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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640908/evaluating-diagnostic-tests-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-southern-part-of-germany-a-latent-class-analysis
#1
Valerie-Beau Pucken, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer, Dörte Döpfer, Andreas Groll, Angela Hafner-Marx, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Carola Sauter-Louis, Reinhard K Straubinger, Pia Zimmermann, Sonja Hartnack
Germany has been officially free of bovine tuberculosis since 1996. However, in the last years there has been an increase of bovine tuberculosis cases, particularly in the southern part of Germany, in the Allgäu region. As a consequence a one-time tuberculosis surveillance program was revisited with different premortal and postmortal tests. The aim of this paper was to estimate diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the different tests used within this surveillance program. In the absence of a perfect test with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, thus in the absence of a gold standard, a Bayesian latent class approach with two different datasets was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#2
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636622/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-viral-entry-by-nucleic-acid-polymers-in-heparg-cells-and-primary-human-hepatocytes
#3
Clément Guillot, Nora Martel, Françoise Berby, Isabelle Bordes, Olivier Hantz, Matthieu Blanchet, Camille Sureau, Andrew Vaillant, Isabelle Chemin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635072/plgf-enhances-tlr-dependent-inflammatory-responses-in-human-mononuclear-phagocytes
#4
Laura F Newell, Shernan G Holtan, Jane E Yates, Leonardo Pereira, Jeffrey W Tyner, Irina Burd, Grover C Bagby
PROBLEM: Levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) peak during third trimester of pregnancy, a time when women are at increased risk of virus-induced morbidity. We hypothesized PlGF might contribute to an exaggerated inflammatory response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. METHOD OF STUDY: Primary human adult and cord blood CD14(+) cells were cultured in the presence of TLR ligands and/or PlGF. RESULTS: PlGF significantly enhanced the magnitude and duration of TNF messenger RNA and protein production by TLR-7/8-activated monocytes, and increased subsequent production of TNF-independent inflammatory cytokines...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632835/-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-directly-from-positive-blood-cultures-using-the-vitek-2-system-comparison-of-two-rapid-protocols
#5
Lorena Porte, Francesca Gattini, Carmen Varela, Thomas Weitzel
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux) cards inoculated directly from positive blood cultures was compared with the standard method for gramnegative rods. Two different protocols for the inoculum preparation were evaluated. Protocol 2 was faster and easier to perform. Rapid susceptibility testing was accurate and reduced time to results in 24 h.
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631328/phenotypic-characterisation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-blood-cultures-in-newborn-infants-with-a-special-focus-on-staphylococcus-capitis
#6
Gustaf Ehlersson, Bengt Hellmark, Olov Svartström, Bianca Stenmark, Bo Söderquist
AIM: This Swedish study determined which species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were found in neonatal blood cultures and whether they included Staphylococcus capitis clones with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. METHODS: CoNS isolates (n=332) from neonatal blood cultures collected at Örebro University Hospital during 1987-2014 were identified to species level with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
June 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630845/multi-foci-salmonella-enteritis-osteomyelitis-of-thoracic-spine-with-pleural-effusion-and-fatal-outcome-a-unique-case-presentation-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Ioannis Papaioannou, Andreas Baikousis, Panagiotis Korovessis
INTRODUCTION: A case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enteritis (SE) in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This is the third case in the literature of SE thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, but the first one with this multi-foci presentation and finally fatal outcome due to meningoencephalitis. Further data that makes our case unique are the absence of fever (body temperature: 37.4°C) and gastrointestinal disorders. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old male patient initially presented with thoracic pain, dyspnea, and knee pain...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630187/cumulative-effect-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-rapid-diagnostic-testing-bundle-on-early-streamlining-of-antimicrobial-therapy-in-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#8
P B Bookstaver, E B Nimmich, T J Smith, J A Justo, J Kohn, K L Hammer, C Troficanto, H A Albrecht, M N Al-Hasan
OBJECTIVES: The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) enhances antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) interventions in optimization of antimicrobial therapy. This quasi-experimental cohort study evaluates the combined impact of an ASP/RDT bundle on appropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) and time to de-escalation of broad-spectrum agents (BSAA) in gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSI). METHODS: ASP/RDT bundle consisted of a system-wide GNBSI treatment guidelines, prospective stewardship monitoring, and sequential introduction of two RDTs, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630122/eculizumab-blocks-vaccine-induced-opsonophagocytic-killing-of-meningococci-by-whole-blood-from-immunized-adults
#9
Monica Konar, Dan M Granoff
Eculizumab, a humanized anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody for treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, blocks the terminal complement pathway required for serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Because treated patients are at >1000-fold increased risk of meningococcal disease, vaccination is recommended, but whether vaccination can protect by opsonophagocytic activity in the absence of SBA is not known. Meningococci were added to anticoagulated blood from 12 healthy adults vaccinated with meningococcal serogroup B and serogroup A,C,W,Y vaccines...
June 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628602/procoagulant-activity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Barbara A Christy, Maryanne C Herzig, Robbie K Montgomery, Christopher Delavan, James A Bynum, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and procoagulant activity to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625838/comparison-of-time-to-detection-values-between-bact-alert-%C3%A2-virtuo%C3%A2-and-bact-alert-%C3%A2-3d-instruments-for-clinical-blood-cultures-samples
#11
Francesco Congestrì, Maria Federica Pedna, Michela Fantini, Michela Samuelli, Pasqua Schiavone, Arianna Torri, Stefania Bertini, Vittorio Sambri
OBJECTIVES: The early detection of bacteraemia and fungemia is of paramount importance to guide the antimicrobial therapy in septic patients. In this study the "time to detection" (TTD) values for the new blood culture system BacT/ALERT(®) VIRTUO™ (VIRTUO) was evaluated in 1462 positive clinical bottles and compared with the TTD identified for 1601 positive clinical bottles incubated in the BacT/ALERT(®) 3D (BTA 3D). METHODS: The most representative microorganisms isolated from bottles incubated in both blood culture systems were divided into 8 categories (in order of frequency): Coagulase-Negative-Staphylococci (CoNS), Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae (other than E...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623882/peripheral-venous-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-is-associated-with-severe-complications-and-potential-death-a-retrospective-observational-study
#12
Akihiro Sato, Itaru Nakamura, Hiroaki Fujita, Ayaka Tsukimori, Takehito Kobayashi, Shinji Fukushima, Takeshi Fujii, Tetsuya Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of peripheral vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVC-BSIs) and determine the risk of severe complications or death. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study from June 2010 to April 2015 at two regional university-affiliated hospitals in Tokyo. We studied the clinical manifestations, underlying diseases, laboratory results, treatment methods, recurrence rates, and complications in 62 hospitalized patients diagnosed with PVC-BSIs by positive blood cultures...
June 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623360/endothelial-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-size-dependently-exert-procoagulant-activity-detected-by-thromboelastometry
#13
Wolfgang Holnthoner, Cornelia Bonstingl, Carina Hromada, Severin Muehleder, Johannes Zipperle, Stefan Stojkovic, Heinz Redl, Johann Wojta, Herbert Schöchl, Johannes Grillari, Sylvia Weilner, Christoph J Schlimp
Endothelial cells (ECs) are major modulators of hemostasis by expressing and releasing pro- and anticoagulant mediators into the circulation. Previous studies showed that cultured ECs release procoagulant mediators into cell culture supernatants as evidenced by the reduction of viscoelastic clotting time. This effect was reversed with an anti-tissue factor antibody. Here, we aimed to investigate whether tissue factor (TF) was released by endothelial-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and which portion of the released vesicles displays the most prominent procoagulant properties...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#14
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
June 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622369/comparative-sequence-analysis-reveals-regulation-of-genes-in-developing-schistosomula-of-schistosoma-mansoni-exposed-to-host-portal-serum
#15
Wander de Jesus Jeremias, Flávio Marcos Gomes Araújo, Fábio Ribeiro Queiroz, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Guilherme Correa Oliveira, John Robert Kusel, Renata Guerra-Sá, Roney Santos Coimbra, Élio Hideo Babá
Once inside a vertebrate host after infection, individual schistosomula of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni find a new and complex environment, which requires quick adjustments for survival, such as those that allow it to avoid the innate immune response of the host. Thus, it is very important for the parasite to remain within the skin after entering the host for a period of about 3 days, at which time it can then reach the venous system, migrate to the lungs and, by the end of eighth day post-infection, it reach the portal venous system, while undergoing minimal changes in morphology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617554/the-study-on-specific-umbilical-blood-dc-vaccine-for-beige-nude-mice-loaded-human-colorectal-carcinoma-to-induce-anti-tumor-immunity
#16
Z-X Fu, J-S Han, F Liu, Z-L Zhao, D-B Li, L Shi, J-T Dong, Y Zhou, J-H Cai
OBJECTIVE: This study is to observe the immunosuppression of CD137L transfected umbilical blood Dcs (Dendritic cell) vaccine to tumor development of SCID/ Beige nude mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of umbilical blood in the childbirth pregnant women were collected by density gradient centrifugation. Umbilical cord blood dendritic cells (Dcs) were transfected by specific CD137L via LipofectamineTM method and cells were harvested. Meanwhile, the peripheral blood of volunteers was collected to isolate Dcs, the Dcs were cultured for 5 days and hatched with SW-1116 cells antigen...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617443/bilirubin-neurotoxicity-is-associated-with-proteasome-inhibition
#17
Hongbiao Huang, Mingxing Guo, Ningning Liu, Chong Zhao, Haoyu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Siyan Liao, Ping Zhou, Yuning Liao, Xin Chen, Xiaoying Lan, Jinghong Chen, Dacai Xu, Xiaofen Li, Xianping Shi, Li Yu, Yuqiang Nie, Xuejun Wang, Chang-E Zhang, Jinbao Liu
The molecular mechanism underlying bilirubin neurotoxicity remains obscure. Ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis is pivotal to virtually all cellular processes and cell survival. Here we report for the first time that bilirubin at a clinically relevant elevated level impairs proteasomal function via inhibiting both the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (USP14 and UCHL5) and the chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, thereby contributing to bilirubin neurotoxicity...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615871/morphometric-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-based-identification-of-ancylostoma-caninum-parasites-in-dog
#18
Harsimarandeep Singh Uppal, Mandeep Singh Bal, L D Singla, Paramjit Kaur, B S Sandhu
Ancylostoma caninum, a blood feeding nematode parasite (Family: Ancylostomatidae, Superfamily: Ancylostomatoidea) can cause anaemia, dark reddish-brown to black haemorrhagic diarrhoea, dehydration, wasting and deaths due to heavy blood loss. Adult hook worm parasites recovered from the intestine of a stray dog at the time of necropsy were identified as A. caninum based on morphological characters and morphometric observations involving scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Different developmental stages of hookworm eggs viz...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#19
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611752/ecthyma-gangrenosum-escherichia-coli-or-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Mohamed Abbas, Stéphane Emonet, Thilo Köhler, Gesuele Renzi, Christian van Delden, Jacques Schrenzel, Bernard Hirschel
Background: Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) are necrotic lesions that develop in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. Isolated reports describe EG in the setting of non-Pseudomonal infections. In a patient with EG, initial blood cultures showed Escherichia coli, and almost occulted P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Based on the clinical picture we suspected preponderant P. aeruginosa bacteremia, outgrown by concomitant low-grade E. coli bacteremia in the blood culture vials. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with specific primers for P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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