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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725288/no-change-in-social-decision-making-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-right-temporoparietal-junction
#1
Laura F Blair-West, Kate E Hoy, Phillip J Hall, Paul B Fitzgerald, Bernadette M Fitzgibbon
The right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is thought to play an important role in social cognition and pro-social decision-making. One way to explore this link is through the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method that is able to modulate cortical activity. The aim of this research was therefore to determine whether anodal tDCS to the rTPJ altered response to a social decision-making task. In this study, 34 healthy volunteers participated in a single-center, double-blinded, sham-controlled crossover design...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696595/delay-discounting-mediates-the-association-between-posterior-insular-cortex-volume-and-social-media-addiction-symptoms
#2
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Addiction-like symptoms in relation to excessive and compulsive social media use are common in the general population. Because they can lead to various adverse effects, there is a growing need to understand the brain systems and processes that are involved in potential social media addiction. We focus on the morphology of the posterior subdivision of the insular cortex (i.e., the insula), because it has been shown to be instrumental to supporting the maintenance of substance addictions and problematic behaviors...
April 25, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487508/to-do-or-not-to-do-dopamine-affordability-and-the-economics-of-opportunity
#3
Jeff A Beeler, Devry Mourra
Five years ago, we introduced the thrift hypothesis of dopamine (DA), suggesting that the primary role of DA in adaptive behavior is regulating behavioral energy expenditure to match the prevailing economic conditions of the environment. Here we elaborate that hypothesis with several new ideas. First, we introduce the concept of affordability, suggesting that costs must necessarily be evaluated with respect to the availability of resources to the organism, which computes a value not only for the potential reward opportunity, but also the value of resources expended...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486321/oxytocin-attenuates-trust-as-a-subset-of-more-general-reinforcement-learning-with-altered-reward-circuit-functional-connectivity-in-males
#4
Jaime S Ide, Sanja Nedic, Kin F Wong, Shmuel L Strey, Elizabeth A Lawson, Bradford C Dickerson, Lawrence L Wald, Giancarlo La Camera, Lilianne R Mujica-Parodi
Oxytocin (OT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that, while originally thought to promote trust, has more recently been found to be context-dependent. Here we extend experimental paradigms previously restricted to de novo decision-to-trust, to a more realistic environment in which social relationships evolve in response to iterative feedback over twenty interactions. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject/crossover experiment of human adult males, we investigated the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT (40 IU) on Bayesian expectation updating and reinforcement learning within a social context, with associated brain circuit dynamics...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260439/eye-movement-research-in-the-twenty-first-century-a-window-to-the-brain-mind-and-more
#5
EDITORIAL
Aasef G Shaikh, David S Zee
The study of eye movements not only addresses debilitating neuro-ophthalmological problems but has become an essential tool of basic neuroscience research. Eye movements are a classic way to evaluate brain function-traditionally in disorders affecting the brainstem and cerebellum. Abnormalities of eye movements have localizing value and help narrow the differential diagnosis of complex neurological problems. More recently, using sophisticated behavioral paradigms, measurement of eye movements has also been applied to disorders of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex...
December 19, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260359/an-effort-toward-molecular-neuroeconomics-of-food-deprivation-induced-food-hoarding-in-mice-focus-on-xanthine-oxidoreductase-gene-expression-and-xanthine-oxidase-activity
#6
Isaac Karimi, Shima Motamedi, Lora A Becker
The crucial role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) gene and its active isoform, xanthine oxidase (XO), in purine metabolism and cellular oxidative status led us to investigative their fluctuations in food deprivation induced food hoarding in mice. After, 10 h food deprivation, mice that hoarded lesser than 5 g were considered as 'low-hoarders' while mice that hoarded higher than 20 g were considered as 'high-hoarders'. Mice who hoarded between 5 to 20 g of food were excluded from study. An increase (1.133-fold) in encephalic XOR expression has been found in high-hoarders compared with low-hoarders without sex consideration...
February 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221833/giving-others-the-option-of-choice-an-fmri-study-on-low-cost-cooperation
#7
Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, David M Amodio, Niels J Van Doesum, Dick J Veltman, Paul A M Van Lange
Successful social relationships require a consideration of a partner's thoughts and intentions. This aspect of social life is captured in the social mindfulness paradigm (SoMi task), in which participants make decisions that either limit or preserve options for their interaction partner's subsequent choice. Here we investigated the neural correlates of spontaneous socially mindful and unmindful behaviours. Functional magnetic resonance data were acquired from 47 healthy adolescents and young adults (age 16-27) as they completed the SoMi task...
January 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188399/the-alcoholic-brain-neural-bases-of-impaired-reward-based-decision-making-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#8
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Stefano Cappa, Nicola Canessa
Neuroeconomics is providing insights into the neural bases of decision-making in normal and pathological conditions. In the neuropsychiatric domain, this discipline investigates how abnormal functioning of neural systems associated with reward processing and cognitive control promotes different disorders, and whether such evidence may inform treatments. This endeavor is crucial when studying different types of addiction, which share a core promoting mechanism in the imbalance between impulsive subcortical neural signals associated with immediate pleasurable outcomes and inhibitory signals mediated by a prefrontal reflective system...
March 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185870/retaliation-or-selfishness-an-rtms-investigation-of-the-role-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-prosocial-motives
#9
Jan-Martin Müller-Leinß, Björn Enzi, Vera Flasbeck, Martin Brüne
Equity, fairness and cooperative behavior are crucial for everyday social interactions. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the evaluation of violations of fairness rules, though difficulties remain to determine its role in implementing retaliating or forgiving responses to unfairness. Accordingly, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left and right DLPFC and investigated the impact of the DLPFC on retaliation and selfishness using a sequential neuroeconomic task establishing a role reversal...
December 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161252/choose-rate-or-squeeze-comparison-of-economic-value-functions-elicited-by-different-behavioral-tasks
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alizée Lopez-Persem, Lionel Rigoux, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Jean Daunizeau, Mathias Pessiglione
A standard view in neuroeconomics is that to make a choice, an agent first assigns subjective values to available options, and then compares them to select the best. In choice tasks, these cardinal values are typically inferred from the preference expressed by subjects between options presented in pairs. Alternatively, cardinal values can be directly elicited by asking subjects to place a cursor on an analog scale (rating task) or to exert a force on a power grip (effort task). These tasks can vary in many respects: they can notably be more or less costly and consequential...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154127/lateral-orbitofrontal-inactivation-dissociates-devaluation-sensitive-behavior-and-economic-choice
#11
Matthew P H Gardner, Jessica S Conroy, Michael H Shaham, Clay V Styer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
How do we choose between goods that have different subjective values, like apples and oranges? Neuroeconomics proposes that this is done by reducing complex goods to a single unitary value to allow comparison. This value is computed "on the fly" from the underlying model of the goods space, allowing decisions to meet current needs. This is termed "model-based" behavior to distinguish it from pre-determined, habitual, or "model-free" behavior. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) supports model-based behavior in rats and primates, but whether the OFC is necessary for economic choice is less clear...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144973/orbitofrontal-cortex-a-neural-circuit-for-economic-decisions
#12
REVIEW
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Katherine E Conen
Economic choice behavior entails the computation and comparison of subjective values. A central contribution of neuroeconomics has been to show that subjective values are represented explicitly at the neuronal level. With this result at hand, the field has increasingly focused on the difficult question of where in the brain and how exactly subjective values are compared to make a decision. Here, we review a broad range of experimental and theoretical results suggesting that good-based decisions are generated in a neural circuit within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066963/can-neuroscience-assist-us-in-constructing-better-patterns-of-economic-decision-making
#13
REVIEW
George Lăzăroiu, Aurel Pera, Ramona O Ștefănescu-Mihăilă, Nela Mircică, Octav Negurită
We draw on outstanding research (Sanfey et al., 2006; McCabe, 2008; Bernheim, 2009; Camerer, 2013; Radu and McClure, 2013; Declerck and Boone, 2016) to substantiate that neuroeconomics covers the investigation of the biological microfoundations of economic cognition and economic conduct, attempts to prove that a superior grasp of how choices are made brings about superior expectations regarding which options are selected, preserves the strictness of economic analysis in defining value-based decision, and associates imaging techniques with economic pattern to explain how individuals decide on a strategy taking into account various possible choices...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046882/biased-numerical-cognition-impairs-economic-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Qadeer Arshad, Angela Bonsu, Rhannon Lobo, Anne-Sophie Fluri, Rahuman Sheriff, Peter Bain, Nicola Pavese, Adolfo M Bronstein
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings suggest a context-dependent bihemispheric allocation of numerical magnitude. Accordingly, we predicted that lateralized motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which reflect hemispheric asymmetries, would induce systematic lateralized biases in numerical cognition and have a subsequent influence on decision-making. METHODS: In 20 PD patients and matched healthy controls we assessed numerical cognition using a number-pair bisection and random number generation task...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988827/self-as-object-emerging-trends-in-self-research
#15
REVIEW
Jie Sui, Xiaosi Gu
Self representation is fundamental to mental functions. While the self has mostly been studied in traditional psychophilosophical terms ('self as subject'), recent laboratory work suggests that the self can be measured quantitatively by assessing biases towards self-associated stimuli ('self as object'). Here, we summarize new quantitative paradigms for assessing the self, drawn from psychology, neuroeconomics, embodied cognition, and social neuroscience. We then propose a neural model of the self as an emerging property of interactions between a core 'self network' (e...
November 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601595/can-quantum-approaches-benefit-biology-of-decision-making
#16
REVIEW
Taiki Takahashi
Human decision making has recently been focused in the emerging fields of quantum decision theory and neuroeconomics. The former discipline utilizes mathematical formulations developed in quantum theory, while the latter combines behavioral economics and neurobiology. In this paper, the author speculates on possible future directions unifying the two approaches, by contrasting the roles of quantum theory in the birth of molecular biology of the gene.
November 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415138/the-roles-of-valuation-and-reward-processing-in-cognitive-function-and-psychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Sébastien Hélie, Farzin Shamloo, Keisha Novak, Dan Foti
In neuroeconomics, valuation refers to the process of assigning values to states and actions on the basis of the animal's current representation of the environment, while reward processing corresponds to processing the feedback received from the environment to update the values of states and actions. In this article, we review the brain circuits associated with valuation and reward processing and argue that these are fundamental processes critical to many cognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on the role of valuation and reward processing in attention, memory, decision making, and learning...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301764/reward-processing-neuroeconomics-and-psychopathology
#18
REVIEW
David H Zald, Michael T Treadway
Abnormal reward processing is a prominent transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. The present review provides a framework for considering the different aspects of reward processing and their assessment, and highlights recent insights from the field of neuroeconomics that may aid in understanding these processes. Although altered reward processing in psychopathology has often been treated as a general hypo- or hyperresponsivity to reward, increasing data indicate that a comprehensive understanding of reward dysfunction requires characterization within more specific reward-processing domains, including subjective valuation, discounting, hedonics, reward anticipation and facilitation, and reinforcement learning...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157228/the-neuroeconomics-of-tobacco-demand-an-initial-investigation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-cigarette-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-male-smokers
#19
Joshua C Gray, Michael T Amlung, Max Owens, John Acker, Courtney L Brown, Gene H Brody, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
How the brain processes cigarette cost-benefit decision making remains largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the neural correlates of decisions for cigarettes (0-10 cigarettes) at varying levels of price during a Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) in male regular smokers (N = 35). Differential neural activity was examined between choices classified as inelastic, elastic, and suppressed demand, operationalized as consumption unaffected by cost, partially suppressed by cost, and entirely suppressed by cost, respectively...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018836/novel-therapeutics-for-addiction-behavioral-and-neuroeconomic-approaches
#20
Warren K Bickel, Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Lara Moody, Jeffrey S Stein, Amanda J Quisenberry
The maturing fields of behavioral- and neuro-economics provides conceptual understanding of the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems theory (CNDS) and reinforcer pathology (i.e. high valuation of and excessive preference for drug reinforcers) allowing us to coherently categorize treatments into a theoretically comprehensive framework of addiction. In this chapter, we identify and clarify how existing and novel interventions can ameliorate reinforcer pathology in light of the CNDS and be leveraged to treat addiction...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
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