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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636543/high-grade-glioma-in-very-young-children-a-rare-and-particular-patient-population
#1
REVIEW
Moatasem El-Ayadi, Marc Ansari, Dominik Sturm, Gerrit H Gielen, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Christof M Kramm, Andre O von Bueren
In the past years, pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) have been the focus of several research articles and reviews, given the recent discoveries on the genetic and molecular levels pointing out a clinico-biological uniqueness of the pediatric population compared to their adult counterparts with HGG. On the other hand, there are only scarce data about HGG in very young children (below 3 years of age at diagnosis) due to their relatively low incidence. However, the few available data suggest further distinction of this very rare subgroup from older children and adults at several levels including their molecular and biological characteristics, their treatment management, as well as their outcome...
June 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634382/expression-of-p301l-htau-in-mouse-mec-induces-hippocampus-dependent-memory-deficit
#2
Xinghua Liu, Kuan Zeng, Mengzhu Li, Qun Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xiji Shu, Xiaochuan Wang
Intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau in different types of neurons is a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While tau modification and associated neuronal loss and hypometabolism start in the entorhinal cortex (EC) in early AD patients, the mechanism by which mutant P301L hTau leads to dementia is not fully elucidated. Here, we studied the effects of P301L hTau transduction in the medial EC (MEC) of mice on tau phosphorylation and accumulation, and cognitive deficit...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#3
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#4
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631336/a-neuroimaging-approach-to-capture-cognitive-reserve-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Anna C van Loenhoud, Alle Meije Wink, Colin Groot, Sander C J Verfaillie, Jos Twisk, Frederik Barkhof, Bart van Berckel, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Rik Ossenkoppele
Cognitive reserve (CR) explains interindividual differences in the ability to maintain cognitive function in the presence of neuropathology. We developed a neuroimaging approach including a measure of brain atrophy and cognition to capture this construct. In a group of 511 Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker-positive subjects in different stages across the disease spectrum, we performed 3T magnetic resonance imaging and predicted gray matter (GM) volume in each voxel based on cognitive performance (i.e. a global cognitive composite score), adjusted for age, sex, disease stage, premorbid brain size (i...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630485/acute-administration-of-catalase-targeted-to-icam-1-attenuates-neuropathology-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Evan M Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Allison M Andrews, Lee Anne Cannella, Young-Jin Son, Vladimir V Shuvaev, Vladimir R Muzykantov, Servio H Ramirez
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to one third of injury related deaths in the US. Treatment strategies for TBI are supportive, and the pathophysiology is not fully understood. Secondary mechanisms of injury in TBI, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, are points at which intervention may reduce neuropathology. Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) propagate blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability and inflammation following TBI. We hypothesized that targeted detoxification of ROS may improve the pathological outcomes of TBI...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630030/alzheimer-s-brains-show-inter-related-changes-in-rna-and-lipid-metabolism
#7
Shahar Barbash, Benjamin P Garfinkel, Rotem Maoz, Alon Simchovitz, Bettina Nadorp, Alessandro Guffanti, Estelle R Bennett, Courtney Nadeau, Andreas Türk, Lukas Paul, Torsten Reda, Yan Li, Aron S Buchman, David S Greenberg, Alexander Seitz, David A Bennett, Patrick Giavalisco, Hermona Soreq
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves changes in both lipid and RNA metabolism, but it remained unknown if these differences associate with AD's cognition and/or post-mortem neuropathology indices. Here, we report RNA-sequencing evidence of inter-related associations between lipid processing, cognition level, and AD neuropathology. In two unrelated cohorts, we identified pathway-enriched facilitation of lipid processing and alternative splicing genes, including the neuronal-enriched NOVA1 and hnRNPA1. Specifically, this association emerged in temporal lobe tissue samples from donors where postmortem evidence demonstrated AD neuropathology, but who presented normal cognition proximate to death...
June 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628038/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-ameliorates-neurotoxicity-in-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#8
Su Yang, Renbao Chang, Huiming Yang, Ting Zhao, Yan Hong, Ha Eun Kong, Xiaobo Sun, Zhaohui Qin, Peng Jin, Shihua Li, Xiao-Jiang Li
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Although suppressing the expression of mutant HTT (mHTT) has been explored as a therapeutic strategy to treat Huntington's disease, considerable efforts have gone into developing allele-specific suppression of mHTT expression, given that loss of Htt in mice can lead to embryonic lethality. It remains unknown whether depletion of HTT in the adult brain, regardless of its allele, could be a safe therapy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626499/the-effects-of-blast-exposure-on-protein-deimination-in-the-brain
#9
Peter J Attilio, Michael Flora, Alaa Kamnaksh, Donald J Bradshaw, Denes Agoston, Gregory P Mueller
Oxidative stress and calcium excitotoxicity are hallmarks of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While these early disruptions may be corrected over a relatively short period of time, long-lasting consequences of TBI including impaired cognition and mood imbalances can persist for years, even in the absence of any evidence of overt injury based on neuroimaging. This investigation examined the possibility that disordered protein deimination occurs as a result of TBI and may thus contribute to the long-term pathologies of TBI...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624335/neuropathologic-features-of-tomm40-523-variant-on-late-life-cognitive-decline
#10
Lei Yu, Michael W Lutz, Jose M Farfel, Robert S Wilson, Daniel K Burns, Ann M Saunders, Philip L De Jager, Lisa L Barnes, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
INTRODUCTION: The study investigated the role of neuropathologies in the relationship between TOMM40 '523 genotype and late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were community-dwelling older persons who had annual cognitive assessments and brain autopsies after death. Genotyping used DNA from peripheral blood or postmortem brain tissue. Linear mixed models assessed the extent to which the association of '523 genotype with cognitive decline is attributable to neuropathologies...
June 15, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623807/hiv-tat-excites-d1-receptor-like-expressing-neurons-from-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#11
G Cristina Brailoiu, Elena Deliu, Jeffrey L Barr, Linda M Console-Bram, Alexandra M Ciuciu, Mary E Abood, Ellen M Unterwald, Eugen Brailoiu
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection and drug abuse are frequently co-morbid and their association greatly increases the severity of HIV-1-induced neuropathology. While nucleus accumbens (NAcc) function is severely perturbed by drugs of abuse, little is known about how HIV-1 infection affects NAcc. METHODS: We used calcium and voltage imaging to investigate the effect of HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) on rat NAcc. Based on previous neuronal studies, we hypothesized that Tat modulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis of NAcc neurons...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623677/incidence-of-cognitively-defined-late-onset-alzheimer-s-dementia-subgroups-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Paul K Crane, Emily Trittschuh, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Andrew J Saykin, R Elizabeth Sanders, Eric B Larson, Susan M McCurry, Wayne McCormick, James D Bowen, Thomas Grabowski, Mackenzie Moore, Julianna Bauman, Alden L Gross, C Dirk Keene, Thomas E Bird, Laura E Gibbons, Jesse Mez
INTRODUCTION: There may be biologically relevant heterogeneity within typical late-onset Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: We analyzed cognitive data from people with incident late-onset Alzheimer's dementia from a prospective cohort study. We determined individual averages across memory, visuospatial functioning, language, and executive functioning. We identified domains with substantial impairments relative to that average. We compared demographic, neuropathology, and genetic findings across groups defined by relative impairments...
June 14, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622539/features-of-amygdala-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-mri-volumetric-and-histopathological-study
#13
Yoko Nakayama, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Takefumi Higashijima, Hiroki Kitaura, Yukihiko Fujii, Akiyoshi Kakita, Masafumi Fukuda
OBJECTIVE: It is well-known that there is a correlation between the neuropathological grade of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and neuroradiological atrophy of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients. However, there is no strict definition or criterion regarding neuron loss and atrophy of the amygdala neighboring the hippocampus. We examined the relationship between HS and neuronal loss in the amygdala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen mTLE patients with neuropathological proof of HS were assigned to Group A, while seven mTLE patients without HS were assigned to Group B...
May 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620737/analysis-of-bmaa-enantiomers-in-cycads-cyanobacteria-and-mammals-in-vivo-formation-and-toxicity-of-d-bmaa
#14
J S Metcalf, Doug Lobner, Sandra Anne Banack, Gregory A Cox, Peter B Nunn, Peter B Wyatt, Paul Alan Cox
Chronic dietary exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) triggers neuropathology in non-human primates, providing support for the theory that BMAA causes a fatal neurodegenerative illness among the indigenous Chamorro people of Guam. However, since there are two stereoisomers of BMAA, it is important to know if both can occur in nature, and if so, what role they might play in disease causation. As a first step, we analysed both BMAA enantiomers in cyanobacteria, cycads, and in mammals orally dosed with L-BMAA, to determine if enantiomeric changes could occur in vivo...
June 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619286/neuroprotective-potential-of-aloe-arborescens-against-copper-induced-neurobehavioral-features-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rat
#15
Abdellatif Abbaoui, Omar El Hiba, Halima Gamrani
Copper (Cu) is an important trace element for the organism survival, which ensures the normal functioning of different biosystems. However, excessive levels of this heavy metal are responsible for profound physiological alterations including the central nervous system. Numerous findings sustain the involvement of heavy metals, as an environmental risk factor such as copper (Cu), in the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that principally affects the motor system...
June 12, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619113/mechanisms-underlying-extensive-ser129-phosphorylation-in-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregates
#16
Shigeki Arawaka, Hiroyasu Sato, Asuka Sasaki, Shingo Koyama, Takeo Kato
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized neuropathologically by intracellular aggregates of fibrillar α-synuclein, termed Lewy bodies (LBs). Approximately 90% of α-synuclein deposited as LBs is phosphorylated at Ser129 in brains with PD. In contrast, only 4% of total α-synuclein is phosphorylated at Ser129 in brains with normal individuals. It is unclear why extensive phosphorylation occurs in the pathological process of PD. To address this issue, we investigated a mechanism and role of Ser129-phosphorylation in regulating accumulation of α-synuclein...
June 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619002/targeting-astrocytes-for-treatment-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Mina Perić, Dinko Mitrečić, Pavle R Andjus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disorder affecting upper and lower motoneurons. The two types, sporadic and familial differ in the aetiopathogenesis but have a similar neuropathology characterized by oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammation. The disease is also characterized by a non-cell autonomous mechanism with astrocytes playing a central role by affecting synaptic glutamate, the blood-brain barrier, and metabolic and trophic support. Two types of therapeutic approaches focusing on astrocytes are presented: a) emerging molecular targets (potassium inward rectifier channels and aquaporins at the astrocyte endfeet, and IP3 receptor signaling pathway), and b) cell therapy with stem cell - generated and transplanted astrocytes...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618077/generation-of-a-microglial-developmental-index-in-mice-and-in-humans-reveals-a-sex-difference-in-maturation-and-immune-reactivity
#18
Richa Hanamsagar, Mark D Alter, Carina S Block, Haley Sullivan, Jessica L Bolton, Staci D Bilbo
Evidence suggests many neurological disorders emerge when normal neurodevelopmental trajectories are disrupted, i.e., when circuits or cells do not reach their fully mature state. Microglia play a critical role in normal neurodevelopment and are hypothesized to contribute to brain disease. We used whole transcriptome profiling with Next Generation sequencing of purified developing microglia to identify a microglial developmental gene expression program involving thousands of genes whose expression levels change monotonically (up or down) across development...
June 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617520/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-patients-with-anisometropic-amblyopia-using-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Angcang Tang, Taolin Chen, Junran Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Longqian Liu
PURPOSE: To explore the abnormality of spontaneous activity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI). METHODS: Twenty-four participants were split into two groups. The anisometropic amblyopia group had 10 patients, all of whom had anisometropic amblyopia of the right eye, and the control group had 14 healthy subjects. All participants underwent Rs-fMRI scanning. Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the brain, which is a measure of the amplitudes of spontaneous brain activity, was used to investigate brain changes between the anisometropic amblyopia and control groups...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617154/two-kidney-one-clip-is-a-pertinent-approach-to-integrate-arterial-hypertension-in-animal-models-of-stroke-serial-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-brain-lesions-before-and-during-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Benjamin Ménard, Laurent Chazalviel, Simon Roussel, Myriam Bernaudin, Omar Touzani
Although chronic arterial hypertension (CAH) represents the major comorbid factor in stroke, it is rarely integrated in preclinical studies of stroke. The majority of those investigations employ spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) which display a susceptibility to ischemic damage independent of hypertension. Here, we used a renovascular model of hypertension (RH) to examine, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), brain alterations during the development of hypertension and after brain ischemia. We also examined whether MRI-derived parameters predict the extent of ischemia-induced brain damage...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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