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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917501/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-i-clinical-and-network-analysis-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Felix Rosenow, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Sebastian Bauer
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917498/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-ii-experimental-and-translational-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Sebastian Bauer, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Felix Rosenow
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915828/microrna-488-and-920-regulate-the-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-acute-gouty-arthritis
#3
Weidong Zhou, Ying Wang, Rongfeng Wu, Yan He, Qun Su, Guixiu Shi
BACKGROUND: Gout is considered one of the most painful acute conditions caused by deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within joints. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-1β is a key inflammatory mediator in acute gouty arthritis (GA), and its level is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the molecular mechanisms of the regulation remain unclear. METHODS: A miRNA microarray was used to analyze the miRNA expression profiles in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) of patients with GA...
September 15, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914110/evaluation-of-dual-target-specific-real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-kingella-kingae-in-a-danish-paediatric-population
#4
Victoria Elizabeth de Knegt, Gitte Qvist Kristiansen, Kristian Schønning
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the relevance of dual target real-time polymerase chain (PCR) assays targeting the rtxA and cpn60 genes of the paediatric pathogen Kingella kingae. We also studied for the first time the clinical and epidemiological features of K. kingae infections in a Danish population. METHOD: Children with K. kingae-positive cultures were identified from 11,477 children and 86 children younger than 16 years old from whom blood cultures and joint fluid cultures were obtained between January 2010 and November 2016...
September 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912948/outbreak-of-fusarium-oxysporum-infections-in-children-with-cancer-an-experience-with-7-episodes-of-catheter-related-fungemia
#5
Fabianne Carlesse, Anna-Paula C Amaral, Sarah S Gonçalves, Hemilio Xafranski, Maria-Lucia M Lee, Victor Zecchin, Antonio S Petrilli, Abdullah M Al-Hatmi, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Fusarium species are widely spread in nature as plant pathogens but are also able to cause opportunistic fungal infections in humans. We report a cluster of Fusarium oxysporum bloodstream infections in a single pediatric cancer center. METHODS: All clinical and epidemiological data related to an outbreak involving seven cases of fungemia by Fusarium oxysporum during October 2013 and February 2014 were analysed. All cultured isolates (n = 14) were identified to species level by sequencing of the TEF1 and RPB2 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912851/molecular-mechanism-of-mir-181b-in-heart-disease-due-to-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-syndrome
#6
Zheng Gao, Li Wang, Jinyun Wang, Fengyong Yang, Jin Qu
The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of microRNA (miR)-181b in heart disease due to hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP) through regulating the expression of metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3). miR-181b expression was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples from patients with HDCP. These samples were analyzed for clinical pathological characteristics. The primary cardiomyocytes of rats were cultured in hypoxic conditions for 24 h, in which miR-181b expression was detected at different time points...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911359/interferon-gamma-response-to-the-treatment-of-active-pulmonary-and-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
L Liang, R Shi, X Liu, X Yuan, S Zheng, G Zhang, W Wang, J Wang, K England, L E Via, Y Cai, L C Goldfeder, L E Dodd, C E Barry, R Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. OBJECTIVE: To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. DESIGN: Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911146/anemia-in-patients-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-%C3%AE-a-role-for-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-in-human-erythropoiesis
#8
Anja L M van Gucht, Marcel E Meima, Carla Moran, Maura Agostini, Anna Tylki-Szymanska, Malgorzata-Walasek Krajewska, Krystyna Chrzanowska, Alexandra Efthymiadou, Dionisios Chrysis, Korcan Demir, W Edward Visser, Theo J Visser, Krishna Chatterjee, Thamar B van Dijk, Robin P Peeters
Context: Patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH) α (RTHα) are characterized by growth retardation, macrocephaly, constipation, and abnormal thyroid function tests. In addition, almost all RTHα patients have mild anemia, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. Animal studies suggest an important role for TH and TH receptor (TR)α in erythropoiesis. Objective: To investigate whether a defect in TRα affects the maturation of red blood cells in RTHα patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911041/culture-independent-molecular-methods-for-detection-of-antifungal-resistance-mechanisms-and-fungal-identification
#9
David S Perlin, Nathan P Wiederhold
Resistance to azoles and echinocandins has emerged as a significant factor affecting the clinical management of patients with invasive fungal infections. Immunosuppressed patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections often have prolonged or repeated exposure to antifungals resulting in either the well-documented selection of naturally occurring, less susceptible fungal species, or the in situ development of specific resistance mechanisms. Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnostics are particularly well suited for the rapid detection of low-abundance fungal pathogens and identification of the infecting pathogen to the genus and species levels, as well as assessment of resistance mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910956/-modulation-of-umbilical-cord-blood-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-treg-cells-in-the-patients-with-aplastic-anemia
#10
Y N Cao, F Zhou, N X Song, Y Fang, R Guan
Objective: To research the modulation of Umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells on the number and function of Treg cells in the patients with aplastic anemia, as well as the expression of LFA-1 on Treg cells. Methods: A total of 20 newly diagnosed NSAA patients were collected from May 2015 to Jun 2016 in Department of Hematopathy, General Hospital of Jinan Military, and 10 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Separation of the patients and controls with peripheral blood mononuclear cells were divided into two groups, including PBMCs culture alone, PBMCs co-culture with UC-MSCs, application of flow cytometry detect respectively the proportion of the Treg cells and the expression of LFA-1 on Treg cells under different culture conditions...
September 12, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910402/nasopharyngeal-bacterial-load-as-a-marker-for-rapid-and-easy-diagnosis-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-mozambique
#11
Pedro Brotons, Quique Bassat, Miguel Lanaspa, Desiree Henares, Amaresh Perez-Arguello, Lola Madrid, Reyes Balcells, Sozinho Acacio, Maria Andres-Franch, Maria Angeles Marcos, Ana Valero-Rello, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease have limitations of accuracy, timeliness, and patient convenience. This study aimed to determine the performance of pneumococcal load quantified with a real-time polymerase-chain reaction in nasopharyngeal samples to diagnose invasive pneumococcal disease in children. METHODS: Matched case-control study of patients <5 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital (Mozambique) and asymptomatic controls recruited in different periods between 2006 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905193/siglec-8-as-mast-cell-selective-target-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#12
Gerhard J Molderings
Due to the limited efficacy of current drugs in treating systemic mast cell activation disease, there is an urgent need for more effective drugs selectively acting at mast cells. In the past, a large number of compounds have been claimed to be effective and mast cell selective on the basis of cell culture experiments and studies on blood leukocytes which could not be verified in organ and animal studies. Nevertheless, over time in review papers about potential mast cell targets mast cell selectivity of these targets has been no longer challenged...
September 14, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903867/detection-accuracy-of-renibacterium-salmoninarum-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-walbaum-from-non-lethally-collected-samples-effects-of-exposure-route-and-disease-severity
#13
Carolyn A Richards, Cheryl A Murphy, Travis O Brenden, Thomas P Loch, Mohamed Faisal
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, threatens salmonid populations throughout the Northern hemisphere. Many fishery regulatory authorities require ongoing disease monitoring in hatcheries and spawning runs prior to gamete collection to prevent BKD outbreaks and spread. According to diagnostic protocols of the American Fisheries Society-Fish Health Section, monitoring for R. salmoninarum generally consists of lethal sampling of visceral organs from fish. However, non-lethal sampling would be preferable, especially for valuable broodstock or endangered species...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902422/transplantation-of-non-cultured-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-of-adipose-tissue-ameliorates-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-like-lesions-in-mice
#14
Shinichiro Kuroshima, Muneteru Sasaki, Kazunori Nakajima, Saki Tamaki, Hiroki Hayano, Takashi Sawase
The precise pathoetiology and effective treatment strategies for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) remain unknown. Transplantation of non-cultured stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells has been demonstrated to be a useful method for regenerative medicine in place of stem cell therapy. This study investigated the effects of non-cultured SVF transplantation on tooth extraction socket healing in mice. Both chemotherapeutic/bisphosphonate combination therapy for 7 weeks and tooth extraction of maxillary first molars at 3 weeks after drug administration were performed using female C57BL/6J mice...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899930/therapeutic-gene-editing-in-cd34-hematopoietic-progenitors-from-fanconi-anemia-patients
#15
Begoña Diez, Pietro Genovese, Francisco J Roman-Rodriguez, Lara Alvarez, Giulia Schiroli, Laura Ugalde, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales, Julian Sevilla, Cristina Diaz de Heredia, Michael C Holmes, Angelo Lombardo, Luigi Naldini, Juan Antonio Bueren, Paula Rio
Gene targeting constitutes a new step in the development of gene therapy for inherited diseases. Although previous studies have shown the feasibility of editing fibroblasts from Fanconi anemia (FA) patients, here we aimed at conducting therapeutic gene editing in clinically relevant cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In our first experiments, we showed that zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated insertion of a non-therapeutic EGFP-reporter donor in the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus of FA-A lymphoblastic cell lines (LCLs), indicating that FANCA is not essential for the editing of human cells...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899692/in-vitro-efficacy-of-bumped-kinase-inhibitors-against-besnoitia-besnoiti-tachyzoites
#16
Alejandro Jiménez-Meléndez, Kayode K Ojo, Alexandra M Wallace, Tess R Smith, Andrew Hemphill, Vreni Balmer, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis M Ortega-Mora, Adrian B Hehl, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Gema Álvarez-García
Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for bovine besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease that causes systemic and skin manifestations and sterility in bulls. Neither treatments nor vaccines are currently available. In the search for therapeutic candidates, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have arisen as promising drug targets in other apicomplexans (e.g. Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp. and Eimeria spp.) and are effectively targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs)...
September 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899471/-a-report-of-two-children-with-fever-headache-and-purpura
#17
Hong-Bo Xu, Mei Tan, Jian Lu, Mao-Qiang Tian, Yan Chen
In this study, two school-aged children had an acute onset in spring and had the manifestations of fever, headache, vomiting, disturbance of consciousness, purpura and ecchymosis, and positive meningeal irritation sign. There were increases in peripheral white blood cells and neutrophils, but reductions in the hemoglobin level and platelet count in the two children. They had a significant increase in C-reactive protein. There were hundreds or thousands of white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, mainly neutrophils...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895862/immunomodulatory-effects-of-soluble-factors-secreted-by-feline-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Hyung-Kyu Chae, Woo-Jin Song, Jin-Ok Ahn, Qiang Li, Bo-Yeon Lee, Kyeong Kweon, Sang-Chul Park, Hwa-Young Youn
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory functions and differentiation capacity, and their clinical use is increasing in veterinary species. Although MSCs have been applied in the treatment in various inflammatory diseases, mechanistic research on feline MSCs is lacking. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of MSCs isolated from feline adipose tissue (fATMSCs). fATMSCs from healthy cats were cultured in an appropriate manner and cocultured with transwell-separated allogeneic feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (fPBMCs) and RAW264...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890905/single-versus-multiple-site-harvesting-techniques-for-bone-marrow-concentrate-evaluation-of-aspirate-quality-and-pain
#19
Kristin Oliver, Tariq Awan, Matthew Bayes
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) is growing in popularity as an alternative treatment option in orthopaedics. The regenerative capacity of BMC has been linked to the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) present in the graft at the time of its clinical application. MSC counts in bone marrow aspirate (BMA) are affected by harvest technique, but controversy exists over which aspiration method optimizes cellular yield while taking patient comfort and risk into consideration. PURPOSE: To compare a single- versus multiple-site bone marrow aspiration technique to determine which would generate a sufficient volume of high-quality BMA for concentration into a BMC graft...
August 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890902/pasteurella-multocida-bacteremia-and-peritonitis-in-a-patient-with-cirrhosis-a-life-threatening-case-from-a-prick-of-a-cactus
#20
Jodi-Anne Wallace, Jonathan Hussain, Alberto Unzueta, Giuseppe Morelli
A 58-year-old male with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis presents with right lower extremity cellulitis, abdominal tenderness, and severe sepsis after sustaining puncture injury from a cactus on a property with feral cats. Blood cultures and diagnostic paracentesis were consistent with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Pasteurella multocida, a gram-negative coccobacillus found in the respiratory tract of domestic animals. The patient received timely antibiotic coverage with resolution of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and sepsis after 14-day treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
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