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Population based

H L Qu, D D Guo, T Xu, Z Li, J Yin, X P Tian, D Q Kong, X M Zhu, L Y Miao, D P Wu, X W Tang
Objective: To evaluate the effects of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on the plasma concentration of voriconazole in patients with hematological disease and the value of serial monitoring plasma concentrations in the treatment and prevention of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Methods: From January 2016 to December 2016, 65 hematological patients who received voriconazole intravenous administration for the treatment of invasive fungal disease were enrolled in this study. The population CYP2C19 polymorphism of voriconazole were performed using PCR-Pyrosequencing...
March 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Anne Mette Falstie-Jensen, Søren Bie Bogh, Søren Paaske Johnsen
Objective: To examine the association between compliance with consecutive cycles of accreditation and patient-related outcomes. Design: A Danish nationwide population-based study from 2012 to 2015. Setting: In-patients admitted with one of the 80 diagnoses at public, non-psychiatric hospitals. Participants: In-patients admitted with one of 80 primary diagnoses which accounted for 80% of all deaths occuring within 30 dyas after admission...
March 19, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Soo Bi Lee, Sulki Chung, HaeKook Lee, Jeong Seok Seo
Aims: The purpose of the current study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between depression and drinking among male adults from the general population. Methods: This study used a panel dataset from the Korean Welfare Panel (from 2011 to 2014). The subjects were 2511 male adults aged between 20 and 65 years. Based on the Korean Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) scores, 2191 subjects were categorized as the control group (AUDIT-K < 12) and 320 subjects were categorized as the problem drinking group (AUDIT-K ≥ 12)...
March 17, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Simon R Knowles, Lesley A Graff, Helen Wilding, Catherine Hewitt, Laurie Keefer, Antonina Mikocka-Walus
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is commonly assessed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); the relationship of QoL within IBD states and relative to others has not been comprehensively evaluated. This systematic review, published across 2 papers, evaluates 5 key QoL comparisons. Part I, presented here, examines between-disease comparisons: (1) IBD/healthy(general) population and (2) IBD/other medically ill groups. Part II examines within-disease comparisons: (3) active/inactive disease, (4) ulcerative colitis/Crohn's disease, and (5) change over time...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Eugene Vortia, Victor E Uko, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Jill Frawley, Sarah E Worley, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Barbara Kaplan, Lori Mahajan
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Kingsley E Agho, Osita K Ezeh, Felix A Ogbo, Anthony I Enoma, Camille Raynes-Greenow
Background: Antenatal care (ANC) is an essential intervention to improve maternal and child health. In Nigeria, no population-based studies have investigated predictors of poor receipt of components and uptake of ANC at the national level to inform targeted maternal health initiatives. This study aimed to examine factors associated with inadequate receipt of components and use of ANC in Nigeria. Methods: The study used information on 20 405 singleton live-born infants of the mothers from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey...
March 19, 2018: International Health
Reid Tingley, Georgia Ward-Fear, Lin Schwarzkopf, Matthew J Greenlees, Benjamin L Phillips, Gregory Brown, Simon Clulow, Jonathan Webb, Robert Capon, Andy Sheppard, Tanja Strive, Mark Tizard, Richard Shine
Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Guillaume Huguet, Catherine Schramm, Elise Douard, Lai Jiang, Aurélie Labbe, Frédérique Tihy, Géraldine Mathonnet, Sonia Nizard, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Alexandre Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Eva Loth, Roberto Toro, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod, Zdenka Pausova, Celia Greenwood, Tomas Paus, Thomas Bourgeron, Sébastien Jacquemont
Importance;: Copy number variants (CNVs) classified as pathogenic are identified in 10% to 15% of patients referred for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, their effect sizes on cognitive traits measured as a continuum remain mostly unknown because most of them are too rare to be studied individually using association studies. Objective: To measure and estimate the effect sizes of recurrent and nonrecurrent CNVs on IQ. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study identified all CNVs that were 50 kilobases (kb) or larger in 2 general population cohorts (the IMAGEN project and the Saguenay Youth Study) with measures of IQ...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Igor Braga Ribeiro, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Elinton Adami Chaim, Everton Cazzo
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of leaks after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) significantly decreased over time, their detection still remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the usefulness of drain amylase levels to detect leaks after RYGB. METHODS: This is a population-based study which enrolled 170 individuals who underwent RYGB. Drain amylase levels were determined on the first and fourth postoperative days. Two thresholds were evaluated: three times higher than the serum levels (parameter I) and higher than 250 IU/L (parameter II)...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
J Manji, A Thamboo, M Tacey, C Garnis, N K Chadha
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal disease is a common feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) and can cause significant morbidity in these patients. Our objective was to determine if CF individuals with concomitant nasal polyposis (NP) express a unique profile of inflammation and if so, whether these inflammatory cytokine mediators have predictive value in identifying these individuals for prompt management by an Otolaryngologist. METHODOLOGY: Nasal lavage samples and clinical outcomes of disease severity were obtained from thirty-eight pediatric CF individuals...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Takuya Nikaido, Masahiko Sumitani, Miho Sekiguchi, Shinichi Konno
OBJECTIVES: To develop screening tools for neuropathic pain caused by spinal disorders, the Spine painDETECT questionnaire (SPDQ) and its short-form version (SF-SPDQ), by modifying the Japanese version of the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ-J), and to validate these tools. METHODS: Using data from patients with neuropathic pain caused by spinal disorders (NeP-SD) and patients with nociceptive pain caused by joint disorders (NocP) as controls, we devised a scoring system for the SPDQ by calculating weighting coefficients for nine PDQ-J items...
2018: PloS One
Rupert W Major, Mark R I Cheng, Robert A Grant, Saran Shantikumar, Gang Xu, Issaam Oozeerally, Nigel J Brunskill, Laura J Gray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in the general population using prognostic models based on routinely collected risk factors is embedded in clinical practice. In CKD, prognostic models may misrepresent risk due to the interplay of traditional atherosclerotic and non-traditional risk factors. This systematic review's aim was to identify routinely collected risk factors for inclusion in a CKD-specific cardiovascular prognostic model...
2018: PloS One
Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Alena Lövy, Cecile C Reed, Martina Lisnerová, Tereza Tomková, Astrid S Holzer, Ivan Fiala
INTRODUCTION: Intertidal rock pools where fish and invertebrates are in constant close contact due to limited space and water level fluctuations represent ideal conditions to promote life cycles in parasites using these two alternate hosts and to study speciation processes that could contribute to understanding the roles of parasitic species in such ecosystems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gall bladder and liver samples from five clinid fish species (Blenniiformes: Clinidae) were morphologically and molecularly examined to determine the diversity, prevalence, distribution and host specificity of Ceratomyxa parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) in intertidal habitats along the coast of South Africa...
2018: PloS One
Román Rodríguez-Aguilar
The maternal mortality situation is analyzed in México as an indicator that reflects the social development level of the country and was one of the millennial development objectives. The effect of a maternal death in the related social group has multiplier effects, since it involves family dislocation, economic impact and disruption of the orphans' normal social development. Two perspectives that causes of maternal mortality were analyzed, on one hand, their relationship with social determinants and on the other, factors directly related to the health system...
2018: PloS One
Kanchan Thapa, Sulochana Manandhar, Manisha Bista, Jivan Shakya, Govind Sah, Maheshwar Dhakal, Netra Sharma, Bronwyn Llewellyn, Claudia Wultsch, Lisette P Waits, Marcella J Kelly, Jean-Marc Hero, Jane Hughes, Dibesh Karmacharya
With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project, we studied landscape change, genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow of tigers across the Terai Arc Landscape by conducting Nepal's first comprehensive and systematic scat-based, non-invasive genetic survey...
2018: PloS One
Elia Psouni, Raquel Perez Vicente, Lars B Dahlin, Juan Merlo
Chronic handicap in early life may have a long-term impact on children's psychosocial well-being. Here, we investigated whether Brachialis Plexus Birth Injury (BPBI)-an unpredictable injury at birth-is associated with worse mental health later on, as indicated by prescription and use of psychotropic drugs in adolescence. We explored further whether this association is different depending on socioeconomic characteristics of the child's family, as well as sex. Of the 641 151 children born to native parents in Sweden 1987-1993 (alive and still living in Sweden at the end of 2008), identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1587 had suffered a BPBI...
2018: PloS One
Kangkang Liu, Yanshan Zhu, Yao Xia, Yingtao Zhang, Xiaodong Huang, Jiawei Huang, Enqiong Nie, Qinlong Jing, Guoling Wang, Zhicong Yang, Wenbiao Hu, Jiahai Lu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal clustering and socio-environmental factors associated with dengue fever (DF) incidence rates at street level in Guangzhou City, China. METHODS: Spatiotemporal scan technique was applied to identify the high risk region of DF. Multiple regression model was used to identify the socio-environmental factors associated with DF infection. A Poisson regression model was employed to examine the spatiotemporal patterns in the spread of DF...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gehendra Mahara, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts...
March 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Josphat K Saina, Zhi-Zhong Li, Andrew W Gichira, Yi-Ying Liao
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae) is a deciduous tree widely distributed throughout temperate regions in China, hence suitable for genetic diversity and evolutionary studies. Previous studies in A. altissima have mainly focused on its biological activities, genetic diversity and genetic structure. However, until now there is no published report regarding genome of this plant species or Simaroubaceae family. Therefore, in this paper, we first characterized A. altissima complete chloroplast genome sequence...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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