temperature, instead of frozen-hydrated analysis using liquid-nitrogen, which must be continuously supplied to maintain the sample at -160 °C during the experiment...
March 1, 2018: Biointerphases
Jianyu Zhang, Yi Tang, Yongan Sun, Yingda Xu, Lingen Pang, Jiaojiao Li, Taotao Wu, Mingli He
Introduction: The incidence of corpus callosum infarction is low, and sudden cognitive dysfunction caused by corpus callosum infarction is very rare. We report two cases of acute corpus callosum infarction with sudden cognitive impairment, and the related basis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this disease are reviewed. Cases presentation: The two patients had sudden and severe memory impairment and spatial orientation disorder...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"