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Canadian Military

David Boulos, Deniz Fikretoglu
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to explore differences in mental health problems (MHP) between serving Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) components (Regular Force (RegF); Reserve Force (ResF)) with an Afghanistan deployment and to assess the contribution of both component and deployment experiences to MHP using covariate-adjusted prevalence difference estimates. Additionally, mental health services use (MHSU) was descriptively assessed among those with a mental disorder. DESIGN: Data came from the 2013 CAF Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of serving personnel (n=72 629)...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Leo van Bergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
A Nazarov, D Fikretoglu, A Liu, M Thompson, M A Zamorski
BACKGROUND: A link between moral injury (i.e., the psychological distress caused by perceived moral transgressions) and adverse mental health outcomes (AMHO) has been recently proposed. However, the prevalence of exposure to morally injurious events and the associated risk of experiencing AMHO remains understudied. METHOD: The impact of exposure to potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) was explored in relation to past-year PTSD and MDD, using the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces Mental Health Survey dataset of Afghanistan mission deployed regular force and reserve personnel...
March 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga, Mark A Zamorski, Ian Colman
OBJECTIVE: We examined the overlap between mood and anxiety disorders and psychological distress and their associations with functional status in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. METHOD: Data on Regular Forces personnel ( N = 6700) were derived from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of the CAF personnel. Current psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler K10 scale. Past-month mood and anxiety disorders were assessed using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite Diagnostic Interview...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Stephanie A Nixon, Kelley Lee, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, James Blanchard, Slim Haddad, Steven J Hoffman, Peter Tugwell
Canada's history of nation building, combined with its status as a so-called middle power in international affairs, has been translated into an approach to global health that is focused on equity and global citizenship. Canada has often aspired to be a socially progressive force abroad, using alliance building and collective action to exert influence beyond that expected from a country with moderate financial and military resources. Conversely, when Canada has primarily used economic self-interest to define its global role, the country's perceived leadership in global health has diminished...
February 22, 2018: Lancet
Anne Rowan-Legg
Military families experience a number of life stressors, such as frequent geographical moves, long periods of separation within the family, geographic isolation from extended family support systems and deployments to high-risk areas of the world. While children and youth in military families experience all the same developmental and motivational trajectories as their civilian counterparts, they must also contend with more unusual developmental pressures and stressors placed on them by the unique demands of military life...
May 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Sarah C Hellewell, Ibolja Cernak
Adaptability to stress is governed by innate resilience, comprised of complex neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms alongside inherited or learned behavioral traits. Based on their capacity to adapt, some people thrive in stressful situations, whereas others experience maladaptation. In our study, we used state-of-the-art tools to assess the resilience level in individuals, as well as their susceptibility to developing military stress-induced behavioral and cognitive deficits. To address this complex question, we tested Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel in three distinct stress environments (baselines): during predeployment training, deployment in Afghanistan, and readjustment upon return to Canada...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Deniz Fikretoglu, Aihua Liu, Mark Allen Zamorski, Corneliu Rusu, Rakesh Jetly
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders constitute a significant public health problem worldwide. Ensuring that those who need mental health services access them in an appropriate and timely manner is thus an important public health priority. We used data from 4 cross-sectional, nationally representative population health surveys that employed nearly identical methods to compare MHSU trends in the Canadian military versus comparable civilians. METHOD: The surveys were all conducted by Statistics Canada, approximately a decade apart (Military-2002, Military-2013, Civilian-2002, and Civilian-2012)...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Natalie P Mota, Maria Medved, Diane Hiebert-Murphy, Debbie Whitney, Jitender Sareen
The current study aimed to understand how active duty service women with low levels of current psychological distress make sense of their military experiences in ways that might contribute to psychological well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with active duty female members in the Canadian Forces and transcripts were analyzed using narrative analysis. A sense of belonging was found to be of utmost salience to the women, with several participants negotiating and constructing places that felt like home to them, and with different degrees of attachment to the military versus civilian world...
February 3, 2018: Health & Place
Steven Sanders, Homer Tien, Jeannie Callum, Barto Nascimento, Henry Peng, Chris Funk, Joanne Schmid, Sandro Rizoli, Shawn Rhind, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Hemorrhage is the most common cause of death among Special Operations Force (SOF) soldiers. Bringing remote damage control resuscitation into the far-forward combat environment is logistically challenging, as it requires blood products that generally require a robust cold chain. Alternatively, lyophilized products such as fibrinogen concentrate, which does not require thawing or blood group compatibility testing before use, might be advantageous in damage control resuscitation in the battlefield...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
E Rolland-Harris, M Weeks, K Simkus, L VanTil
Background: Military personnel may be exposed to hazardous substances or environments, making health surveillance critical. However, surveillance is frequently handicapped by long lag times between exposure(s) and outcomes, which often manifest post-military release and are often not recorded. Aims: To describe the burden of mortality in still serving and released Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. Methods: The Canadian Forces Cancer and Mortality Study II (CF CAMS II) is an interdepartmental record linkage study using CAF pay data and Statistics Canada cancer and mortality data...
January 18, 2018: Occupational Medicine
David L Howard, Andrea McGlynn, Joy A Greer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare 12-month post-operative complication rates in women who underwent sling procedures by high-volume versus low-volume surgeons at US military treatment facilities (MTFs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) SETTING: US military treatment facilities PATIENTS: Female military beneficiaries enrolled in TRICARE INTERVENTIONS: Sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Tamara L Taillieu, Tracie O Afifi, Sarah Turner, Kristene Cheung, Janique Fortier, Mark Zamorski, Jitender Sareen
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine differences in sociodemographic risk factors, comorbid mental conditions, clinical presentations, and functional impairments associated with past-year generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) between Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Regular Force personnel and the Canadian general population (CGP). METHOD: Data were from 2 nationally representative surveys collected by Statistics Canada: 1) the Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health, collected in 2012 ( N = 25,113; response rate = 68...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Christina Harrington
Wartime deaths are traumatic and leave many grieving families in their wake. Yet, the unique, nuanced bereavement needs and experiences of those who remain are largely unknown. This Canadian, qualitative study examined the bereavement experiences of family of origin, bereaved during the mission to Afghanistan. The findings provide rich data on the predominant ways in which family members found and made meaning following the death and the ways in which military culture influenced the meanings made.
December 2017: Omega
Dianne Dodd
This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women...
2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
Alyson L Mahar, Alice B Aiken, Heidi Cramm, Marlo Whitehead, Patti Groome, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: A substantial evidence base in the peer-reviewed literature exists investigating mental illness in the military, but relatively less is documented about mental illness in veterans. This study uses provincial, administrative data to study the use of mental health services by Canadian veterans in Ontario. METHOD: This was a retrospective cohort study of Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police veterans who were released between 1990 and 2013 and resided in Ontario...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
J Don Richardson, F Ketcheson, L King, P Shnaider, M Marlborough, A Thompson, J D Elhai
This study investigated comorbidity patterns in treatment-seeking veterans and currently-serving Canadian Forces members of an outpatient mental health clinic from September 2006-September 2014. Using a retrospective cohort design, latent class analysis was conducted to determine latent classes of comorbidity (including posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], major depressive disorder [MDD], generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine which covariates (age, gender, number of deployments, and service duration) were predictors of latent class membership...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
Michael Kim, Ian Torrie, Robert Poisson, Nicholas Withers, Stephen Bjarnason, Luis Teodoro Da Luz, Dylan Pannell, Andrew Beckett, Homer C Tien
INTRODUCTION: The optimum method for training military personnel for combat casualty care is unknown. In particular, there is debate regarding the incremental benefit of live animal tissue training (LTT) over inanimate human patient simulators (HPSs). Although both LTT and HPS are currently used for predeployment training, the efficacy of these models has not been established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Canadian Armed Forces combat medics, deployed to Afghanistan between 2006 and 2011, were surveyed retrospectively regarding their experience with combat casualty care and predeployment training...
September 2017: Military Medicine
Wendy Sullivan-Kwantes, Paul Dhillon, Len Goodman, Joseph J Knapik
The Arctic Ram Exercise was conducted in February 2016, near Resolute Bay on Cornwallis Island in Nunavut, Canada, to demonstrate the ability of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) to rapidly deploy to the arctic as an immediate response team. This report describes medical problems experienced by the 187 CAF and 28 U.S. forces involved in the exercise. Sixty-six airborne soldiers performed tactical static line jumps and linked up with soldiers on the ground for the exercise. Medical events were recorded by medics on the drop zone and by medical personnel at the Unit Medical Station in Resolute Bay...
September 2017: Military Medicine
John F Ditunno
Spinal cord injury (SCI) medicine emerged after World War II due to mass casualties, which required specialized treatment centers. This approach to categorical care, however, was first developed during World War I, led by pioneers R. Tait McKenzie and George Deaver, who demonstrated that soldiers disabled by paralysis could return to society through fitness/mobility, recreational and vocational training. McKenzie, a Canadian and the first professor of physical therapy in the US, influenced Deaver and military physicians in Britain, Canada, and the U...
November 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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