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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453983/aldolase-a-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-by-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer
#1
Feng Ye, Yixing Chen, Lu Xia, Jiabian Lian, Shuyu Yang
There is increasing evidence that glycolysis is involved in cancer progression. Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Disruption of the aldolase genes also plays a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the action of aldolases in colon cancer progression remains elusive. In this study, aldolase A expression was investigated and found to be upregulated along with human colon cancer progression and metastasis at both the mRNA and protein levels in human colon cancer tissues...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453319/leptin-signaling-mediates-obesity-associated-csc-enrichment-and-emt-in-preclinical-tnbc-models
#2
Laura W Bowers, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Steven S Doerstling, Subreen A Khatib, Claire G Lineberger, Jody E Albright, Xiaohu Tang, Linda A deGraffenried, Stephen D Hursting
Obesity is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Preclinical models of TNBC were used to test the hypothesis that increased leptin signaling drives obesity-associated TNBC development by promoting cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and/or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice, which develop spontaneous basal-like, triple-negative mammary tumors, received either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or a diet-induced obesity regimen (DIO, 60% kcal from fat) for up to 42 weeks (n=15/group)...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452534/co-culture-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-macrophages-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#3
Won-Yong Jeong, Ji-Hye Kim, Chan-Wha Kim
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is considered as an ocular surface inflammatory disease. Previous studies have shown inflammation plays an important role in the progression and onset of DES. Co-culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) and macrophages showed immunomodulatory effects via regulation of cytokine regulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction of these cells on in vitro DES model. The conditioned media (CM) from macrophages, HBMSCs, and HBMSCs + macrophages were treated to human corneal epithelial cells, which showed significant reduction in IL-1α and IL-1β expression levels in HBMSCs + macrophages group...
February 16, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452350/extra-virgin-olive-oil-contains-a-metabolo-epigenetic-inhibitor-of-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Bruna Corominas-Faja, Elisabet Cuyàs, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Sílvia Cufí, Sara Verdura, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Ángel G Martin, Ruth Lupu, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Vicente Micol, Jorge Joven, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Javier A Menendez
Targeting tumor-initiating, drug-resistant populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) with phytochemicals is a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. We herein employed a phenotypic drug discovery approach coupled to mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution to identify phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) capable of suppressing the functional traits of CSC in breast cancer (BC). In vitro screening revealed that the secoiridoid decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA) could selectively target sub-populations of epithelial-like, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and mesenchymal-like, CD44+CD24-/low CSC...
February 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452214/pgrn-promotes-lymphangiogenesis-through-vegf-c-and-is-an-independent-risk-factor-in-human-esophageal-cancers
#5
Guanhua Li, Taotao Dong, Dong Yang, Aiqin Gao, Judong Luo, Hongyan Yang, Linlin Wang
Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important predictor of the prognosis for esophageal cancer (EC) patients. Yet, the mechanism underlying the lymph node metastasis is largely unknown. Progranulin (PGRN) is shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers and could promote the angiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells in previous studies. However, the expression status of PGRN and its effects on the lymphangiogenesis in EC is largely unclear. In this study, we show for the first time that PGRN is expressed in EC tissue samples and cell lines and could promote the expression of VEGF-C in vitro, a well-known lymphangiogenesis inducer, through the putative signaling transducers p-ERK and p-AKT...
February 13, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451351/delphinidin-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-erk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-human-osteosarcoma-cell-lines
#6
Hae-Mi Kang, Bong-Soo Park, Hyun-Kyung Kang, Hae-Ryoun Park, Su-Bin Yu, In-Ryoung Kim
Delphinidin is major anthocyanidin that is extracted from many pigmented fruits and vegetables. This substance has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, delphinidin strongly suppresses the migration and invasion of various cancer cells during tumorigenesis. Although delphinidin has anti-cancer effects, little is known about its functional roles in osteosarcoma (OS). For these reasons, we have demonstrated the effects of delphinidin on OS cell lines. The effects of delphinidin on cell viability and growth of OS cells were assessed using the MTT assay and colony formation assays...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451178/involvement-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-liver-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Kangkang Yu, Qian Li, Guangfeng Shi, Ning Li
Fibrosis of the liver is an inherent wound healing response to chronic liver injury. Regeneration of liver epithelium and restoration of normal liver structure were generally involved in this process. Although the liver has a striking capacity to adapt to damage through tissue repair, excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix during this process often leads to scar tissue formation and subsequent fibrosis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables a polarized epithelial cell to undergo multiple changes biochemically and to bear a mesenchymal cell phenotype...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450727/metabolic-implications-of-hypoxia-and-pseudohypoxia-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#8
REVIEW
Katarina Kluckova, Daniel A Tennant
Hypoxia is a critical driver of cancer pathogenesis, directly inducing malignant phenotypes such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem cell-like characteristics and metabolic transformation. However, hypoxia-associated phenotypes are often observed in cancer in the absence of hypoxia, a phenotype known as pseudohypoxia, which is very well documented in specific tumour types, including in paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (PPGL). Approximately 40% of the PPGL tumours carry a germ line mutation in one of a number of susceptibility genes of which those that are found in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) genes manifest a strong pseudohypoxic phenotype...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449309/zeb1-zeb2-and-the-mir-200-family-form-a-counterregulatory-network-to-regulate-cd8-t-cell-fates
#9
Tianxia Guan, Claudia X Dominguez, Robert A Amezquita, Brian J Laidlaw, Jijun Cheng, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Adam Williams, Richard A Flavell, Jun Lu, Susan M Kaech
Long-term immunity depends partly on the establishment of memory CD8 + T cells. We identified a counterregulatory network between the homologous transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 and the miR-200 microRNA family, which modulates effector CD8 + T cell fates. Unexpectedly, Zeb1 and Zeb2 had reciprocal expression patterns and were functionally uncoupled in CD8 + T cells. ZEB2 promoted terminal differentiation, whereas ZEB1 was critical for memory T cell survival and function. Interestingly, the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and miR-200 family members, which counterregulate the coordinated expression of Zeb1 and Zeb2 during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inversely regulated Zeb1 and Zeb2 expression in CD8 + T cells...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448837/restoring-tracheal-defects-in-a-rabbit-model-with-tissue-engineered-patches-based-on-tgf-%C3%AE-3-encapsulating-electrospun-poly-l-lactic-acid-co-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-collagen-scaffolds
#10
Hui Jing, Botao Gao, Manchen Gao, Haiyue Yin, Xiumei Mo, Xiaoyang Zhang, Kai Luo, Bei Feng, Wei Fu, Jing Wang, Wei Zhang, Meng Yin, Zhongqun Zhu, Xiaomin He, Jinghao Zheng
Long segment tracheal stenosis often has a poor prognosis due to the limited availability of materials for tracheal reconstruction. Tissue engineered tracheal patches based on electrospun scaffolds and stem cells present ideal solutions to this medical challenge. However, the established engineering process is inefficient and time-consuming. In our research, to optimize the engineering process, core-shell nanofilms encapsulating TGF-β3 were fabricated as scaffolds for tracheal patches. The morphological and mechanical characteristics, degradation and biocompatibility of poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone)/collagen (PLCL/collagen) scaffolds with different compositions (PLCL:collagen 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, respectively) were comparatively evaluated to determine the preferable compositional ratio...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448458/mechanical-stress-as-a-regulator-of-cell-motility
#11
T Putelat, P Recho, L Truskinovsky
The motility of a cell can be triggered or inhibited not only by an applied force but also by a mechanically neutral force couple. This type of loading, represented by an applied stress and commonly interpreted as either squeezing or stretching, can originate from extrinsic interaction of a cell with its neighbors. To quantify the effect of applied stresses on cell motility we use an analytically transparent one-dimensional model accounting for active myosin contraction and induced actin turnover. We show that stretching can polarize static cells and initiate cell motility while squeezing can symmetrize and arrest moving cells...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448106/folic-acid-prevents-methotrexate-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-suppression-of-secreted-factors-from-the-human-alveolar-epithelial-cell-line-a549
#12
Masashi Kawami, Rika Harabayashi, Risako Harada, Yohei Yamagami, Ryoko Yumoto, Mikihisa Takano
Methotrexate (MTX) often induces serious lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Although MTX is known to be a folic acid (FA) antagonist, the effect of FA on MTX-induced lung injury remains unclear. Recent studies indicate that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we aimed to clarify the effect of FA on MTX-induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 using conditioned medium (CM). CM was prepared from the supernatants of A549 cells treated with MTX in the absence (CMM) or presence (CMMF) of FA...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447006/retinoic-acid-signaling-promotes-the-cytoskeletal-rearrangement-of-embryonic-epicardial-cells
#13
Suya Wang, Jianshi Yu, Jace W Jones, Keely Pierzchalski, Maureen A Kane, Paul A Trainor, José Xavier-Neto, Alexander R Moise
All- trans-retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, is an important signaling molecule required for the proper development of the heart. The epicardium is the main source of RA in the embryonic heart, yet the cardiogenic functions of epicardial-produced RA are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the roles of RA signaling in the embryonic epicardium using in vivo and in vitro models of excess or deficiency of RA. Our results suggested that RA signaling facilitates the cytoskeletal rearrangement required for the epicardial-to-mesenchymal transition of epicardial cells...
February 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446253/elevated-trim44-promotes-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-progression-by-inducing-cell-emt-via-mapk-signaling
#14
Rui Peng, Peng-Fei Zhang, Chi Zhang, Xiao-Yong Huang, Yan-Bing Ding, Bin Deng, Dou-Sheng Bai, Ya-Ping Xu
Surgical results for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remain unsatisfactory due to the high rate of recurrence. Here, we investigated that the expression and roles of tripartite motif-containing protein 44 (TRIM44) in human ICCs. Firstly, TRIM44 expression was analyzed in several kinds of cancers by referring to public Oncomine database, and the expressions of TRIM44 mRNA and protein were tested in ICC and corresponding paratumorous tissues. Secondly, functions and mechanisms of TRIM44 in ICC cells were further evaluated by TRIM44 interference and cDNA transfection...
February 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445342/the-a-2b-adenosine-receptor-modulates-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-balance-of-camp-pka-and-mapk-erk-pathway-activation-in-human-epithelial-lung-cells
#15
Chiara Giacomelli, Simona Daniele, Chiara Romei, Laura Tavanti, Tommaso Neri, Ilaria Piano, Alessandro Celi, Claudia Martini, Maria L Trincavelli
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which cell phenotype switches from the epithelial to mesenchymal one. The deregulations of this process have been related with the occurrence of different diseases such as lung cancer and fibrosis. In the last decade, several efforts have been devoted in understanding the mechanisms that trigger and sustain this transition process. Adenosine is a purinergic signaling molecule that has been involved in the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases and cancer through the A 2B adenosine receptor subtype activation, too...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445086/the-oncogene-etv5-promotes-met-in-somatic-reprogramming-and-orchestrates-epiblast-primitive-endoderm-specification-during-mescs-differentiation
#16
Jinglong Zhang, Hongxia Cao, Jing Xie, Chen Fan, Youlong Xie, Xin He, Mingzhi Liao, Shiqiang Zhang, Huayan Wang
Unipotent spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be efficiently reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells only by manipulating the culture condition, without introducing exogenous reprogramming factors. This phenotype raises the hypothesis that the endogenous transcription factors (TFs) in SSCs may facilitate reprogramming to acquire pluripotency. In this study, we screened a pool of SSCs TFs (Bcl6b, Lhx1, Foxo1, Plzf, Id4, Taf4b, and Etv5), and found that oncogene Etv5 could dramatically increase the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation when combined with Yamanaka factors...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444487/paracrine-fibroblast-growth-factor-initiates-oncogenic-synergy-with-epithelial-fgfr-src-transformation-in-prostate-tumor-progression
#17
Qianjin Li, Lishann Ingram, Sungjin Kim, Zanna Beharry, Jonathan A Cooper, Houjian Cai
Cross talk of stromal-epithelial cells plays an essential role in both normal development and tumor initiation and progression. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-FGF receptor (FGFR)-Src kinase axis is one of the major signal transduction pathways to mediate this cross talk. Numerous genomic studies have demonstrated that expression levels of FGFR/Src are deregulated in a variety of cancers including prostate cancer; however, the role that paracrine FGF (from stromal cells) plays in dysregulated expression of epithelial FGFRs/Src and tumor progression in vivo is not well evaluated...
February 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444438/commonly-occurring-cell-subsets-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-tumors-identified-by-single-cell-mass-cytometry
#18
Veronica D Gonzalez, Nikolay Samusik, Tiffany J Chen, Erica S Savig, Nima Aghaeepour, David A Quigley, Ying-Wen Huang, Valeria Giangarrà, Alexander D Borowsky, Neil E Hubbard, Shih-Yu Chen, Guojun Han, Alan Ashworth, Thomas J Kipps, Jonathan S Berek, Garry P Nolan, Wendy J Fantl
We have performed an in-depth single-cell phenotypic characterization of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by multiparametric mass cytometry (CyTOF). Using a CyTOF antibody panel to interrogate features of HGSOC biology, combined with unsupervised computational analysis, we identified noteworthy cell types co-occurring across the tumors. In addition to a dominant cell subset, each tumor harbored rarer cell phenotypes. One such group co-expressed E-cadherin and vimentin (EV), suggesting their potential role in epithelial mesenchymal transition, which was substantiated by pairwise correlation analyses...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444101/development-and-characterization-of-two-cell-lines-from-gills-of-atlantic-salmon
#19
Mona C Gjessing, Maria Aamelfot, William N Batts, Sylvie L Benestad, Ole B Dale, Even Thoen, Simon C Weli, James R Winton
Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443958/tissue-stiffening-coordinates-morphogenesis-by-triggering-collective-cell-migration-in-vivo
#20
Elias H Barriga, Kristian Franze, Guillaume Charras, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. In vivo, groups of cells move in an orchestrated way through tissues. This movement involves mechanical as well as molecular interactions between cells and their environment. While the role of molecular signals in collective cell migration is comparatively well understood, how tissue mechanics influence collective cell migration in vivo remains unknown. Here we investigated the importance of mechanical cues in the collective migration of the Xenopus laevis neural crest cells, an embryonic cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to cancer invasion...
February 14, 2018: Nature
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