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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145715/effect-of-social-support-and-disclosure-of-child-abuse-on-adult-suicidal-ideation-findings-from-a-population-based-study
#1
Philip Baiden, Barbara Fallon, Kofi Antwi-Boasiako
Background: To examine the proportion of Canadian adults with a history of child abuse who disclosed the abuse to child protection services before age 16 years and identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on lifetime suicidal ideation. Methods: Data for this study came from the Statistics Canada 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N = 9,076). Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on suicidal ideation while simultaneously adjusting for the effect of type of child abuse and demographic, socioeconomic, health, and mental health factors...
November 16, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145698/illicit-drug-use-illicit-drug-use-disorders-and-drug-overdose-deaths-in-metropolitan-and-nonmetropolitan-areas-united-states
#2
EDITORIAL
Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones, Michael F Ballesteros
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. REPORTING PERIOD: Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145583/association-between-the-severity-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-falls-in-an-asian-population-with-diabetes-the-singapore-epidemiology-of-eye-diseases-study
#3
Preeti Gupta, Amudha Aravindhan, Alfred T L Gan, Ryan E K Man, Eva K Fenwick, Paul Mitchell, Nicholas Tan, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Ecosse L Lamoureux
Importance: The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) may contribute to the risk of falling in persons with diabetes, but evidence is currently equivocal. Objective: To investigate the associations of diabetes and DR severity with the likelihood of falls in a multiethnic Asian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional post hoc analysis of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study, a population-based study of participants from 3 ethnic groups (3280 Malay, 3400 Indian, and 3353 Chinese individuals) conducted from 2004 to 2011...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145581/prospective-epidemiological-research-studies-in-iran-the-persian-cohort-rationale-objectives-and-design
#4
Hossein Poustchi, Sareh Eghtesad, Farin Kamangar, Arash Etemadi, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar, Azita Hekmatdoost, Zahra Mohammadi, Zahra Mahmoudi, Amaneh Shayanrad, Farzin Roozafzai, Mahdi Sheikh, Alireza Jalaeikhoo, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Farid Najafi, Ehsan Bahramali, Amirhoushang Mehrparvar, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Ali Esmaeili Nadimi, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Nader Saki, Fatemeh Alipour, Roya Kelishadi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Nayyereh Aminisani, Paolo Boffetta, Reza Malekzadeh
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 76% of deaths in Iran and this number is on the rise, parallel to global rates. Many risk factors associated with NCDs are preventable; however it is first necessary to conduct observational studies to identify relevant risk factors, and the most appropriate approach to control them. Iran is a multi-ethnic country, therefore the Ministry of Health and Medical Education sought to launch a nationwide cohort study-the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to identify the most prevalent NCDs among Iranian ethnicities, and to investigate effective methods of prevention...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145559/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-suspected-hearing-impairment-among-children-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Satomi Yoshida, Calistus Wilunda, Takeshi Kimura, Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
Aims: This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and hearing impairment among Japanese children using early childhood health check-up data. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used population-based health check-up data for children who were born between April 2000 and March 2013 in Hofu city, Japan. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and hearing impairment among children at the age of 36 months...
November 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145549/generational-differences-in-the-5-year-incidence-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#6
Karen J Cruickshanks, David M Nondahl, Lauren J Johnson, Dayna S Dalton, Mary E Fisher, Guan-Hua Huang, Barbara E Klein, Ronald Klein, Carla R Schubert
Importance: Whether a reported decline in the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) continued for people born during the Baby Boom years (1946-1964) or later is unknown. These data are important to plan for ocular health care needs in the 21st century. Objectives: To determine whether the 5-year risk for AMD declined by generation and to identify factors that contributed to improvement in risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data came from the longitudinal cohort Beaver Dam Eye Study (March 1, 1988, through September 15, 1990, and March 1, 1993, through June 15, 1995) and the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (June 8, 2005, through August 4, 2008, and July 12, 2010, through March 21, 2013)...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145543/association-of-ipilimumab-with-safety-and-antitumor-activity-in-women-with-metastatic-or-recurrent-human-papillomavirus-related-cervical-carcinoma
#7
Stephanie Lheureux, Marcus O Butler, Blaise Clarke, Mihaela C Cristea, Lainie P Martin, Katia Tonkin, Gini F Fleming, Anna V Tinker, Hal W Hirte, Daliah Tsoref, Helen Mackay, Neesha C Dhani, Prafull Ghatage, Johanne Weberpals, Stephen Welch, Nhu-An Pham, Vinicius Motta, Valentin Sotov, Lisa Wang, Katherine Karakasis, Smitha Udagani, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Howard Z Streicher, Patricia Shaw, Amit M Oza
Importance: Based on evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced immune evasion, immunotherapy may be an attractive strategy in cervical cancer. Ipilimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which acts to downregulate the T-cell immune response. Objective: To assess the safety and antitumor activity of ipilimumab in recurrent cervical cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter trial was designed for patients with metastatic cervical cancer (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) with measurable disease and progression after at least 1 line of platinum chemotherapy...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145522/incidence-and-relative-risk-of-stroke-in-the-diabetic-and-the-non-diabetic-population-between-1998-and-2014-a-community-based-stroke-register
#8
Andrea Icks, Heiner Claessen, Tatjana Kvitkina, Maria Narres, Michael Weingärtner, Stefan Schwab, Peter L Kolominsky-Rabas
One major objective of the St. Vincent Declaration was to reduce excess risk of stroke in people with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to estimate the trend of incidence and relative risk of stroke in the diabetic and the non-diabetic populations in Germany over a 17-year period. We estimated age-sex standardised incidence rates of all stroke and ischaemic stroke in people with and without diabetes based on an ongoing prospective community-based stroke register covering 105,000 inhabitants. Time trends were analysed using Poisson regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145502/hi-fidelity-discrimination-of-isomirs-using-g-quadruplex-gatekeepers
#9
Nianjia Seow, Renzo A Fenati, Ashley R Connolly, Amanda V Ellis
Core microRNA (miRNA) sequences exist as populations of variants called isomiRs made up of different lengths and nucleotide compositions. In particular, the short sequences of miRNA make single-base isomiR mismatches very difficult to be discriminated. Non-specific hybridizations often arise when DNA probe-miRNA target hybridization is the primary, or initial, mode of detection. These errors then become exacerbated through subsequent amplification steps. Here, we present the design of DNA probes modified with poly-guanine (PG) tracts that were induced to form G-quadruplexes (G4) for hi-fidelity discrimination of miRNA core target sequence from single-base mismatched isomiRs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145501/a-comparison-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-survivors-of-sexual-assault-and-their-receipt-of-and-satisfaction-with-specialized-health-care-services
#10
Janice Du Mont, Daisy Kosa, Sheila Macdonald, Anita Benoit, Tonia Forte
In Canada, Indigenous women are more likely than non-Indigenous women to be survivors of sexual assault and experience sexual assaults that are more serious in terms of physical injury and other health-related consequences. Despite their related needs for care and support, there is a paucity of research to date that has examined their uptake of specialized acute health services post sexual assault. To address this gap, we explored the presentation, sociodemographic, assailant, assault, and service use characteristics of Indigenous women, as compared to non-Indigenous adult and adolescent women aged 12 and older presenting to 30 of 35 hospital-based sexual assault treatment centres in Ontario from 2009 to 2011, using bivariate analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145487/defining-external-factors-that-determine-neuronal-survival-apoptosis-and-necrosis-during-excitotoxic-injury-using-a-high-content-screening-imaging-platform
#11
Ujval Anilkumar, Petronela Weisova, Jasmin Schmid, Tytus Bernas, Heinrich J Huber, Heiko Düssmann, Niamh M C Connolly, Jochen H M Prehn
Cell death induced by excessive glutamate receptor overactivation, excitotoxicity, has been implicated in several acute and chronic neurological disorders. While numerous studies have demonstrated the contribution of biochemically and genetically activated cell death pathways in excitotoxic injury, the factors mediating passive, excitotoxic necrosis are less thoroughly investigated. To address this question, we developed a high content screening (HCS) based assay to collect high volumes of quantitative cellular imaging data and elucidated the effects of intrinsic and external factors on excitotoxic necrosis and apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#12
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145412/mapping-and-verification-of-grain-shape-qtls-based-on-an-advanced-backcross-population-in-rice
#13
Duo Xia, Hao Zhou, Lei Qiu, Haichao Jiang, Qinglu Zhang, Guanjun Gao, Yuqing He
Grain shape is a key factor that influences both the appearance quality and grain yield of rice. To clarify the genetic basis of grain shape, an advanced backcross population was developed from the cross of a slender indica variety Jin23B and a round japonica variety QingGuAi, and a total of 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain shape were detected over 2 years. Three QTLs, qGW1, qGS3 and qGS7 have large effects on grain shape and were detected in both years. To further validate their effects, the BC4F2 populations of the three QTLs were constructed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145355/disparities-in-state-specific-adult-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-united-states-2015
#14
Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Latetia V Moore, Heidi M Blanck, Diane M Harris, Deb Galuska
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall dietary pattern to reduce the risk for diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity (1). Adults should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruits and 2.0-3.0 cups of vegetables per day.* Overall, few adults in each state met intake recommendations according to 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; however, sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption were not examined (2)...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145254/individualized-prevention-against-hypertension-based-on-traditional-chinese-medicine-constitution-theory-a-large-community-based-retrospective-strobe-compliant-study-among-chinese-population
#15
Ying Li, Xiao-Hui Li, Xin Huang, Lu Yin, Cheng-Xian Guo, Chang Liu, Yong-Mei He, Xing Liu, Hong Yuan
Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) theory states that individuals with a biased TCMC are more likely to suffer from specific diseases. However, little is known regarding the influence of TCMC on susceptibility to hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the possible relationship between TCMC and hypertension. Retrospective evaluation and observation were performed using the STROBE guidelines checklist. A large community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 in Changsha, China...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145244/association-between-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockade-and-future-osteoporotic-fracture-risk-in-hypertensive-population-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#16
Chang-I Chen, Jong-Shiuan Yeh, Nai-Wen Tsao, Fen-Yen Lin, Chun-Ming Shih, Kuang-Hsing Chiang, Yung-Ta Kao, Yu-Ann Fang, Lung-Wen Tsai, Wen-Chi Liu, Hironori Nakagami, Ryuichi Morishita, Yi-Jie Kuo, Chun-Yao Huang
Tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in sites of osteoporosis had been demonstrated in animal studies; however, the possibility of RAAS blockade to prevent future osteoporotic fracture had rarely been verified in clinical studies. We Used the Taiwan Longitudinal Health insurance database 2000 to 2008, the cohort study comprised patients age over 40 with a recorded new diagnosis of hypertension between January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008, in addition, patients who had diagnosis of osteoporosis before the date of cohort enter were excluded...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145195/contemporary-epidemiology-of-transient-ischemic-attack-in-dijon-france-2013-2015
#17
Yannick Béjot, Céline Brenière, Mathilde Graber, Lucie Garnier, Jérôme Durier, Christelle Blanc-Labarre, Benoit Delpont, Maurice Giroud
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological features of transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: All TIAs were prospectively collected in Dijon, France, using a population-based registry (2013-2015). TIAs were considered the first-ever in patients who had no previous cerebrovascular events (CVEs); otherwise they were considered recurrent TIAs. Annual incidence (first-ever TIAs) and attack rates (first-ever and recurrent TIAs) were calculated. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty TIAs were registered (255 first-ever and 165 recurrent TIAs, mean age: 74...
November 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#18
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144995/content-analysis-of-homeless-smokers-perspectives-on-established-and-alternative-smoking-interventions
#19
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144846/anticoagulation-in-glaucoma-surgery
#20
Shiraaz I Rahman, Angela Turalba
Anticoagulation medications are used commonly, particularly in an elderly population. There are many systemic diseases and scenarios that require modulation of coagulation to prevent serious adverse outcomes. While there is some consensus about their use in cataract surgery, there is less certainty about their management with glaucoma surgery. Glaucoma surgery presents a unique challenge when considering anticoagulation. Currently, there is great diversity in surgeon practices regarding anticoagulation in glaucoma surgery...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
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