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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159527/melatonin-ameliorates-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-in-a-5-6-nephrectomy-rat-model
#1
Sayaka Ishigaki, Naro Ohashi, Takashi Matsuyama, Shinsuke Isobe, Naoko Tsuji, Takamasa Iwakura, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Takayuki Tsuji, Akihiko Kato, Hiroaki Miyajima, Hideo Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important components of intrarenal RAS activation. Melatonin is recognized as a powerful antioxidant, and we recently reported that impaired nighttime melatonin secretion correlates negatively with urinary angiotensinogen excretion, the surrogate marker of intrarenal RAS activity in patients with CKD...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157821/poricoic-acid-za-a-novel-ras-inhibitor-attenuates-tubulo-interstitial-fibrosis-and-podocyte-injury-by-inhibiting-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#2
Ming Wang, Dan-Qian Chen, Min-Chang Wang, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Dan Liu, Hui Zhao, Ying-Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosisis was characterized by cellular hypertrophy, extracellular matrix accumulation and podocyte detachment. Poricoic acid ZA (PZA) is a tetracyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from the surface layer of Poria cocos (LPC), which have been used extensively for diuretic and renoprotective effects. METHODS: The anti-fibrotic effect of PZA is investigated in HK-2 cells and podocytes induced by TGF-β1 and angiotensin II (ANGII)...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157197/selection-for-female-traits-of-high-fertility-affects-male-reproductive-performance-and-alters-the-testicular-transcriptional-profile
#3
Marten Michaelis, Alexander Sobczak, Dirk Koczan, Martina Langhammer, Norbert Reinsch, Jennifer Schoen, Joachim M Weitzel
BACKGROUND: Many genes important for reproductive performance are shared by both sexes. However, fecundity indices are primarily based on female parameters such as litter size. We examined a fertility mouse line (FL2), which has a considerably increased number of offspring and a total litter weight of 180% compared to a randomly bred control line (Ctrl) after more than 170 generations of breeding. In the present study, we investigated whether there might be a parallel evolution in males after more than 40 years of breeding in this outbred mouse model...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157100/imbalanced-plasma-ace-and-ace2-level-in-the-uremic-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-and-its-change-during-a-single-hemodialysis-session
#4
Chung-Wei Yang, Li-Che Lu, Chia-Chu Chang, Ching-Chang Cho, Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Chin-Hung Tsai, Yi-Chang Lin, Chih-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has significant influences on heart and renal disease progression. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) are major peptidases of RAS components and play counteracting functions through angiotensin II (Ang II)/ATIR and angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))/Mas axis, respectively. METHODS: There were 360 uremic patients on regular hemodialysis (HD) treatment (inclusive of 119 HD patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and 241 HD patients without CVD and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156052/primary-adrenal-insufficiency-managing-mineralocorticoid-replacement-therapy
#5
Daniela Esposito, Daniela Pasquali, Gudmundur Johannsson
Context: Mineralocorticoid (MC) replacement therapy in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) was introduced more than 60 years ago. Still, there are limited data on how MC substitution should be optimized, since MC dosing regimens have only been systematically investigated in a few studies. We review the management of current standard MC replacement therapy in PAI and its plausible impact on outcome. Evidence Acquisition: Using PubMed, we conducted a systematic review of the literature from 1939 to 2017, with the following keywords: 'adrenal insufficiency', 'mineralocorticoid deficiency', 'aldosterone', 'cardiovascular disease', 'hypertension', and 'heart failure'...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155873/short-term-anti-proteinuric-effect-of-tacrolimus-is-not-related-to-preservation-of-the-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-iga-nephropathy-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#6
Mi-Yeon Yu, Yong-Chul Kim, Ho Suk Koo, Ho Jun Chin
BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus has the short-term effect of reducing proteinuria in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Our study investigated the effects on proteinuria and kidney function after discontinuation of tacrolimus. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were included in the study and randomly divided into two treatment groups. There was a corresponding control group for each treatment group. The first group included patients treated with tacrolimus (Tac vs non-Tac group) and the second group included patients with a renin angiotensin system blocker (RASi vs non-RASi group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155297/divergent-profile-between-hypothalamic-and-plasmatic-aminopeptidase-activities-in-wky-and-shr-influence-of-beta-adrenergic-blockade
#7
Isabel Prieto, Ana B Segarra, Marc de Gasparo, Magdalena Martínez-Cañamero, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
AIMS: Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) differ in their renin-angiotensin system function and sympathetic tone. The metabolism of angiotensins and vasopressin depends on the action of certain aminopeptidases whose activity may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system. Their regulation may differ between WKY and SHR in hypothalamus and plasma according to the sympathetic tone. We analyzed aminopeptidases responsible for the hydrolysis of certain angiotensins, vasopressin, cholecystokinin or enkephalins in hypothalamus and plasma of WKY and SHR in untreated controls rats and under beta-adrenoceptor blockade...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155208/inflammatory-renin-angiotensin-system-disruption-attenuates-sensory-hyperinnervation-and-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-provoked-vestibulodynia
#8
Anuradha Chakrabarty, Zhaohui Liao, Ying Mu, Peter G Smith
Vestibulodynia is characterized by peri-vaginal mechanical hypersensitivity, hyperinnervation, and abundant inflammatory cells expressing renin-angiotensin system proteins. We developed a tractable rat model of vestibulodynia to further assess the contributions of the renin-angiotensin system. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injected into the posterior vestibule induced marked vestibular hypersensitivity throughout a 7-day test period. Numbers of axons immunoreactive for PGP9.5, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and GFRα2 were increased...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154432/proposal-for-heart-failure-progression-based-on-the-chloride-theory-worsening-heart-failure-with-increased-vs-non-increased-serum-chloride-concentration
#9
Hajime Kataoka
AIMS: Chloride (Cl) is an established key electrolyte for the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies have shown the serum Cl as a key electrolyte for the regulation of body fluid distribution in heart failure (HF) patients. The clinical differences of worsening HF status according to the changes in serum Cl concentration are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 47 chronic HF patients were analysed. Upon worsening HF, each patient exhibited at least two HF-related signs...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153995/longitudinal-estimated-gfr-trajectories-in-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-and-nephropathy
#10
Misghina Weldegiorgis, Dick de Zeeuw, Liang Li, Hans-Henrik Parving, Fan Fan Hou, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Tom Greene, Hiddo J L Heerspink
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice and clinical trials, changes in serum creatinine concentrations are used to evaluate changes in kidney function. It has been assumed that these changes follow a linear pattern when serum creatinine concentration is converted to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). However, the paradigm that kidney function declines linearly over time has been questioned by studies showing either linear or nonlinear patterns. To verify how this impacts on kidney end points in intervention trials, we analyzed eGFR trajectories in multiple clinical trials of patients with and without diabetes...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153690/time-course-of-angiotensin-ii-dependent-vascular-and-metabolic-effects-of-preeclampsia
#11
Paula Rosas, Cecilia Tufiño, Ismael Bracho Valdes, Rosa A Bobadilla Lugo
Pregnancy is characterized by a blunted pressor response to angiotensin II that is progressively lost during preeclampsia complicated pregnancies. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular and renal function but its role in normal and pathological pregnancy is far from being clarified. It is not as clear if hypertension and particularly pregnancy-induced hypertension as the initial event, can trigger some of the metabolic syndrome components, and if these changes are angiotensin II mediated...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151830/antihypertensive-properties-of-tilapia-oreochromis-spp-frame-and-skin-enzymatic-protein-hydrolysates
#12
Hsin-Chieh Lin, Adeola M Alashi, Rotimi E Aluko, Bonnie Sun Pan, Yu-Wei Chang
Proteins from tilapia frame and skin can potentially be precursors of antihypertensive peptides according to the result of BIOPEP analyses. The aim was to generate peptides with inhibitory effects against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin from tilapia frame and skin protein isolates (FPI and SPI). The most active hydrolysate was then tested for blood pressure-lowering ability in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Tilapia frame and skin protein hydrolysates (FPHs and SPHs) were respectively produced from FPI and SPI hydrolysis using pepsin, papain, or bromelain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151036/combination-therapy-is-superior-to-sequential-monotherapy-for-the-initial-treatment-of-hypertension-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Thomas M MacDonald, Bryan Williams, David J Webb, Steve Morant, Mark Caulfield, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Ian Ford, Peter Sever, Isla S Mackenzie, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Gerald P McCann, Jackie Salsbury, Gordon McInnes, Morris J Brown
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for hypertension vary in their preference for initial combination therapy or initial monotherapy, stratified by patient profile; therefore, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of these approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a 1-year, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 605 untreated patients aged 18 to 79 years with systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥95 mm Hg. In phase 1 (weeks 0-16), patients were randomly assigned to initial monotherapy (losartan 50-100 mg or hydrochlorothiazide 12...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150471/biochemical-monitoring-after-initiation-of-aldosterone-antagonist-therapy-in-users-of-renin-angiotensin-system-blockers-a-uk-primary-care-cohort-study
#14
Sarah-Jo Sinnott, Kathryn E Mansfield, Morten Schmidt, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Liam Smeeth, Dorothea Nitsch, Laurie A Tomlinson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of biochemical monitoring after initiation of aldosterone antagonists(AA) in patients also using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB). SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: ACEI/ARB users who initiated AA between 2004 and 2014. OUTCOMES: We calculated the proportions with: (1) biochemical monitoring ≤2 weeks post initiation of AA, (2) adverse biochemical values ≤2 months (potassium ≥6 mmol/L, creatinine ≥220 µmol/L and ≥30% increase in creatinine from baseline) and (3) discontinuers of AA in those with an adverse biochemical value...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149676/high-salt-diet-decreases-reproductive-performance-in-rams-and-down-regulates-gene-expression-of-some-components-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-testis
#15
Yi Fang, Rongzhen Zhong, Xuezhao Sun, Daowei Zhou
Although salt-tolerant plants can be used to combat dryland salinity, these plants contain high concentrations of salt (NaCl), which may have deleterious effects if fed to livestock. Twenty-four Merino rams (9 mo of age) with similar body weight were equally allocated to two groups and fed a normal- or high-salt diet (0.5 and 12% NaCl, respectively) for 3 mo. Rams fed the high-salt diet had lower live weight gains, higher water intake, smaller testes (466 ± 48.4 vs 604 ± 51.1 g) and reductions (P <0...
November 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147581/review-of-and-updates-on-hypertension-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
REVIEW
Masood Ahmad, Devan Makati, Sana Akbar
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder as is hypertension (HTN) in the 21st century with the rising incidence of obesity. Numerous studies have shown a strong association of OSA with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the relationship between OSA and hypertension (HTN). The pathophysiology of HTN in OSA is complex and dependent on various factors such as sympathetic tone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, and altered baroreceptor reflexes...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146604/the-effect-of-treatment-for-sleep-apnoea-on-determinants-of-blood-pressure-control
#17
Raquel Casitas, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Raúl Galera, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, María Jesús González-Villalba, Isabel Fernández-Navarro, Begoña Sánchez, Aldara García-Sánchez, Ester Zamarrón, Francisco García-Río
Our aim was to assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nocturnal evolution of peripheral chemosensitivity, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, sympathetic tone and endothelial biomarkers in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients with isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) or day-night sustained hypertension (D-NSH).In a crossover randomised trial, 32 OSA patients newly diagnosed with hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146141/the-myth-of-water-and-salt-from-aquaretics-to-tenapanor
#18
REVIEW
Luca Visconti, Valeria Cernaro, Sebastiano Calimeri, Antonio Lacquaniti, Francesca De Gregorio, Carlo Alberto Ricciardi, Viviana Lacava, Domenico Santoro, Michele Buemi
The impact of water intake has been studied in several renal diseases. For example, increasing water intake is useful to prevent primary and secondary nephrolithiasis. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is involved in the progression of the disease, and water intake could play a therapeutic role by inhibiting the synthesis of AVP, but its efficacy is still controversial. Conversely, the use of aquaretics, which are antagonists of AVP V2 receptors, results in the reduction of the increase rate of total kidney volume with a slower decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145688/is-primary-aldosteronism-still-largely-unrecognized
#19
Fabrizio Buffolo, Silvia Monticone, Jacopo Burrello, Martina Tetti, Franco Veglio, Tracy Ann Williams, Paolo Mulatero
Primary aldosteronism (PA) was first reported by Jerome W. Conn in 1954 when it was considered a rare disorder, only suspected in cases of hypertension and spontaneous hypokalemia. Over the last 30 years, with the wide application of the plasma aldosterone to plasma renin activity ratio as screening test, the clinical spectrum of PA has dramatically changed. Different studies displayed significant differences in term of patients investigated, diagnostic criteria and hormonal assays; however, large prospective studies with robust diagnostic criteria indicated that the prevalence of PA is around 6% of the general hypertensive population and 11% of the patients referred to hypertension centers...
November 16, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145244/association-between-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockade-and-future-osteoporotic-fracture-risk-in-hypertensive-population-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#20
Chang-I Chen, Jong-Shiuan Yeh, Nai-Wen Tsao, Fen-Yen Lin, Chun-Ming Shih, Kuang-Hsing Chiang, Yung-Ta Kao, Yu-Ann Fang, Lung-Wen Tsai, Wen-Chi Liu, Hironori Nakagami, Ryuichi Morishita, Yi-Jie Kuo, Chun-Yao Huang
Tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in sites of osteoporosis had been demonstrated in animal studies; however, the possibility of RAAS blockade to prevent future osteoporotic fracture had rarely been verified in clinical studies. We Used the Taiwan Longitudinal Health insurance database 2000 to 2008, the cohort study comprised patients age over 40 with a recorded new diagnosis of hypertension between January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008, in addition, patients who had diagnosis of osteoporosis before the date of cohort enter were excluded...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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