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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746342/the-mechanism-of-monomer-transfer-between-two-structurally-distinct-prp-oligomers
#1
Aurora Armiento, Philippe Moireau, Davy Martin, Nad'a Lepejova, Marie Doumic, Human Rezaei
In mammals, Prion pathology refers to a class of infectious neuropathologies whose mechanism is based on the self-perpetuation of structural information stored in the pathological conformer. The characterisation of the PrP folding landscape has revealed the existence of a plethora of pathways conducing to the formation of structurally different assemblies with different biological properties. However, the biochemical interconnection between these diverse assemblies remains unclear. The PrP oligomerisation process leads to the formation of neurotoxic and soluble assemblies called O1 oligomers with a high size heterodispersity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744687/lin28a-a-sensitive-immunohistochemical-marker-for-embryonal-tumor-with-multilayered-rosettes-etmr-is-also-positive-in-a-subset-of-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-at-rt
#2
Shilpa Rao, R T Rajeswarie, T Chickabasaviah Yasha, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh
INTRODUCTION: CNS embryonal tumors comprise a group of highly malignant neoplasms with a wide spectrum of histomorphological entities that includes Medulloblastoma (MB), Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT), Neuroblastoma (NB), Ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), Embryonal Tumor with Multilayered Rosettes (ETMR), and the embryonal tumor-Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). The entity ETMR includes previously described histopathologic patterns-Embryonal Tumor with Abundant Neuropil and True Rosettes (ETANTR), Ependymoblastoma (EBL), and Medulloepithelioma (MEPL)...
July 25, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743126/frontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-%C3%AE-secretase-activating-protein-levels-in-prodromal-alzheimer-disease
#3
Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Bin He, Elliott J Mufson
BACKGROUND: β-Amyloid (Aβ) is the product of concerted cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. Recently, evidence was reported that γ-secretase activating protein (GSAP, 16 kDa), derived from a larger precursor protein (98 kDa), plays a role in Aβ metabolism through a mechanism involving its interaction with both γ-secretase and APP. However, a detailed evaluation of GSAP protein levels and their association with clinical and neuropathological variables are lacking during the clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743115/cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-14-3-3-gamma-what-does-it-tell-us-about-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#4
Christian Humpel, Thomas Benke
Clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can be supported by the analysis of Tau and 14-3-3 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this short report, we report about a retrospective analysis performed on 2,296 routinely collected CSF samples, and 44 samples with a ratio of phosphoTau181/Tau <0.075 were selected. Analysis was performed with a novel 14-3-3 gamma CircuLex Elisa. We show that control levels were around 6,000 AU/mL and samples from Alzheimer patients were not different from those collected from healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742910/clinicopathological-evaluation-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-players-of-american-football
#5
Jesse Mez, Daniel H Daneshvar, Patrick T Kiernan, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Todd M Solomon, Christopher J Nowinski, Lisa McHale, Kerry A Cormier, Caroline A Kubilus, Brett M Martin, Lauren Murphy, Christine M Baugh, Phillip H Montenigro, Christine E Chaisson, Yorghos Tripodis, Neil W Kowall, Jennifer Weuve, Michael D McClean, Robert C Cantu, Lee E Goldstein, Douglas I Katz, Robert A Stern, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee
Importance: Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Objective: To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741672/finding-of-increased-caudate-nucleus-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
K Persson, V D Bohbot, N Bogdanovic, G Selbaek, A Braekhus, K Engedal
OBJECTIVES: A recently published study using an automated MRI volumetry method (NeuroQuant®) unexpectedly demonstrated larger caudate nucleus volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) compared to patients with subjective and mild cognitive impairment (SCI and MCI). The aim of this study was to explore this finding. MATERIALS & METHODS: The caudate nucleus and the hippocampus volumes were measured (both expressed as ratios of intracranial volume) in a total of 257 patients with SCI and MCI according to the Winblad criteria and AD according to ICD-10 criteria...
July 25, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741167/microvascular-ultrastructural-changes-precede-cognitive-impairment-in-the-murine-appswe-ps1de9-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Patricia Kelly, Paul Denver, Simon C Satchell, Maximilian Ackermann, Moritz A Konerding, Christopher A Mitchell
Cerebral and systemic organ microvascular pathologies coexist with human Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. In this study, we hypothesised that both cerebral and systemic microvascular pathologies exist in 4- to 5-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice prior to the onset of cognitive impairment. To assess this we examined recognition memory in both wild-type and APP/PS1 mice using the object recognition task (ORT; n = 11 per group) and counted thioflavin-S-positive plaques in brain (n = 6 per group)...
July 25, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738366/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-hypophonia-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#8
Ji Hye Yoon, Yisuh Ahn, Sook Hui Kim, Juhee Chin, Seongbeom Park, Duk L Na
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early detection and intervention may alter the disease course of subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). Patients with SVCI have white matter ischemia that disrupts connections between the cortex and subcortical gray matter and therefore manifest various symptoms such as motor disturbances and behavioral/cognitive dysfunction. Reduced vocal loudness, or hypophonia, is one of the common motor symptoms of SVCI, but few studies have systematically investigated it in this patient population...
July 24, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738196/parental-age-and-the-risk-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-a-nationwide-population-based-sample
#9
Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Hanna Rintala, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVES: Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. METHODS: This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737509/astrocytic-tight-junctions-control-inflammatory-cns-lesion-pathogenesis
#10
Sam Horng, Anthony Therattil, Sarah Moyon, Alexandra Gordon, Karla Kim, Azeb Tadesse Argaw, Yuko Hara, John N Mariani, Setsu Sawai, Per Flodby, Edward D Crandall, Zea Borok, Michael V Sofroniew, Candice Chapouly, Gareth R John
Lesions and neurologic disability in inflammatory CNS diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) result from the translocation of leukocytes and humoral factors from the vasculature, first across the endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then across the astrocytic glia limitans (GL). Factors secreted by reactive astrocytes open the BBB by disrupting endothelial tight junctions (TJs), but the mechanisms that control access across the GL are unknown. Here, we report that in inflammatory lesions, a second barrier composed of reactive astrocyte TJs of claudin 1 (CLDN1), CLDN4, and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) subunits is induced at the GL...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733900/the-putative-role-of-environmental-mercury-in-the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-subtypes
#11
REVIEW
G Morris, B K Puri, R E Frye, M Maes
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733897/alleviation-of-neuropathology-by-inhibition-of-monoacylglycerol-lipase-in-app-transgenic-mice-lacking-cb2-receptors
#12
Jian Zhang, Chu Chen
Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, produces profound anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and improves synaptic and cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are still not clear. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) has been thought to be a therapeutic target for AD...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732710/cytokine-profiling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-system-atrophy-patients
#13
Rasmus Rydbirk, Betina Elfving, Mille Dahl Andersen, Mia Aggergaard Langbøl, Jonas Folke, Kristian Winge, Bente Pakkenberg, Tomasz Brudek, Susana Aznar
Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases characterized neuropathologically by alpha-synuclein accumulation in brain cells. This accumulation is hypothesized to contribute to constitutive neuroinflammation, and to participate in the neurodegeneration. Cytokines, which are the main inflammatory signalling molecules, have been identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of PD patients, but studies investigating the human brain levels are scarce. It is documented that neurotrophins, necessary for survival of brain cells and known to interact with cytokines, are altered in the basal ganglia of PD patients...
July 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732249/evaluating-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-as-mediators-of-age-related-cognitive-decline
#14
Timothy J Hohman, Doug Tommet, Shawn Marks, Joey Contreras, Rich Jones, Dan Mungas
Age-related changes in cognition are partially mediated by the presence of neuropathology and neurodegeneration. This manuscript evaluates the degree to which biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, (AD) neuropathology and longitudinal changes in brain structure, account for age-related differences in cognition. Data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 1012) were analyzed, including individuals with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment. Parallel process mixed effects regression models characterized longitudinal trajectories of cognitive variables and time-varying changes in brain volumes...
July 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731443/accuracy-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-versus-neuropathology
#15
Ragnhild E Skogseth, Tibor Hortobágyi, Hogne Soennesyn, Luiza Chwiszczuk, Dominic Ffytche, Arvid Rongve, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: The first consensus criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) published in 1996 were revised in 2005, partly because the original clinical criteria had suboptimal sensitivity. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of the 2005 criteria applied prospectively in newly diagnosed patients who have been followed longitudinally. OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between clinical and pathological diagnoses in patients with DLB and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731431/association-between-cholesterol-exposure-and-neuropathological-findings-the-act-study
#16
Brianne M Bettcher, M Colin Ard, Bruce R Reed, Andreana Benitez, Amanda Simmons, Eric B Larson, Josh A Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, Ge Li, C Dirk Keene, Paul K Crane, Dan Mungas
We characterized the relationship between late life cholesterol exposure and neuropathological outcomes in a community-based, older adult cohort. Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) is a cohort study that enrolls consenting, randomly selected, non-demented people aged ≥65 from a healthcare delivery system. We used late life HDL and total cholesterol lab values from Group Health computerized records, and calculated HDL and non-HDL levels. We evaluated neuropathological outcomes of Alzheimer's disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vascular brain injury, and Lewy body disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731266/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-of-the-effects-of-levetiracetam-on-cognition-mood-and-balance-in-healthy-older-adults
#17
Mike R Schoenberg, Ruba S Rum, Katie E Osborn, Mary Ann Werz
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive and mood effects of levetiracetam (LEV) in older adults are not known. This study compared the cognitive and mood effects of LEV to placebo in healthy older adults. METHODS: Cognitive, mood, and balance variables were compared between LEV and placebo using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with two 5-week treatment periods. Healthy volunteers (n = 20) aged 65-80 (mean age 72.4) received either LEV or placebo in which the LEV target dose was 1,000 mg/day...
July 21, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730225/purkinje-cells-pathology-in-schizophrenia-a-morphometric-approach
#19
Ioannis Asterios Mavroudis, Foivos Petrides, Marina Manani, Fotios Chatzinikolaou, Alin Stelian Ciobică, Manuela Pădurariu, Dimitrios Kazis, Samuel Ndugu Njau, Vasiliki George Costa, Stavros John Baloyannis
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects more than 21 million people worldwide. Ventricle enlargement and reduction in the volume of the temporal lobe overall and in medial temporal structures constitutes the main macroscopic findings, whilst synaptic and spinal changes as well as gliosis in the hippocampal formation, the prefrontal and the entorhinal cortex stand among cardinal microscopic findings in the schizophrenic brains. In recent years, accumulated evidence comes to light about the role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729901/aptamer-functionalized-neural-recording-electrodes-for-the-direct-measurement-of-cocaine-in-vivo
#20
I Mitch Taylor, Zhanhong Du, Emma T Bigelow, James R Eles, Anthony R Horner, Kasey A Catt, Stephen G Weber, Brian G Jamieson, X Tracy Cui
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that acts through competitive inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In order to fully understand the region specific neuropathology of cocaine abuse and addiction, it is unequivocally necessary to develop cocaine sensing technology capable of directly measuring real-time cocaine transient events local to different brain regions throughout the pharmacokinetic time course of exposure. We have developed an electrochemical aptamer-based in vivo cocaine sensor on a silicon based neural recording probe platform capable of directly measuring cocaine from discrete brain locations using square wave voltammetry (SWV)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
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