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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340506/neuromedin-u-alters-bioenergetics-and-expands-the-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#1
Vanesa G Martinez, John Crown, Richard K Porter, Lorraine O'Driscoll
Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide belonging to the neuromedin family. Recently, we reported a significant association between NmU and breast cancer, particularly correlating with increased aggressiveness, resistance to HER2-targeted therapies and overall significantly poorer outcome for patients, although the mechanism through which it exerts this effect remained unexplained. Investigating this, here we found that ectopic over-expression of NmU in HER2-positive breast cancer cells induced aberrant metabolism, with increased glycolysis, likely due to enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339958/postconditioning-protects-renal-fibrosis-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-induced-mitochondrial-injury
#2
Shuxian Zhang, Xiaohua Tan, Yan Chen, Xiuying Zhang
Background.: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in renal fibrosis. We hypothesize that mitochondrial DNA damage and DNA deletions caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) might lead to EMT in renal fibrosis. Methods.: Rats were classified into seven groups: sham-operation, IRI, postconditioning (POC), I/R + apocynin, POC +  apocynin, I/R + Mito-Tempol (Mito-T) and POC +  Mito-T...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339833/vdac1-is-a-molecular-target-in-glioblastoma-with-its-depletion-leading-to-reprogrammed-metabolism-and-reversed-oncogenic-properties
#3
Tasleem Arif, Yakov Kerlin, Itay Nakdimon, Daniel Benharroch, Avijit Paul, Daniela Dadon-Klein, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor with frequent relapses and a high mortality, still awaits an effective treatment. Like many cancers, GBM cells acquire oncogenic properties, including metabolic reprogramming, vital for growth. As such, tumor metabolism is an emerging avenue for cancer therapy. One relevant target is the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a mitochondrial protein controlling cell energy and metabolic homeostasis. Methods...
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339614/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-syncytialization-of-bewo-trophoblast-cells%C3%A2
#4
Trina M Butler, Justin A Pater, Daniel J MacPhee
During placental development, mononuclear villous cytotrophoblast cells differentiate and fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast. This process requires the dissolution of E-cadherin (CDH1)-containing adherens junctions in cytotrophoblast. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) can downregulate CDH1 through poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Snail-1 (SNAI1) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ILK is known to be expressed in cytotrophoblast; thus, the role of a potential ILK-PARP1-SNAI1 pathway in aiding trophoblast syncytialization via the downregulation of CDH1 was examined...
January 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339425/potential-role-of-the-ovol1-ovol2-axis-and-c-myc-in-the-progression-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Takamichi Ito, Gaku Tsuji, Fumitaka Ohno, Takeshi Nakahara, Hiroshi Uchi, Masutaka Furue
OVOL1 and OVOL2 are ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors in mammals. They promote epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that human OVOL1 and OVOL2 were preferentially expressed in the normal epidermis and hair follicles as well as their tumors, and found that OVOL1 is upregulated in Bowen's disease and downregulated in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma...
March 24, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335402/2-hydroxymelatonin-a-predominant-hydroxylated-melatonin-metabolite-in-plants-shows-antitumor-activity-against-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Yi Yang, Rui Zhou, So-Yeon Park, Kyoungwhan Back, Woo Kyun Bae, Kyung Keun Kim, Hangun Kim
2-Hydroxymelatonin is a predominant hydroxylated melatonin metabolite in plants. To investigate whether it has potent cytotoxic effects on colorectal cancer cells, four colorectal cancer cell lines, Caco2, HCT116, DLD1, and CT26, were treated with 2-hydroxymelatonin and melatonin. 2-Hydroxymelatonin had a much lower IC50 value than melatonin in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cytotoxic effect of 2-hydroxymelatonin was much stronger than that of melatonin at high concentrations (1000 or 2000 μM) in HCT116, DLD1, and CT26 cells, but only at intermediate concentrations (250 or 500 μM) in Caco2 cells...
March 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334716/downregulation-of-ubap2l-inhibits-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-snail1-regulation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#7
Tao Ye, Jing Xu, Ling Du, Wenhui Mo, Yiming Liang, Jinglin Xia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysregulation of ubiquitin-associated protein 2-like (UBAP2L) has been reported in tumors, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is unclear. METHODS: The expression levels of UBAP2L in HCC tissues and HCC cell lines were detected by western blot and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. The effects of UBAP2L expression on HCC cell biological traits, including migration and invasion, were investigated by wound healing assay and matrigel transwell assay...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334634/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-cbl-b-prevents-tumor-metastasis-by-maintaining-the-epithelial-phenotype-in-multiple-drug-resistant-gastric-and-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Ling Xu, Ye Zhang, Xiujuan Qu, Xiaofang Che, Tianshu Guo, Ying Cai, Aodi Li, Danni Li, Ce Li, Ti Wen, Yibo Fan, Kezuo Hou, Yanju Ma, Xuejun Hu, Yunpeng Liu
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) and metastasis are two major factors that contribute to the failure of cancer treatment. However, the relationship between MDR and metastasis has not been characterized. Additionally, the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in metastasis of MDR gastric and breast cancer is not well known. In the present study, we found that MDR gastric and breast cancer cells possess a typical mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced cell migration capacity. Additionally, Cbl-b is poorly expressed in MDR gastric and breast cancer cells...
March 20, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334272/17%C3%AE-estradiol-induced-acsl4-protein-expression-promotes-an-invasive-phenotype-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-mammary-carcinoma-cells
#9
Anissa Belkaid, Rodney J Ouellette, Marc E Surette
Long chain acyl-CoA synthase-4 (ACSL4) expression has been associated with an aggressive phenotype in breast carcinoma cells, whereas its role in ERα-positive breast cancer has not been studied. ACSL4 prefers 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrates, and along with other ACSLs has been associated with cellular uptake of exogenous fatty acids. 17β-estradiol induces proliferation and invasive capacities in ERα+ve breast carcinoma that is associated with modifications of cellular lipid metabolism...
March 10, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334027/metformin-inhibits-gastric-cancer-cells-metastatic-traits-through-suppression-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-a-glucose-independent-manner
#10
Shiva Valaee, Mohammad Mehdi Yaghoobi, Mehdi Shamsara
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is mainly recognized by upregulation of mesenchymal markers and movement of cells, is a critical stage occurred during embryo development and spreading cancerous cells. Metformin is an antidiabetic drug used in treatment of type 2 diabetes. EMT inhibitory effect of metformin has been studied in several cancers; however, it remains unknown in gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the metformin effects on inhibition of EMT-related genes as well as migration and invasion of AGS gastric cancer cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333899/-stem-progenitor-cells-in-diseases-of-the-respiratory-tract
#11
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333382/regulation-and-function-of-extracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-visfatin
#12
Federico Carbone, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Matteo Casula, Michele Cea, Fiammetta Monacelli, Irene Caffa, Santina Bruzzone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Alessio Nencioni
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an adipokine-enzyme, which was described as to play bioactivities both in the intracellular and in the extracellular environment. However, while the functions of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) are well known, much less is known on extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT), also called visfatin or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor. iNAMPT catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the NAD+ biosynthesis pathway from nicotinamide. Its inhibition severely reduces intracellular NAD+ levels, achieving anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332606/lumican-effectively-regulates-the-estrogen-receptors-associated-functional-properties-of-breast-cancer-cells-expression-of-matrix-effectors-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#13
Konstantina Karamanou, Marco Franchi, Zoi Piperigkou, Corinne Perreau, Francois-Xavier Maquart, Demitrios H Vynios, Stéphane Brézillon
Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that has been shown to contribute in several physiological processes, but also to exert anticancer activity. On the other hand, it has been recently shown that knockdown of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) in low invasive MCF-7 (ERα+) breast cancer cells and the suppression of ERβ in highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 (ERβ+) cells significantly alter the functional properties of breast cancer cells and the gene expression profile of matrix macromolecules related to cancer progression and cell morphology...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332555/loxl2-drives-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-activation-of-ire1-xbp1-signalling-pathway
#14
Eva P Cuevas, Pilar Eraso, María J Mazón, Vanesa Santos, Gema Moreno-Bueno, Amparo Cano, Francisco Portillo
Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a key process contributing to the aggressiveness of cancer cells. EMT is triggered by activation of different transcription factors collectively known as EMT-TFs. Different cellular cues and cell signalling networks activate EMT at transcriptional and posttranscriptional level in different biological and pathological situations. Among them, overexpression of LOXL2 (lysyl oxidase-like 2) induces EMT independent of its catalytic activity. Remarkably, perinuclear/cytoplasmic accumulation of LOXL2 is a poor prognosis marker of squamous cell carcinomas and is associated to basal breast cancer metastasis by mechanisms no yet fully understood...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332316/golph3-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#15
Jing Sun, Xiaoming Yang, Ru Zhang, Suqing Liu, Xupei Gan, Xiaowei Xi, Zhenbo Zhang, Youji Feng, Yunyan Sun
Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), a newly recognized oncogene, is associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, its biological role and underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain poorly understood. Here, we found that GOLPH3 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cell lines. This overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of EOC cells. Moreover, GOLPH3 upregulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as N-cadherin and Snail, and the Wnt/β-catenin-related genes cyclin-D1 and c-Myc, which were restored via silencing of GOLPH3 expression...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332047/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-target-therapies-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Francesco Facchinetti, Claudia Proto, Roberta Minari, Marina Garassino, Marcello Tiseo
Targeted therapies are revolutionizing the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The discovery of key oncogenic events mainly in lung adenocarcinoma, like EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements, has changed the treatment landscape while improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients. Inevitably, virtually all patients initially treated with targeted therapies develop resistance because of the emergence of an insensitive cellular population, selected by pharmacologic pressure. Diverse mechanisms of resistance, in particular to EGFR, ALK and ROS1 tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have now been discovered and may be classified in three different groups: (1) alterations in the target (such as EGFR T790M and ALK or ROS1 mutations); (2) activation of alternative pathways (i...
March 23, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331343/silencing-trim59-inhibits-invasion-migration-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-3-signaling-pathway-in-bladder-cancer-cells
#17
Wei Chen, Kai Zhao, Chenkui Miao, Aiming Xu, Jianzhong Zhang, Jundong Zhu, Shifeng Su, Zengjun Wang
The evolutionarily conserved genes that encode the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various biological processes, including cellular immunity, inflammatory reaction, antiviral activity, and tumor progression. One member of this protein family, Trim59, has been reported as a novel biomarker for the occurrence and progression of multiple human carcinomas, such as lung cancer, gastric cancer, cervical cancer, and osteosarcoma. However, little is known about the relationship between Trim59 and bladder carcinogenesis...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331184/the-long-non-coding-rna-linc01013-enhances-invasion-of-human-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma
#18
I-Hsiao Chung, Pei-Hsuan Lu, Yang-Hsiang Lin, Ming-Ming Tsai, Yun-Wen Lin, Chau-Ting Yeh, Kwang-Huei Lin
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of highly malignant, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Currently, only studies on the chimeric oncogene NPM-ALK have reported a link to ALCL progression. However, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion of ALCL are still unclear. Here, we sought to investigate differentially expressed, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in ALCL and their potential biological function. Our microarray analyses revealed that LINC01013, a novel non-coding RNA gene, was highly expressed in clinical specimens of ALCL and was significantly upregulated in invasive ALCL cell lines...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331066/ketamine-induced-bladder-fibrosis-involves-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-mediated-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#19
Junpeng Wang, Yang Chen, Di Gu, Guihao Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Jie Zhao, Peng Wu
Bladder wall fibrosis is a major complication of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC), but the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of ketamine-induced fibrosis in association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups, which received saline, ketamine, ketamine combined with a TGF-β receptor (TβR) inhibitor (SB505124) for 16 weeks, or 12 weeks of ketamine and 4 weeks of abstinence...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330949/expression-analysis-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-and-its-ligands-in-the-developing-mouse-lung
#20
Leonor Gouveia, Christer Betsholtz, Johanna Andrae
Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) signaling pathway is critically important during lung alveogenesis, the process in lung development during which alveoli are formed from the terminal alveolar sacs. Several studies have aimed to characterize the expression patterns of PDGFRα and its two ligands (PDGF-A and -C) in the lung, but published analyses have been limited to embryonic and/or perinatal time points, and no attempts have been made to characterize both receptor and ligand expression simultaneously...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
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