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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#1
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889491/pramipexole-enhances-disadvantageous-decision-making-lack-of-relation-to-changes-in-phasic-dopamine-release
#2
Romina Pes, Sean C Godar, Andrew T Fox, Lauren M Burgeno, Hunter J Strathman, David P Jarmolowicz, Paola Devoto, Beth Levant, Paul E M Phillips, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato
Pramipexole (PPX) is a high-affinity D2-like dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that PPX increases the risk of problem gambling and impulse-control disorders in vulnerable patients. Although the molecular bases of these complications remain unclear, several authors have theorized that PPX may increase risk propensity by activating presynaptic dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic system, resulting in the reduction of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658788/linking-cognitive-abilities-with-the-propensity-for-risk-taking-the-balloon-analogue-risk-task
#3
Fioravante Capone, Gianluca Capone, Giovanni Di Pino, Lucia Florio, Gianluca Oricchio, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
There is great interest about the individual differences that influence the ability of dealing with risky decisions. In this light, an intriguing question is whether decision-making during risk is related to other cognitive abilities, especially executive functions. To investigate, in healthy subjects, the existence of a possible correlation between risk-taking and cognitive abilities, the balloon analogue risk task (BART) has been exploited to assess risk-taking propensity and the random number generation (RNG), to investigate cognitive functions...
December 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393870/context-dependency-in-valuation
#4
Agnieszka Tymula, Hilke Plassmann
In the last few years, work in the nascent field of neuroeconomics has advanced understanding of the brain systems involved in value-based decision making. An important modulator of valuation processes is the specific context a decision maker is facing during choice. Recently, neuroeconomics has made great progress in understanding, on both the brain and behavioral level, how context-dependent perception affects valuation and choice. Here we describe how context-sensitive value coding accounts for choice set effects, differential perceptions of gains and losses, and expectancy effects of external (economic) signals...
July 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385918/-c-r-e-a-t-e-ing-unique-primary-source-research-paper-assignments-for-a-pleasure-and-pain-course-teaching-neuroscientific-principles-in-a-large-general-education-undergraduate-course
#5
Richard J Bodnar, Francis M Rotella, Ilyssa Loiacono, Tricia Coke, Kerstin Olsson, Alicia Barrientos, Lauren Blachorsky, Deena Warshaw, Agata Buras, Ciara M Sanchez, Raihana Azad, James R Stellar
A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles...
2016: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355759/is-listening-in-noise-worth-it-the-neurobiology-of-speech-recognition-in-challenging-listening-conditions
#6
Mark A Eckert, Susan Teubner-Rhodes, Kenneth I Vaden
This review examines findings from functional neuroimaging studies of speech recognition in noise to provide a neural systems level explanation for the effort and fatigue that can be experienced during speech recognition in challenging listening conditions. Neuroimaging studies of speech recognition consistently demonstrate that challenging listening conditions engage neural systems that are used to monitor and optimize performance across a wide range of tasks. These systems appear to improve speech recognition in younger and older adults, but sustained engagement of these systems also appears to produce an experience of effort and fatigue that may affect the value of communication...
July 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156983/the-mere-green-effect-an-fmri-study-of-pro-environmental-advertisements
#7
I Stephanie Vezich, Benjamin C Gunter, Matthew D Lieberman
Self-report evidence suggests that consumers prefer green products (i.e. pro-environmental) to standard products, but this is not reflected in purchase behaviors. To understand this disconnect, we exposed participants in an MRI scanner to green and standard ads. After viewing each ad, participants rated liking and perceived sustainability. Ratings were more favorable for green ads than for control ads, but the fMRI data suggested an opposite pattern-participants showed greater activation in regions associated with personal value and reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) in response to control ads relative to green ads...
May 9, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146451/decision-making-under-uncertainty-therapeutic-inertia-and-physicians-risk-preferences-in-the-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-discutir-ms
#8
Gustavo Saposnik, Angel Perez Sempere, Roula Raptis, Daniel Prefasi, Daniel Selchen, Jorge Maurino
BACKGROUND: The management of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing by the introduction of new and more effective disease-modifying agents. The importance of risk stratification was confirmed by results on disease progression predicted by different risk score systems. Despite these advances, we know very little about medical decisions under uncertainty in the management of MS. The goal of this study is to i) identify whether overconfidence, tolerance to risk/uncertainty, herding influence medical decisions, and ii) to evaluate the frequency of therapeutic inertia (defined as lack of treatment initiation or intensification in patients not at goals of care) and its predisposing factors in the management of MS...
May 4, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000639/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-aversion-to-ambiguous-losses-in-combat-veterans
#9
Lital Ruderman, Daniel B Ehrlich, Alicia Roy, Robert H Pietrzak, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Ifat Levy
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric symptoms typically cut across traditional diagnostic categories. In order to devise individually tailored treatments, there is a need to identify the basic mechanisms that underlie these symptoms. Behavioral economics provides a framework for studying these mechanisms at the behavioral level. Here, we utilized this framework to examine a widely ignored aspect of trauma-related symptomatology-individual uncertainty attitudes-in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
July 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993151/the-behavioral-economics-and-neuroeconomics-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#10
REVIEW
James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Behavioral economics and neuroeconomics bring together perspectives and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand decision making and choice behavior. Extending an operant behavioral theoretical framework, these perspectives have increasingly been applied to understand the alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and this review surveys the theory, methods, and findings from this approach. The focus is on 3 key behavioral economic concepts: delay discounting (i...
April 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843636/goal-directed-decision-making-with-spiking-neurons
#11
Johannes Friedrich, Máté Lengyel
UNLABELLED: Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26763141/neural-correlates-of-social-exchanges-during-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-in-depression
#12
V B Gradin, A Pérez, J A Macfarlane, I Cavin, G Waiter, E B Tone, B Dritschel, A Maiche, J D Steele
BACKGROUND: Depression is a disabling disorder that significantly impacts on the interpersonal functioning of individuals. However, little is known about the neural substrates of such difficulties. In the last few years neuroeconomics, which combines imaging with multiplayer behavioural economic paradigms, has been used to study the neural substrates of normal and abnormal interpersonal interactions. METHOD: This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activity in unmedicated depressed participants (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25)...
April 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740488/impaired-valuation-leads-to-increased-apathy-following-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-damage
#13
Jeremy Hogeveen, Katherina K Hauner, Aileen Chau, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
Apathy is defined by reduced goal-directed behavior, and is common in patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Separately, in neuroeconomics research, the vmPFC has been shown to play a role in reward processing-namely, in "stimulus valuation," or the computation of the subjective reward value of a stimulus. Here, we used a sample of patients with focal brain lesions (N = 93) and matched healthy controls (N = 21) to determine whether the association between vmPFC damage and increased apathy is driven by impaired valuation...
January 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665151/the-neuroscience-of-adolescent-decision-making
#14
Catherine A Hartley, Leah H Somerville
Adolescence is a phase of lifespan associated with greater independence, and thus greater demands to make self-guided decisions in the face of risks, uncertainty, and varying proximal and distal outcomes. A new wave of developmental research takes a neuroeconomic approach to specify what decision processes are changing during adolescence, along what trajectory they are changing, and what neurodevelopmental processes support these changes. Evidence is mounting to suggest that multiple decision processes are tuned differently in adolescents and adults including reward reactivity, uncertainty-tolerance, delay discounting, and experiential assessments of value and risk...
October 1, 2015: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613099/dialogue-on-economic-choice-learning-theory-and-neuronal-representations
#15
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
In recent years, two distinct lines of work have focused on the substrates of associative learning and on the mechanisms of economic decisions. While experiments often focused the same brain regions - most notably the orbitofrontal cortex - the two literatures have remained largely distinct. Here we engage in a dialogue with the intent to clarify the relationship between the two frameworks. We identify a potential correspondence between the concept of outcome defined in learning theory and that of good defined in neuroeconomics, and we specifically discuss the concept of value defined in the two frameworks...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557139/a-neuroeconomics-analysis-of-investment-process-with-money-flow-information-the-error-related-negativity
#16
Cuicui Wang, João Paulo Vieito, Qingguo Ma
This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing "to buy" or "not to buy," participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components...
2015: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526089/treatment-cost-audits-in-medical-institutes-neuroeconomics-of-affordable-healthcare
#17
Vinod Srivastava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503957/fair-play-social-norm-compliance-failures-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
Claire O'Callaghan, Maxime Bertoux, Muireann Irish, James M Shine, Stephanie Wong, Leonidas Spiliopoulos, John R Hodges, Michael Hornberger
Adherence to social norms is compromised in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies have investigated social norm compliance in healthy individuals, leading to the identification of a network of fronto-subcortical regions that underpins this ability. However, there is a lack of corroborative evidence from human lesion models investigating the structural anatomy of norm compliance across this fronto-subcortical network. To address this, we developed a neuroeconomic task to investigate social norm compliance in a neurodegenerative lesion model: behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, a condition characterized by gross social dysfunction...
January 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26305628/trading-later-rewards-for-current-pleasure-pornography-consumption-and-delay-discounting
#19
Sesen Negash, Nicole Van Ness Sheppard, Nathaniel M Lambert, Frank D Fincham
Internet pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has grown increasingly accessible. Delay discounting involves devaluing larger, later rewards in favor of smaller, more immediate rewards. The constant novelty and primacy of sexual stimuli as particularly strong natural rewards make Internet pornography a unique activator of the brain's reward system, thereby having implications for decision-making processes. Based on theoretical studies of evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics, two studies tested the hypothesis that consuming Internet pornography would relate to higher rates of delay discounting...
July 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26086790/representations-of-value-in-the-brain-an-embarrassment-of-riches
#20
Jeffrey J Stott, A David Redish
Over the past two decades, neuroscientists have increasingly turned their attention to the question of how the brain implements decisions between differently valued options. This emerging field, called neuroeconomics, has made quick progress in identifying a plethora of brain areas that track or are modulated by reward value. However, it is still unclear how and where in the brain value coding takes place. A primate study by Strait and colleagues in this issue of PLOS Biology finds overlapping signals of value coding in two brain regions central to the valuation process: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum...
June 2015: PLoS Biology
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