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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438015/genome-characteristics-of-lactobacillus-fermentum-strain-jdfm216-for-application-as-probiotic-bacteria
#1
Sung Yong Jang, Jaeyoung Heo, Mi Ri Park, Min-Ho Song, Jong Nam Kim, Sung Ho Jo, Do-Youn Jeong, Hak Kyo Lee, Younghoon Kim, Sangnam Oh
Lactobacillus fermentum strain JDFM216, isolated from a Korean infant feces, possesses an enhancement of longevity and immune response on Caenorhabditis elegans host. To explore the molecular characteristics of strain JDFM216, we performed a whole-genome sequencing using PacBio system. The single circular DNA chromosome of 2,076,427 bp was completely assembled and 2,623 encoding sequences were predicted. Phylogenetically featured five genes possibly related to longevity and immune response of host were identified in L...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437766/cyanobacterial-lectins-characteristics-and-their-role-as-antiviral-agents
#2
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Amandeep Kaur Walia, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Davinder Pal Singh, John F Kennedy
Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437737/changes-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-undergoing-surgery-preliminary-results
#3
Meng Wu, Xian Chen, Jianfang Lou, Shuping Zhang, Xiaojie Zhang, Lei Huang, Ruihong Sun, Peijun Huang, Shiyang Pan, Fang Wang
Regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress immune responses in patients with cancer. Surgery is the most effective therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer (OC). However, the interplay between the Treg population and surgical resection remains unclear. 61 patients with OC who received no prior treatment were enrolled in the study. Treg percentages were characterized from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We investigated CD4(+)CD25(+), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+), CD8(+)CD28(-), and CD8(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in OC patients and their postoperative changes using flow cytometry...
April 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437722/effective-active-vaccination-against-methamphetamine-in-female-rats
#4
J D Nguyen, P T Bremer, C S Hwang, S A Vandewater, K C Collins, K M Creehan, K D Janda, M A Taffe
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies directed against methamphetamine (MA) abuse have shown success in rodent models, however only a limited number of studies have investigated active vaccination in female mice and none in female rats. It is critical to determine if potential immunotherapeutic strategies generalize across sex, particularly for drugs that may produce significant sex-differences on behavioral or physiological endpoints. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were initially vaccinated with keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or an anti-methamphetamine-KLH conjugate (MH6-KLH) three times over five weeks and implanted with radiotelemetry devices to assess locomotor activity and body temperature responses to MA...
April 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#5
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437636/chimeric-flock-house-virus-protein-a-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-targeting-domain-enhances-viral-replication-and-virus-like-particle-trans-encapsidation-in-plants
#6
Yiyang Zhou, Christopher M Kearney
Flock House virus (FHV) RNA can be trans-encapsidated, entirely in planta, by tobacco mosaic virus coat protein to form virus-like particles (VLPs). Vaccination with these VLPs leads to strong antigen expression in mice and immune-activation. We hypothesize that creating an additional cellular site for replication and/or trans-encapsidation might significantly improve the final output of trans-encapsidated product. FHV protein A was engineered to target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a heterologous tobacco etch virus ER-targeting domain, and was expressed in cis or in trans relative to the replicating FHV RNA1...
April 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437624/immune-response-to-salmonella-infections-in-vaccinated-and-non-vaccinated-turkeys
#7
Martina Hesse, Andreas Stamm, Angela Berndt, Gerhard Glünder, Rita Weber
Vaccination has been widely used to reduce the Salmonella burden in poultry and subsequently the transmission to humans. Concerning turkey, there is little knowledge on the immune response to colonization and invasion by Salmonella species or about efficacy of vaccination and involved immune mechanisms. In the present study, turkeys were vaccinated at the day of hatch and infected with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) or Enteritidis (SE) field strains three weeks later. A control group was kept uninfected. After challenge infection, bacterial counts in the cecal content, liver and spleen were determined 7 and 14days post infection...
April 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437583/natural-selection-on-mhc-ii%C3%AE-in-parapatric-lake-and-stream-stickleback-balancing-divergent-both-or-neither
#8
William E Stutz, Daniel I Bolnick
Major histocompatibility (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a central role in vertebrates' adaptive immunity to parasites. MHC loci are among the most polymorphic in vertebrates' genomes, inspiring many studies to identify evolutionary processes driving MHC polymorphism within populations, and divergence between populations. Leading hypotheses include balancing selection favoring rare alleles within populations, and spatially divergent selection. These hypotheses do not always produce diagnosably distinct predictions, causing many studies of MHC to yield inconsistent or ambiguous results...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437580/differential-gene-expression-in-narrow-and-broad-headed-european-glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla-points-to-a-transcriptomic-link-of-head-shape-dimorphism-with-growth-rate-and-chemotaxis
#9
J De Meyer, G E Maes, R P Dirks, D Adriaens
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanisms underlying morphological dimorphism and plasticity, including the genomic basis of traits and links to ecology. At the yellow eel stage of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), two morphotypes are found: broad- and narrow-heads. This dimorphism has been linked to dietary differences, with broad-heads feeding on harder, larger prey than narrow-heads. However, recent research showed that both morphotypes could be distinguished at the glass eel stage, the non-feeding predecessor of the yellow eel stage, implying that non-dietary factors play a role in the development of this head shape dimorphism...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437578/klrg1-impairs-treg-competitive-fitness-in-the-gut
#10
Holger Meinicke, Anna Bremser, Maria Brack, Klaudia Schrenk, Hanspeter Pircher, Ana Izcue
Immune homeostasis requires the tight, tissue-specific control of the different CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) populations. The cadherin-binding inhibitory receptor KLRG1 is expressed by a subpopulation of Treg with GATA3(+) effector phenotype. Although such Treg are important for the immune balance, especially in the gut, the role of KLRG1 in Treg has not been assessed. Using KLRG1 KO mice, we found that KLRG1 deficiency does not affect Treg frequencies in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes or intestine, or frequencies of GATA3(+) Treg in the gut...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437568/insights-into-deep-sea-adaptations-and-host-symbiont-interactions-a-comparative-transcriptome-study-on-bathymodiolus-mussels-and-their-coastal-relatives
#11
Ping Zheng, Minxiao Wang, Chaolun Li, Xiaoqing Sun, Xiaocheng Wang, Yan Sun, Song Sun
Mussels (Bivalve: Mytilidae) have adapted to various habitats, from freshwater to the deep sea. To understand their adaptive characteristics in different habitats, particularly in the bathymodiolin mussels in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis between deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels and their shallow-water relatives. A number of gene families related to stress responses were shared across all mussels, without specific or significantly expanded families in deep-sea species, indicating that all mussels are capable of adapting to diverse harsh environments, but that different members of the same gene family may be preferentially utilized by different species...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437562/no-post-copulatory-selection-against-mhc-homozygous-offspring-evidence-from-a-pedigreed-captive-rhesus-macaque-colony
#12
E H M Sterck, R E Bontrop, N de Groot, A J M de Vos-Rouweler, G G M Doxiadis
The heterozygosity status of polymorphic elements of the immune system, such as the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC), are known to increase the potential to cope with a wider variety of pathogens. Pre- and post-copulatory processes may regulate MHC heterozygosity. In a population where mating occurs among individuals that share identical MHC-haplotypes, post-copulatory selection may disfavour homozygous offspring or ones with two MHC-haplotypes identical to its mother. We tested these ideas by determining the incidence of MHC-heterozygous and MHC-homozygous individuals in a pedigreed, partially consanguineous captive rhesus monkey colony...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437540/characterization-of-gene-expression-phenotype-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-monocytes
#13
Weihua Zhao, David R Beers, Kristopher G Hooten, Douglas H Sieglaff, Aijun Zhang, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Christopher M Traini, Wendy S Halsey, Ashley M Hughes, Ganesh M Sathe, George P Livi, Guo-Huang Fan, Stanley H Appel
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Patients with ALS have persistent peripheral and central inflammatory responses including abnormally functioning T cells and activated microglia. However, much less is known about the inflammatory gene profile of circulating innate immune monocytes in these patients. Objective: To characterize the transcriptomics of peripheral monocytes in patients with ALS...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437470/respiratory-syncytial-virus-neutralizing-serum-antibody-titers-in-infants-following-palivizumab-prophylaxis-with-an-abbreviated-dosing-regimen
#14
Jennifer Claydon, Amitava Sur, Allison Callejas, Mihoko Ladd, Eddie Kwan, Richard Taylor, Stuart E Turvey, Alfonso Solimano, Pascal M Lavoie, Nico Marr
BACKGROUND: Monthly injections of palivizumab during the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season in at-risk infants reduces RSV-associated hospitalizations. However, the additive effect of naturally acquired immunity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess total neutralizing serum antibodies (NAb) against RSV in at-risk infants who had received an abbreviated course of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from infants enrolled in the RSV Immunoprophylaxis Program in British Columbia, Canada over 2 consecutive RSV seasons (2013 to 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437435/infective-respiratory-syncytial-virus-is-present-in-human-cord-blood-samples-and-most-prevalent-during-winter-months
#15
Angela Mary Fonceca, Abha Chopra, Avram Levy, Paul Stanton Noakes, Matthew Wee-Peng Poh, Natasha Leanne Bear, Susan Prescott, Mark Lloyd Everard
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. METHODS: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437433/retraction-loss-of-a-conserved-trna-anticodon-modification-perturbs-plant-immunity
#16
Vicente Ramírez, Beatriz Gonzalez, Ana López, María José Castelló, María José Gil, Graham J Etherington, Bo Zheng, Peng Chen, Pablo Vera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437395/global-survey-of-the-immunomodulatory-potential-of-common-drugs
#17
Gregory I Vladimer, Berend Snijder, Nikolaus Krall, Johannes W Bigenzahn, Kilian V M Huber, Charles-Hugues Lardeau, Kumar Sanjiv, Anna Ringler, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Monika Sabler, Oscar Lopez de la Fuente, Paul Knöbl, Stefan Kubicek, Thomas Helleday, Ulrich Jäger, Giulio Superti-Furga
Small-molecule drugs may complement antibody-based therapies in an immune-oncology setting, yet systematic methods for the identification and characterization of the immunomodulatory properties of these entities are lacking. We surveyed the immumomodulatory potential of 1,402 small chemical molecules, as defined by their ability to alter the cell-cell interactions among peripheral mononuclear leukocytes ex vivo, using automated microscopy and population-wide single-cell image analysis. Unexpectedly, ∼10% of the agents tested affected these cell-cell interactions differentially...
April 24, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437308/effectiveness-of-shotblocker-for-immunization-pain-in-full-term-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Seda Caglar, Funda Büyükyılmaz, Gülhan Coşansu, Sabiha Çağlayan
Nonpharmacologic strategies exist to manage procedural pain in healthy newborn infants. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the efficacy of ShotBlocker for managing injection pain associated with the first intramuscular hepatitis B vaccine given to healthy full-term neonates. This randomized controlled trial study was conducted in a private university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, in which 100 healthy term neonates were randomly assigned to either a ShotBlocker (n = 50) or control group (n = 50)...
April 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#19
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#20
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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