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Zin Zayar Win, Phornpun Phokrai, Zarni Aung, Thein Zaw, Mary N Burtnick, Narisara Chantratita, Paul J Brett, Tin Maung Hlaing
Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is an important but under-recognized cause of disease in the tropics. Although first described over a century ago as a septicemic illness associated with morphine addicts in Rangoon, Burma, there is little information regarding the incidence of melioidosis in present-day Myanmar. To address this issue, we used two recently developed and validated serological assays to detect B. pseudomallei -specific antibodies in 124 serum samples obtained from febrile patients in the delta region of Myanmar...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Hou Tee Lu, Gunasekaran Ramsamy, Chuey Yan Lee, Syed Rasul G Syed Hamid, Foong Kee Kan, Rusli Bin Nordin
BACKGROUND Melioidosis is a rare tropical bacterial infection caused by the Gram-negative soil saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis can mimic a variety of diseases due to its varied presentation, and unless it is treated rapidly, it can be fatal.  A rare case of melioidosis, with pericarditis and pericardial effusion, is described, which demonstrates the value of early diagnosis with echocardiography and pericardiocentesis. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old native (Iban) East Malaysian man presented with shortness of breath and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Jason W Sahl, Mark Mayo, Erin P Price, Derek S Sarovich, Mirjam Kaestli, Talima Pearson, Charles H D Williamson, Roxanne Nottingham, Krystal Sheridan, David M Wagner, Bart J Currie, Paul Keim
The Burkholderia pseudomallei isolate MSHR1435 is a fully virulent environmental sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate that is epidemiologically associated with a 17.5-year chronic melioidosis infection. The completed genome will serve as a reference for studies of environmental ecology, virulence, and chronic B. pseudomallei infections.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Servane Le Guillouzer, Marie-Christine Groleau, Eric Déziel
The bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis possesses three N -acyl-L -homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) systems designated BtaI1/BtaR1 (QS-1), BtaI2/BtaR2 (QS-2), and BtaI3/BtaR3 (QS-3). These QS systems are associated with the biosynthesis of N -octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8 -HSL), N -3-hydroxy-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OHC10 -HSL), and N -3-hydroxy-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OHC8 -HSL), which are produced by the LuxI-type synthases BtaI1, BtaI2, and BtaI3, and modulated by the LuxR-type transcriptional regulators BtaR1, BtaR2, and BtaR3...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Elaine Chan, Paolo Martelli, Suk-Wai Hui, Jade L L Teng, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a potentially serious and fatal disease characterized by community-acquired pneumonia and/or sepsis mainly in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, and high case-fatality rates of up to 19% are observed in endemic areas (1).
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sineenart Sengyee, Sung Hwan Yoon, Suporn Paksanont, Thatcha Yimthin, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Direk Limmathurotsakul, T Eoin West, Robert K Ernst, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a major community-acquired infection in tropical regions. Melioidosis presents with a range of clinical symptoms, is often characterized by a robust inflammatory response, may relapse after treatment, and results in high mortality rates. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of B. pseudomallei is a potent immunostimulatory molecule comprised of lipid A, core, and O-polysaccharide (OPS) components. Four B. pseudomallei LPS types have been described based on SDS-PAGE patterns that represent the difference of OPS-type A, type B, type B2 and rough LPS...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
C W Ryan, K Bishop, D D Blaney, S J Britton, F Cantone, C Egan, M G Elrod, C W Frye, A M Maxted, G Perkins
Melioidosis in humans presents variably as fulminant sepsis, pneumonia, skin infection and solid organ abscesses. It is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which in the United States is classified as a select agent, with "potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, to plant health or to animal and plant products" (Federal Select Agent Program,, accessed 22 September 2016). Burkholderia pseudomallei is found in soil and surface water in the tropics, especially South-East Asia and northern Australia, where melioidosis is endemic...
February 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Pattaranit Nernsai, Areepan Sophonsritsuk, Srithean Lertvikool, Artit Jinawath, Maria Nina Chitasombat
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, the disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic in the Northeastern part of Thailand, South-East Asia, and Northern Australia. The pelvic involvement of disease is rare even in an endemic area. Therefore, we describe in this report the clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the patient with primary tubo-ovarian abscess due to melioidosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old Thai cassava farmer woman presented with fever and abdominal pain at left lower quadrant for one month...
February 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yoshiro Hadano
Fourteen cases of reported melioidosis in Japan were reviewed. The mean age was 52.4 years (33-69 years), and all patients were male. All of the presumed exposures originated in Southeast Asia. The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus, including those patients with impaired glucose tolerance (n=8). As for mode of onset, 13 patients had acute infections and one had chronic infection. Of these 14 patients, the most common infection site on admission was lung (n=8), followed by bone (n=5), skin (n=4), gastrointestinal abscess formation (n=3), urinary tract (n=3), aorta (n=2), mediastinal lymph node swelling (n=1), and central nervous system (n=1)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Isra Halim, Tushar Shaw, Chaitanya Tellapragada, K E Vandana, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Melioidosis has recently gained importance as an emerging disease in India. Recurrent melioidosis has been reported from different parts of the world and can be due to relapse or reinfection. Distinction between relapse and reinfection is important for epidemiology, investigation and management. Here, we present the data regarding rate of recurrence and utility of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in differentiating relapse form reinfection amongst melioidosis patients from a tertiary care hospital in South India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Derek S Sarovich, Jessica R Webb, Matthew C Pitman, Linda T Viberg, Mark Mayo, Robert W Baird, Jennifer M Robson, Bart J Currie, Erin P Price
Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of the high-mortality disease melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacterium that is naturally resistant to many antibiotics. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and effective eradication is reliant on biphasic and prolonged antibiotic administration. The carbapenem drug, meropenem, is the current gold-standard option for treating severe melioidosis. Intrinsic B. pseudomallei resistance towards meropenem has not yet been documented; however, resistance could conceivably develop over the course of infection, leading to prolonged sepsis and treatment failure...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Vanitha Mariappan, Jaikumar Thimma, Kumutha Malar Vellasamy, Esaki M Shankar, Jamuna Vadivelu
Physiological constituents in airway surface liquids (ASL) appear to impact the adherence and invasion potentials of Burkholderia pseudomallei contributing to recrudescent melioidosis. Here, we investigated the factors present in ASL that is likely to influence bacterial adhesion and invasion leading to improved understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. Six B.pseudomallei clinical isolates from different origins were used to investigate the ability of the bacteria to adhere and invade A549 human lung epithelial cells using a system that mimics the physiological ASL with different pH, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and glucose concentrations...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
W Joost Wiersinga, Harjeet S Virk, Alfredo G Torres, Bart J Currie, Sharon J Peacock, David A B Dance, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium and the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening infection that is estimated to account for ∼89,000 deaths per year worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for melioidosis, and the global diabetes pandemic could increase the number of fatalities caused by melioidosis. Melioidosis is endemic across tropical areas, especially in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Disease manifestations can range from acute septicaemia to chronic infection, as the facultative intracellular lifestyle and virulence factors of B...
February 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Raad Jasim, Elena K Schneider, Meiling Han, Mohammad A K Azad, Maytham Hussein, Cameron Nowell, Mark A Baker, Jiping Wang, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
This in vitro study aimed to investigate the synergistic antibacterial activity of polymyxin B in combination with 2 nm silver nanoparticles (NPs) against Gram-negative pathogens commonly isolated from the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. The in vitro synergistic activity of polymyxin B with silver NPs was assessed using the checkerboard assay against polymyxinsusceptible and polymyxin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the lungs of CF patients. The combination was also examined against the Gram-negative species Haemophilus influenzae, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii that are less common in the CF lung...
April 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Ariella Denize Nielsen, Peter Ellekvist
The causative organism of melioidosis is Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacterium endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The clinical presentation varies, ranging from asymptomatic cases to rapidly progressive septicaemia and shock. Abscesses may be found in any internal organ. We describe an infrequent presentation of melioidosis with various symptoms, including haematuria and rectal pain. Perirectal and prostatic abscesses were found, the causative organism was identified and relevant treatment administered, resulting in a full recovery...
January 22, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Viriya Hantrakun, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Patpong Rongkard, Prapaporn Srilohasin, Premjit Amornchai, Sayan Langla, Mavuto Mukaka, Narisara Chantratita, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, David A B Dance, Nicholas P J Day, Sharon J Peacock, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus and the cause of melioidosis. B. thailandensis, some strains of which express a B. pseudomallei-like capsular polysaccharide (BTCV), is also commonly found in the environment in Southeast Asia but is considered non-pathogenic. The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of B. thailandensis and its capsular variant in Thailand and investigate whether its presence is associated with a serological response to B...
January 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sara I Ruiz, Larry E Bowen, Mark M Bailey, Cory Berkland
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent responsible for melioidosis, exhibits a great public health toll in its endemic regions. The elevation of B. pseudomallei to a Tier I select agent underscores the urgent need for effective therapeutics and preventatives. The current treatment regimen for melioidosis is sub-optimal, requiring an intensive phase of intravenous antibiotic followed by months of oral antibiotics. Inhaled antibiotics are a promising avenue to pursue for pulmonary diseases, including melioidosis, since this mode of delivery mimics the likely exposure route and can provide high drug doses directly to the infected tissue...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Michelle C Porter, Craig E Pennell, Patricia Woods, John Dyer, Adam J Merritt, Bart J Currie
We report a case of placental infection leading to preterm delivery in a mother diagnosed with septicemiaand pneumonia due to Burkholderia pseudomallei in pregnancy. Placental infection occurred despite prolonged ceftazidime therapy.
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
L Fertitta, G Monsel, M De Laroche, E Fourniols, F Brossier, E Caumes
Melioidosis is a bacterial infection due to Burkholderia pseudomallei. Systemic forms are well described and characterized by a high lethality rate up to 40% (1). In contrast cutaneous melioidosis (CM) is rarely described. CM can be primary and present either as acute or chronic forms, or secondary in case of generalized disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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