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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910487/combined-neutron-and-x-ray-imaging-at-the-national-ignition-facility-invited
#1
C R Danly, K Christensen, V E Fatherley, D N Fittinghoff, G P Grim, R Hibbard, N Izumi, D Jedlovec, F E Merrill, D W Schmidt, R A Simpson, K Skulina, P L Volegov, C H Wilde
X-ray and neutrons are commonly used to image inertial confinement fusion implosions, providing key diagnostic information on the fuel assembly of burning deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. The x-ray and neutron data provided are complementary as the production of neutrons and x-rays occurs from different physical processes, but typically these two images are collected from different views with no opportunity for co-registration of the two images. Neutrons are produced where the DT fusion fuel is burning; X-rays are produced in regions corresponding to high temperatures...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910456/two-color-spatial-and-temporal-temperature-measurements-using-a-streaked-soft-x-ray-imager
#2
A S Moore, J Benstead, M F Ahmed, J Morton, T M Guymer, R Soufli, T Pardini, R L Hibbard, C G Bailey, P M Bell, S Hau-Riege, M Bedzyk, M J Shoup, S P Regan, T Agliata, R Jungquist, D W Schmidt, L B Kot, W J Garbett, M S Rubery, J W Skidmore, E Gullikson, F Salmassi
A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910447/design-of-the-polar-neutron-imaging-aperture-for-use-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#3
V E Fatherley, D A Barker, D N Fittinghoff, R L Hibbard, J I Martinez, F E Merrill, J A Oertel, D W Schmidt, P L Volegov, C H Wilde
The installation of a neutron imaging diagnostic with a polar view at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) required design of a new aperture, an extended pinhole array (PHA). This PHA is different from the pinhole array for the existing equatorial system due to significant changes in the alignment and recording systems. The complex set of component requirements, as well as significant space constraints in its intended location, makes the design of this aperture challenging. In addition, lessons learned from development of prior apertures mandate careful aperture metrology prior to first use...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824895/binocular-depth-judgments-on-smoothly-curved-surfaces
#4
Rebecca L Hornsey, Paul B Hibbard, Peter Scarfe
Binocular disparity is an important cue to depth, allowing us to make very fine discriminations of the relative depth of objects. In complex scenes, this sensitivity depends on the particular shape and layout of the objects viewed. For example, judgments of the relative depths of points on a smoothly curved surface are less accurate than those for points in empty space. It has been argued that this occurs because depth relationships are represented accurately only within a local spatial area. A consequence of this is that, when judging the relative depths of points separated by depth maxima and minima, information must be integrated across separate local representations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741201/outcomes-with-cerclage-alone-compared-with-cerclage-plus-17%C3%AE-hydroxyprogesterone-caproate
#5
Bethany Stetson, Judith U Hibbard, Isabelle Wilkins, Heidi Leftwich
OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences in perinatal outcomes among women with a prior preterm birth who received cerclage compared with cerclage plus 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. METHODS: Women with transvaginal cerclage placement and a prior delivery between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation were identified over a 10-year period (July 2002 to May 2012) in this retrospective cohort study. Exclusion criteria were delivery at another institution, abdominal cerclage, multiple gestations, and major fetal anomalies...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594306/how-much-do-clinicians-support-patient-self-management-the-development-of-a-measure-to-assess-clinician-self-management-support
#6
Jessica Greene, Rebecca M Sacks, Judith H Hibbard, Valerie Overton
BACKGROUND: Primary care provider (PCP) support of patient self-management may be important mechanism to improving patient health outcomes. In this paper we develop a PCP-reported measure of clinician strategies for supporting patient self-management, and we psychometrically test and validate the measure. METHODS: We developed survey items based upon effective self-management support strategies identified in a prior mixed methods study. We fielded a survey in the fall of 2014 with 139 Fairview Health Services PCPs, and conducted exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's Alpha to test for scale reliability...
September 2, 2016: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562960/principles-and-practices-fostering-inclusive-excellence-lessons-from-the-howard-hughes-medical-institute-s-capstone-institutions
#7
Patricia Marten DiBartolo, Leslie Gregg-Jolly, Deborah Gross, Cathryn A Manduca, Ellen Iverson, David B Cooke, Gregory K Davis, Cameron Davidson, Paul E Hertz, Lisa Hibbard, Shubha K Ireland, Catherine Mader, Aditi Pai, Shirley Raps, Kathleen Siwicki, Jim E Swartz
Best-practices pedagogy in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aims for inclusive excellence that fosters student persistence. This paper describes principles of inclusivity across 11 primarily undergraduate institutions designated as Capstone Awardees in Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) 2012 competition. The Capstones represent a range of institutional missions, student profiles, and geographical locations. Each successfully directed activities toward persistence of STEM students, especially those from traditionally underrepresented groups, through a set of common elements: mentoring programs to build community; research experiences to strengthen scientific skill/identity; attention to quantitative skills; and outreach/bridge programs to broaden the student pool...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546032/improving-population-health-management-strategies-identifying-patients-who-are-more-likely-to-be-users-of-avoidable-costly-care-and-those-more-likely-to-develop-a-new-chronic-disease
#8
Judith H Hibbard, Jessica Greene, Rebecca M Sacks, Valerie Overton, Carmen Parrotta
OBJECTIVE: To explore using the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for identifying patients more likely to have ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) utilization and future increases in chronic disease. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data are extracted from the electronic health record of a large accountable care organization. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort design. The key predictor variable, PAM score, is measured in 2011, and is used to predict outcomes in 2012-2014...
August 22, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524488/empowering-reentrant-projections-from-v5-to-v1-boosts-sensitivity-to-motion
#9
Vincenzo Romei, Emilio Chiappini, Paul B Hibbard, Alessio Avenanti
Evidence from macaques [1] and humans [2, 3] has shown that back projections from extrastriate areas to the primary visual area (V1) determine whether visual awareness will arise. For example, reentrant projections from the visual motion area (V5) to V1 are considered to be critical for awareness of motion [2, 3]. If these projections are also instrumental to functional processing of moving stimuli [4-8], then increasing synaptic efficacy in V5-V1 connections should induce functionally relevant short-term plastic changes, resulting in enhanced perception of visual motion...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432014/patient-activation-and-the-use-of-information-to-support-informed-health-decisions
#10
Judith H Hibbard
OBJECTIVES: Patients and consumers make many choices that affect their health and their health care. Some of these decisions are informed by evidence, but many are not. A growing body of research indicates that those who are more activated or engaged in their health are more likely to seek out and use information to inform their health decisions. In this paper we review the evidence about patient activation and information seeking, health behaviors, and health outcomes. We also review what is known about how to increase patient activation, and how best to support patients who are at different levels of activation to use information to support their choices...
July 4, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422339/reliability-and-validity-of-the-patient-activation-measure-in-hospitalized-patients
#11
Jennifer E Prey, Min Qian, Susan Restaino, Judith Hibbard, Suzanne Bakken, Rebecca Schnall, Gloria Rothenberg, David K Vawdrey, Ruth Masterson Creber
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this paper are to describe the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the PAM-13 for hospitalized cardiology and oncology patients and to examine the predictors of low patient activation in the same population. METHODS: We evaluated the internal consistency reliability of the PAM-13 in the inpatient setting. Construct validity of the PAM-13 was then assessed using two approaches: expected known-groups differences between patients with planned and unplanned admissions PAM-13 levels and convergence of PAM-13 levels with other measures...
December 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406166/dynamic-precision-phenotyping-reveals-mechanism-of-crop-tolerance-to-root-herbivory
#12
Wenchao Qu, Christelle A M Robert, Matthias Erb, Bruce E Hibbard, Maxim Paven, Tassilo Gleede, Barbara Riehl, Lena Kersting, Aylin S Cankaya, Anna T Kunert, Youwen Xu, Michael J Schueller, Colleen Shea, David Alexoff, SoJeong Lee, Joanna S Fowler, Richard A Ferrieri
The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major pest of maize that is well adapted to most crop management strategies. Breeding for tolerance is a promising alternative to combat WCR, but is currently constrained by a lack of physiological understanding and phenotyping tools. We developed dynamic precision phenotyping approaches using carbon-11 with positron emission tomography, root autoradiography and radiometabolite flux analysis to understand maize tolerance to WCR. Our results reveal that WCR attack induces specific patterns of lateral root growth which are associated with a shift in auxin biosynthesis from indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetonitrile...
July 12, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250473/a-new-streaked-soft-x-ray-imager-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#13
J Benstead, A S Moore, M F Ahmed, J Morton, T M Guymer, R Soufli, T Pardini, R L Hibbard, C G Bailey, P M Bell, S Hau-Riege, M Bedzyk, M J Shoup, S Reagan, T Agliata, R Jungquist, D W Schmidt, L B Kot, W J Garbett, M S Rubery, J W Skidmore, E Gullikson, F Salmassi
A new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF's x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300-510 eV and 200-400 eV, respectively...
May 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217050/measuring-patient-activation-the-utility-of-the-patient-activation-measure-within-a-uk-context-results-from-four-exemplar-studies-and-potential-future-applications
#14
N J Roberts, L Kidd, N Dougall, I S Patel, S McNarry, C Nixon
OBJECTIVE: Patient activation can be measured using the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) developed by Hibbard et al., however, little is known about the uses of the PAM in research and in practice. This study aims to explore its differing utility in four UK exemplar sites. METHODS: Data from four exemplars in a range of health settings with people living with long-term conditions (i.e. stroke or COPD) were evaluated. PAM scores were described and explored in relation to clinical and sociodemographic variables and outcome measures...
October 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190042/western-corn-rootworm-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-movement-in-ecry3-1ab-mcry3a-seed-blend-scenarios
#15
Sarah N Zukoff, Anthony L Zukoff, Ryan W Geisert, Bruce E Hibbard
Corn fields planted with plant-incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins must have a portion of the field planted with non-Bt, isoline, plants that serve as a refuge for susceptible insects. In the Corn Belt, refuge seeds are now blended in the bag with Bt seeds for corn hybrids containing two or more toxins targeted toward the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Syngenta's corn hybrid, Agrisure Duracade, containing the eCry3.1Ab (event 5307) and mCry3a (event MIR604) rootworm-targeted toxins were registered as a seed blend in 2014...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151470/evaluation-of-potential-fitness-costs-associated-with-ecry3-1ab-resistance-in-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#16
Ryan W Geisert, Bruce E Hibbard
Both an eCry3.1Ab-selected and paired control western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, colony were tested for adult longevity, egg oviposition, egg viability, and larval development in order to evaluate the potential fitness costs associated with eCry3.1Ab resistance. Adult longevity experiments were conducted by pairing virgin males and females together in plastic boxes supplied with food, water, and ovipositional medium and observed for survival time. Eggs were also collected from the ovipositional medium once a week to determine average egg oviposition and egg viability...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122493/methyl-anthranilate-as-a-repellent-for-western-corn-rootworm-larvae-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#17
E J Bernklau, B E Hibbard, A P Norton, L B Bjostad
Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize (Zea mays L.) roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of roots from germinating maize seeds. Separation of the extract on a Florisil column yielded an active fraction of 90:10 hexane:diethyl ether. Analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified two compounds in the active fraction: indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) and methyl anthranilate (methyl 2-aminobenzoate)...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106225/multiple-assays-indicate-varying-levels-of-cross-resistance-in-cry3bb1-selected-field-populations-of-the-western-corn-rootworm-to-mcry3a-ecry3-1ab-and-cry34-35ab1
#18
Sarah N Zukoff, Kenneth R Ostlie, Bruce Potter, Lisa N Meihls, Anthony L Zukoff, Lee French, Mark R Ellersieck, B Wade French, Bruce E Hibbard
Minnesota populations of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, the western corn rootworm, surviving Cry3Bb1-expressing corn in the field and western corn rootworm populations assumed to be susceptible to all Bt proteins were evaluated for susceptibility to Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1 in diet assays and three different plant-based assays. Rootworm populations originating from Cry3Bb1 fields and that consistently experienced greater than expected damage had increased survival and larval growth compared to control populations assayed on Cry3Bb1 as well as mCry3a and eCry3...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044968/summarized-costs-placement-of-quality-stars-and-other-online-displays-can-help-consumers-select-high-value-health-plans
#19
Jessica Greene, Judith H Hibbard, Rebecca M Sacks
Starting in 2017, all state and federal health insurance exchanges will present quality data on health plans in addition to cost information. We analyzed variations in the current design of information on state exchanges to identify presentation approaches that encourage consumers to take quality as well as cost into account when selecting a health plan. Using an online sample of 1,025 adults, we randomly assigned participants to view the same comparative information on health plans, displayed in different ways...
April 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982184/ideal-binocular-disparity-detectors-learned-using-independent-subspace-analysis-on-binocular-natural-image-pairs
#20
David W Hunter, Paul B Hibbard
An influential theory of mammalian vision, known as the efficient coding hypothesis, holds that early stages in the visual cortex attempts to form an efficient coding of ecologically valid stimuli. Although numerous authors have successfully modelled some aspects of early vision mathematically, closer inspection has found substantial discrepancies between the predictions of some of these models and observations of neurons in the visual cortex. In particular analysis of linear-non-linear models of simple-cells using Independent Component Analysis has found a strong bias towards features on the horoptor...
2016: PloS One
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