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Neurocognitive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811138/intermittent-hypoxia-training-powerful-non-invasive-cerebroprotection-against-ethanol-withdrawal-excitotoxicity
#1
REVIEW
Marianna E Jung, Robert T Mallet
Ethanol intoxication and withdrawal exact a devastating toll on the central nervous system. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal provokes massive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which over-activates its postsynaptic receptors, causing intense Ca(2+) loading, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and oxidative stress, culminating in ATP depletion, mitochondrial injury, amyloid β deposition and neuronal death. Collectively, these mechanisms produce neurocognitive and sensorimotor dysfunction that discourages continued abstinence...
August 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782983/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-addiction-testing-hypotheses-of-diffuse-versus-selective-phenotypic-dysfunction-with-a-classification-based-approach
#2
Warren K Bickel, Lara N Moody, Celia R Eddy, Christopher T Franck
Neurocognitive dysfunctions are frequently identified in the addictions. These dysfunctions may indicate either diffuse dysfunction or may represent separate facets that have differential importance to the addiction phenotype. In a sample (n = 260) of alcohol and/or stimulant users and controls we measured responses across 7 diverse neurocognitive measures. These measures were Continuous Performance, Delay Discounting, Iowa Gambling, Stroop, Tower, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and Letter Number Sequencing. Comparisons were then made between the drug-dependent groups and controls using analysis of variance and also using a machine learning approach to classify participants based on task performance as substance-dependent or controls in 1 tree and as alcohol and/or stimulant users or controls in a second tree...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782084/brain-perivascular-macrophages-characterization-and-functional-roles-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Giuseppe Faraco, Laibaik Park, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Perivascular macrophages (PVM) are a distinct population of resident brain macrophages characterized by a close association with the cerebral vasculature. PVM migrate from the yolk sac into the brain early in development and, like microglia, are likely to be a self-renewing cell population that, in the normal state, is not replenished by circulating monocytes. Increasing evidence implicates PVM in several disease processes, ranging from brain infections and immune activation to regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis and neurovascular-neurocognitive dysfunction in the setting of hypertension, Alzheimer disease pathology, or obesity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771870/the-perception-and-attention-functions-test-battery-as-a-measure-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-suspected-central-disorders-of-hypersomnolence
#4
Markus Ramm, Arsalan Jafarpour, Matthias Boentert, Nelly Lojewsky, Peter Young, Anna Heidbreder
The aim of the current study was to evaluate an attention test as a discriminative tool to measure neurocognitive impairment in patients with disorders of hypersomnolence. Chronic excessive daytime sleepiness is the main symptom in central disorders of hypersomnolence. For diagnostic purposes and treatment evaluation, reliable assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness is required. Thirty-six patients with central disorders of hypersomnolence were compared with 20 healthy controls. All participants performed the 'Perception and Attention Functions' (WAF) of the Vienna Test System...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-neurotoxic-effects-of-efavirenz-are-greater-than-those-of-other-common-antiretrovirals
#5
Vincent T Ciavatta, Edyta K Bichler, Iris A Speigel, Courtney C Elder, Shavonne L Teng, William R Tyor, Paul S García
Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced the incidence of severe dementia associated with HIV infection, there has been a rise in milder neurocognitive complaints. Data from HIV patients taking ARVs have shown measurable neurocognitive improvements during drug cessation, suggesting a neurotoxic role of the therapy itself. Mechanisms underlying potential ARV neurotoxicity have not been thoroughly investigated, however pathologic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suspected. Using DIV 16 primary rat cortical neuron culture, we tested eight ARVs from the three most commonly prescribed ARV classes: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) for effects on neuron viability and morphology after 24 h of drug exposure...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769581/clinical-utility-of-nitisinone-for-the-treatment-of-hereditary-tyrosinemia-type-1-ht-1
#6
REVIEW
Anibh Martin Das
Medical therapy for hereditary hepatorenal tyrosinemia (hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, HT-1) with nitisinone was discovered incidentally, and is a by-product of agrochemistry. It blocks the catabolic pathway of tyrosine, thereby leading to a reduction in the accumulation of toxic metabolites in HT-1. It has to be combined with a low-protein diet supplemented with amino acid mixtures devoid of tyrosine and phenylalanine. This treatment option has completely changed the clinical course of patients suffering from HT-1 who used to die in the first few months to years of life from liver failure, renal dysfunction, and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763722/glutamate-metabolism-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-as-revealed-by-dynamic-proton-mrs-following-the-infusion-of-u-13-c-glucose
#7
Brenda L Bartnik-Olson, Daniel Ding, John Howe, Amul Shah, Travis Losey
Focal metabolic dysfunction commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is associated with the development of medical intractability and neurocognitive deficits. It has not been established if this dysfunction is due to cell loss or biochemical dysfunction in metabolic pathways. To explore this question, dynamic (1)H MRS following an infusion of [U(13)- C] glucose was performed to measure glutamate (Glu) metabolism. Subjects (n=6) showed reduced Glu levels (p<0.01) in the ipsilateral mesial temporal lobe (MTL) compared with controls (n=4)...
July 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762462/radiation-induced-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#8
Francesca De Felice, Pierre Blanchard
It might seem odd that a special issue about Gianni Bonadonna would publish a review on radiation-induced neurocognitive dysfunction. Dr. Gianni Bonadonna is considered a pioneer in medical oncology history, mainly due to new and revolutionary treatment approaches proposed in breast cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma. He had an active role in the field of medical oncology, especially through lectures and textbooks. He shared his considerable insight of understanding cancer behavior and evaluating research advances over the years to prevent tumor recurrence and preserve patients from unnecessary toxicity...
July 31, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755189/neurological-and-neuropsychological-problems-in-tyrosinemia-type-i-patients
#9
Willem G van Ginkel, Rianne Jahja, Stephan C J Huijbregts, Francjan J van Spronsen
Clinically, Hereditary Tyrosinemia type I (HTI) is especially characterized by severe liver dysfunction in early life. However, recurrent neurological crises are another main finding in these patients when they are treated with a tyrosine and phenylalanine restricted diet only. This is caused by the accumulation of δ-aminolevulinic acid due to the inhibitory effect of succinylacetone on the enzyme that metabolizes δ-aminolevulinic acid. Due to the biochemical and clinical resemblance of these neurological crises and acute intermittent porphyria, this group of symptoms in HTI patients is mostly called porphyria-like-syndrome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754152/cerebrospinal-fluid-kynurenine-and-kynurenic-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-coma-duration-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-ugandan-children-with-cerebral-malaria
#10
Dag Holmberg, Elisabeth Franzén-Röhl, Richard Idro, Robert O Opoka, Paul Bangirana, Carl M Sellgren, Ronny Wickström, Anna Färnert, Lilly Schwieler, Göran Engberg, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: One-fourth of children with cerebral malaria (CM) retain cognitive sequelae up to 2 years after acute disease. The kynurenine pathway of the brain, forming neuroactive metabolites, e.g. the NMDA-receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA), has been implicated in long-term cognitive dysfunction in other CNS infections. In the present study, the association between the kynurenine pathway and neurologic/cognitive complications in children with CM was investigated. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of KYNA and its precursor kynurenine in 69 Ugandan children admitted for CM to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2008 and 2013 were assessed...
July 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752431/effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-systemic-inflammation-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aged-rats
#11
Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Atsushi Nishigaki, Bun Aoyama, Hiroki Tateiwa, Marie Shigematsu-Locatelli, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
PURPOSE: In this study, we examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, on sepsis-induced neurocognitive abnormity in aged rats. METHODS: Aged rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Animals were further divided into three groups: control, low-dose EGCG (4.0 mg/kg), and high-dose EGCG (20 mg/kg). EGCG was i.p. injected at the same time, 24 and 48 h after LPS administration...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720484/long-term-enzyme-replacement-therapy-improves-neurocognitive-functioning-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-immune-tolerant-alpha-mannosidosis-mice
#12
Stijn Stroobants, Markus Damme, Ann Van der Jeugd, Ben Vermaercke, Claes Andersson, Jens Fogh, Paul Saftig, Judith Blanz, Rudi D'Hooge
Alpha-mannosidosis is a glycoproteinosis caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-mannosidase (LAMAN), which markedly affects neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), and causes pathognomonic intellectual dysfunction in the clinical condition. Cognitive improvement consequently remains a major therapeutic objective in research on this devastating genetic error. Immune-tolerant LAMAN knockout mice were developed to evaluate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by prolonged administration of recombinant human enzyme...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715867/therapeutic-impact-of-grape-leaves-polyphenols-on-certain-biochemical-and-neurological-markers-in-alcl3-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ibrahim H Borai, Magda K Ezz, Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly, Mahmoud El-Sherbiny, Azza A Matloub, Ghadha I Fouad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a grave and prevailing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by slow and progressive neurodegeneration in different brain regions. Aluminum (Al) is a potent and widely distributed neurotoxic metal, implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AD. This study aimed to evaluate the possible neurorestorative potential of Vitis vinifera Leaves Polyphenolic (VLP) extract in alleviating aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. AlCl3 neurotoxicity induced a significant decrease in brain/serum acetylcholine (ACh) contents and serum dopamine (DA) levels, along with a significant increment of brain/serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693823/feasibility-of-hippocampal-avoidance-radiotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#14
K Thippu Jayaprakash, K Wildschut, R Jena
With improvements in survival for good performance status patients and in specific molecular subtypes of glioblastoma, some patients will survive to develop significant neurocognitive dysfunction. This retrospective planning study quantified hippocampal radiation doses in patients with glioblastoma receiving radical chemo-radiotherapy and compared this with the radiation doses that showed clinical correlation with neurocognitive dysfunction, and evaluated the potential for clinically meaningful hippocampal dose reduction using helical TomoTherapy(®)...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676332/circulating-exosomes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-as-phenotypic-biomarkers-and-mechanistic-messengers-of-end-organ-morbidity
#15
REVIEW
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most severe form of sleep disordered breathing, is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), sleep fragmentation, and episodic hypercapnia. OSA is associated with increased risk for morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive systems, and more recently with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer-related deaths. Substantial variability in OSA outcomes suggests that genetically-determined and environmental and lifestyle factors affect the phenotypic susceptibility to OSA...
July 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673405/the-current-state-of-sports-concussion
#16
REVIEW
Johna K Register-Mihalik, Melissa C Kay
Concussion is a complex injury that requires a multimodal assessment to identify and manage the resulting dysfunction. To appropriately manage concussion, clinicians must be aware of the accompanying pathophysiology and dysfunction that occurs following the injury. The current best practice model of care includes symptom, motor, and neurocognitive assessment and management. Furthermore, clinicians should be aware that lifetime accumulation of head impacts may also play a role in neurologic presentation and response to concussion...
August 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657683/association-between-social-functioning-and-prefrontal-cortex-function-during-a-verbal-fluency-task-in-schizophrenia-a-near-infrared-spectroscopic-study
#17
Masashi Itakura, Shenghong Pu, Hiroaki Ohdachi, Hiroshi Matsumura, Katsutoshi Yokoyama, Izumi Nagata, Masaaki Iwata, Koichi Kaneko
AIM: Impaired social functioning is a common characteristic of patients with schizophrenia. Social functioning requires the complex operation of various executive functions. Deficits in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been implicated in executive dysfunction. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between subjectively and objectively assessed social functioning, and their associations with PFC function in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Twenty-three patients and twenty-two age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed...
June 28, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654460/liposomal-cytarabine-induces-less-neurocognitive-dysfunction-than-intrathecal-methotrexate-in-an-animal-model
#18
Anna M Thomsen, Maria E Gulinello, Jing Wen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Peter D Cole
Liposomal cytarabine is currently being tested clinically as an alternative to intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX) for preventing relapse within the central nervous system among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To compare the toxicity and cognitive deficits caused by IT MTX versus liposomal cytarabine, juvenile Long Evans rats were treated with IT injections of MTX 1 mg/kg×4 doses over 8 days, or liposomal cytarabine 0.8 mg once. Mean concentrations of free cytarabine in cerebrospinal fluid remained above the cytotoxic threshold of 0...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651185/treatment-of-neurocognitive-symptoms-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
E Salagre, B Solé, Y Tomioka, B S Fernandes, D Hidalgo-Mazzei, M Garriga, E Jimenez, J Sanchez-Moreno, E Vieta, I Grande
BACKGROUND: Cognitive symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are persistent and commonly entail neurocognitive impairment and a decline in quality of life. This systematic review gathers the current scientific evidence on therapeutic strategies for neuropsychological impairment in MDD. METHOD: A systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO and Clinicaltrials.gov was carried out on December 2016 according to PRISMA using Boolean terms to identify interventions for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MDD...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649892/are-we-exaggerating-neuropsychological-impairment-in-depression-reopening-a-closed-chapter
#20
Steffen Moritz, Katrin Stöckert, Marit Hauschildt, Hannah Lill, Lena Jelinek, Thomas Beblo, Sabrina Diedrich, Sönke Arlt
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses conclude that individuals with depression display neurocognitive deficits. However, the extent to which some of these impairments occur due to secondary influences, and thus in part represent epiphenomena, has rarely been tested. Therefore, the authors examined the impact of performance motivation, attitude towards cognitive assessment, and momentary symptoms during assessment on neuropsychological test results in depression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-five patients with depression and 60 nonclinical individuals underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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