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Neurocognitive dysfunction

Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Ana Paula de Pereira, Maria Lucia Alves Pedroso, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Bin Tang, Anya Umlauf, Donald Franklin, Rowan G Saloner, Maria Geny Ribas Batista, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner
Although cognitive impairment has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, research on neurocognitive effects is limited in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection. The aims of this study were to explore the interplay between HIV and HCV infections in the expression of neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and to examine the differences in test performance between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV or HCV mono-infected patients. A total of 128 participants from Southern Brazil underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) battery comprising 18 tests...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
William I A Haynes, Anne-Hélène Clair, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Bahar Gholipour, Margot Morgiève, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Current neurocognitive models suppose dysfunctions of associative and limbic cortico-basal ganglia circuits to be at the core of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As little is known about the state of underlying anatomical connections, we investigated whether these connections were reduced and/or not properly organised in OCD patients compared to control. METHODS: Diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained in 37 OCD patients with predominant checking symptoms and 37 matched healthy controls...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Alexander J Gill, Rolando Garza, Surendra S Ambegaokar, Benjamin B Gelman, Dennis L Kolson
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a critical cytoprotective enzyme that limits oxidative stress, inflammation, and cellular injury within the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues. We previously demonstrated that HO-1 protein expression is decreased within the brains of HIV+ subjects and that this HO-1 reduction correlates with CNS immune activation and neurocognitive dysfunction. To define a potential CNS protective role for HO-1 against HIV, we analyzed a well-characterized HIV autopsy cohort for two common HO-1 promoter region polymorphisms that are implicated in regulating HO-1 promoter transcriptional activity, a (GT)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (A(-413)T)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Aaron T Beck, Robyn Himelstein, Keith Bredemeier, Steven M Silverstein, Paul Grant
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive deficits are often seen as core features of schizophrenia, and as primary determinants of poor functioning. Yet, our clinical observations suggest that individuals who score within the impaired range on standardized tests can reliably perform better in complex real-world situations, especially when performance is embedded within a positive socio-affective context. METHODS: We analyzed literature on the influence of non-neurocognitive factors on test performance in order to clarify their contributions...
March 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Chijioke Ikomi, Conrad R Cole, Emily Vale, Marjorie Golekoh, Jane C Khoury, Nana-Hawa Yayah Jones
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Iodine is an essential trace element for maintenance of normal thyroid function. Normal thyroid function is a prerequisite for neurocognitive development and growth in children. In the United States, iodine is not routinely added as a trace element in parenteral nutrition (PN). Our objective was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism in children on chronic PN. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of children <17 years of age and using PN for >6 months at a tertiary children's hospital...
March 1, 2018: Pediatrics
Wei Liu, Yin Ting Cheung, Heather M Conklin, Lisa M Jacola, DeoKumar Srivastava, Vikki G Nolan, Hongmei Zhang, James G Gurney, I-Chan Huang, Leslie L Robison, Ching-Hon Pui, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of neurocognitive problems from therapy completion to long-term follow-up in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with chemotherapy only. METHODS: We evaluated whether attention problems observed at therapy completion evolve into long-term executive dysfunction in 158 survivors treated on a single institution protocol. Treatment data (high-dose intravenous methotrexate exposure [serum concentration] and triple intrathecal chemotherapy injections) were collected...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Linqiang Zhou, Chenglin Liu, Zhong Wang, Haitao Shen, Zunjia Wen, Dongdong Chen, Qing Sun, Gang Chen
Pannexins serve an important role in the regulation of extracellular neuronal regenerative currents and cellular signal transduction of glial cells; however, the effects of pannexins in various cerebrovascular diseases have not been reported. The present study focused on the expression and influence of pannexins in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and confirmed that pannexins (including Pannexin‑1, Pannexin‑2 and Pannexin‑3) are expressed in rat brain tissues. However, only the expression of Pannexin‑1 was significantly increased and peaked 48 h post‑ICH...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Soumyojeet Bagchi, Arvind Tripathi, Suryakant Tripathi, Sushil Kar, Sarvada Chandra Tiwari, Juhi Singh
PURPOSE: To record the incidence of cognitive dysfunction in edentulous patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and establish a plausible hypothesis to explain the correlation of cognitive dysfunction and OSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 315 edentulous patients (aged 60 to 65 years) visiting the outpatient department at Saraswati Dental College, Lucknow were recruited from January 2013 to October 2015. Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (PDI) classification was used to assess the intraoral condition to relate it with the span of edentulousness...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
A Meara, N Davidson, H Steigelman, S Zhao, G Brock, W N Jarjour, B H Rovin, H Madhoun, S Parikh, L Hebert, I Ayoub, S P Ardoin
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system in multiple ways, including causing cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction is a common complaint of SLE patients yet diagnosis is challenging, time consuming, and costly. This study evaluated the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Exam (SAGE) as a screening test for cognitive impairment in a cohort of SLE patients. Methods A total of 118 SLE patients completed the SAGE. Providers completed the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics Damage Index (SLICC-DI)...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Ryouhei Ishii, Leonides Canuet, Yasunori Aoki, Masahiro Hata, Masao Iwase, Shunichiro Ikeda, Keiichiro Nishida, Manabu Ikeda
Healthy aging is associated with impairment in cognitive information processing. Several neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy have been used to explore healthy and pathological aging by relying on hemodynamic or metabolic changes that occur in response to brain activity. Since electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are able to measure neural activity directly with a high temporal resolution of milliseconds, these neurophysiological techniques are particularly important to investigate the dynamics of brain activity underlying neurocognitive aging...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Austin W Blum, Brian L Odlaug, Jon E Grant
Background Pyromania is a rare disorder that is characterized by multiple episodes of deliberate and purposeful fire-setting. It is typically associated with significant psychosocial dysfunction and legal problems. Even so, little research has examined cognitive aspects of the disorder. Case presentation/study In this study, we compared a 24-year-old woman with pyromania with 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a battery of computerized neurocognitive tasks. Our participant affected by pyromania showed impaired cognitive flexibility but intact functioning on measures of impulsive action and decision-making...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Sanjay Kalra, Suresh K Sharma
The elderly are an important and distinct yet heterogeneous group of persons living with diabetes. The elderly have a unique biomedical, psychological, and social constitution. Their needs are different from those of younger adults. This implies that special care must be taken while evaluating and planning their nursing and management. Diabetes management in the elderly should focus on prevention and limitation of geriatric syndromes (medical conditions encountered in elderly persons), hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), and neurocognitive dysfunction (impairment in the functioning of the nervous system and brain)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
A Vicario, G H Cerezo, M Del Sueldo, J Zilberman, S M Pawluk, N Lódolo, A E De Cerchio, R M Ruffa, R Plunkett, M E Giuliano, P Forcada, S Hauad, R Flores
The relation between hypertension and cognitive impairment is an undisputable fact. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in hypertensive patients, to identify the most affected cognitive domain, and to observe the association with different parameters of hypertension and other vascular risk factors. A multicentre study was carried out, and 1281 hypertensive patients of both genders and ≥21 years of age were included. Data on the following parameters were obtained: cognitive status (Minimal Cognitive Examination), behavioural status (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), blood pressure, anthropometry, and biochemical profile...
February 15, 2018: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
Silvana Galderisi, Paola Rucci, Brian Kirkpatrick, Armida Mucci, Dino Gibertoni, Paola Rocca, Alessandro Rossi, Alessandro Bertolino, Gregory P Strauss, Eugenio Aguglia, Antonello Bellomo, Martino Belvederi Murri, Paola Bucci, Bernardo Carpiniello, Anna Comparelli, Alessandro Cuomo, Domenico De Berardis, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabio Di Fabio, Barbara Gelao, Carlo Marchesi, Palmiero Monteleone, Cristiana Montemagni, Giulia Orsenigo, Francesca Pacitti, Rita Roncone, Paolo Santonastaso, Alberto Siracusano, Annarita Vignapiano, Antonio Vita, Patrizia Zeppegno, Mario Maj
Importance: Enhanced understanding of factors associated with symptomatic and functional recovery is instrumental to designing personalized treatment plans for people with schizophrenia. To date, this is the first study using network analysis to investigate the associations among cognitive, psychopathologic, and psychosocial variables in a large sample of community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia. Objective: To assess the interplay among psychopathologic variables, cognitive dysfunctions, functional capacity, personal resources, perceived stigma, and real-life functioning in individuals with schizophrenia, using a data-driven approach...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Alexa Stern, Colleen F Bechtel Driscoll, Diana Ohanian, Grayson N Holmbeck
Objective: Given the increased risk for cognitive deficits and development of depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida (SB), this study aimed to examine two pathways through which depressive symptoms and neuropsychological dysfunction may be associated with medical autonomy in this population: (1) depressive symptoms as predictors of medical autonomy as mediated by attention/executive functioning (the cognitive scarring model), and (2) attention/executive functioning as predictors of medical autonomy as mediated by depressive symptoms (the cognitive vulnerability model)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Xianghong Arakaki, Michael Shoga, Lianyang Li, George Zouridakis, Thao Tran, Alfred N Fonteh, Jessica Dawlaty, Robert Goldweber, Janice M Pogoda, Michael G Harrington
Diagnosing and monitoring recovery of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is challenging because of the lack of objective, quantitative measures. Diagnosis is based on description of injuries often not witnessed, subtle neurocognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological testing. Since working memory (WM) is at the center of cognitive functions impaired in mTBI, this study was designed to define objective quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) measures of WM processing that may correlate with cognitive changes associated with acute mTBI...
2018: PloS One
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shannon Halloway, Konstantinos Arfanakis, JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E Schoeny, Susan J Pressler
Objectives: Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable health behavior that can protect against age-related gray matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Current studies of PA and gray matter failed to utilize device measures of PA and do not focus on adults >80 years. Thus, the purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations between accelerometer lifestyle PA and (a) gray matter volumes and (b) cognitive function, controlling for demographics and health status...
February 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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