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Neurocognitive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533746/intraoperative-frontal-alpha-band-power-correlates-with-preoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-older-adults
#1
Charles M Giattino, Jacob E Gardner, Faris M Sbahi, Kenneth C Roberts, Mary Cooter, Eugene Moretti, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Joseph P Mathew, Marty G Woldorff, Miles Berger
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529870/symptom-specific-amygdala-hyperactivity-modulates-motor-control-network-in-conversion-disorder
#2
Thomas Hassa, Alexandra Sebastian, Joachim Liepert, Cornelius Weiller, Roger Schmidt, Oliver Tüscher
Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528896/clinical-effects-of-air-pollution-on-the-central-nervous-system-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Robin M Babadjouni, Drew M Hodis, Ryan Radwanski, Ramon Durazo, Arati Patel, Qinghai Liu, William J Mack
The purpose of this review is to describe recent clinical and epidemiological studies examining the adverse effects of urban air pollution on the central nervous system (CNS). Air pollution and particulate matter (PM) are associated with neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These processes affect multiple CNS pathways. The conceptual framework of this review focuses on adverse effects of air pollution with respect to neurocognition, white matter disease, stroke, and carotid artery disease. Both children and older individuals exposed to air pollution exhibit signs of cognitive dysfunction...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528597/adjunctive-memantine-for-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials
#4
W Zheng, X-H Li, X-H Yang, D-B Cai, G S Ungvari, C H Ng, S-B Wang, Y-Y Wang, Y-P Ning, Y-T Xiang
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of memantine, a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, in the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: Standardized/weighted mean differences (SMDs/WMDs), risk ratio (RR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and analyzed. RESULTS: Included in the meta-analysis were eight RCTs (n = 452) of 11...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#5
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
May 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526224/neurocognitive-outcomes-at-10-years-of-age-in-extremely-preterm-newborns-with-late-onset-bacteremia
#6
H Reeve Bright, Kikelomo Babata, Elizabeth N Allred, Carmina Erdei, Karl C K Kuban, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Alan Leviton, Olaf Dammann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in 10-year neurocognitive outcomes between extremely low gestational age newborns without bacteremia and those with suspected or confirmed late-onset bacteremia. STUDY DESIGN: Neurocognitive function was evaluated at 10 years of age in 889 children born at <28 weeks of gestation and followed from birth. Definite (culture-positive) late-onset bacteremia during postnatal weeks 2-4 was identified in 223 children, and 129 children had suspected bacteremia...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522977/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-the-main-etiological-types-of-mild-neurocognitive-disorders-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#7
Oleg A Levada, Nataliya V Cherednichenko, Alexandra S Troyan
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic construct of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs) is substantially congruent with previously proposed criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MNCD/MCI is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Previous studies have examined the prevalence of NPS in amnestic and non-amnestic MCI subtypes; however, no studies exist for etiological types of MNCD. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NPS in patients with MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD) and subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) and to determine whether NPS would expand these MNCD phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520873/association-between-neurocognitive-decline-and-visual-field-variability-in-glaucoma
#8
Alberto Diniz-Filho, Lisa Delano-Wood, Fábio B Daga, Sebastião Cronemberger, Felipe A Medeiros
Importance: Visual field variability may impair detection of glaucoma progression over time. Despite the possible overlap between neurocognitive disorders and glaucoma in older individuals, no study has investigated the association between cognitive changes and visual field variability. Objective: To evaluate the association between global neurocognitive impairment and visual field variability in patients diagnosed as having glaucoma or glaucoma suspects. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the Visual Performance Laboratory, University of California, San Diego...
May 18, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506393/partial-rescue-of-neuropathology-in-the-murine-model-of-pku-following-administration-of-recombinant-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-pegvaliase
#9
Marc Goldfinger, William L Zeile, Carley R Corado, Charles A O'Neill, Laurie S Tsuruda, Philip J Laipis, Jonathan D Cooper
Pegylated recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase (pegvaliase) is an enzyme substitution therapy being evaluated for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU). PKU is characterized by elevated plasma phenylalanine, which is thought to lead to a deficiency in monoamine neurotransmitters and ultimately, neurocognitive dysfunction. A natural history evaluation in a mouse model of PKU demonstrated a profound decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in several brain regions, beginning at 4weeks of age...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498954/cognitive-impairment-in-bipolar-disorder-treatment-and-prevention-strategies
#10
Brisa Sole, Esther Jimenez, Carla Torrent, Maria Reinares, Caterina Del Mar Bonnin, Imma Torres, Cristina Varo, Iria Grande, Elia Valls, Estela Salagre, Jose Sanchez-Moreno, Anabel Martinez-Aran, André F Carvalho, Eduard Vieta
Over the last decade there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder (BD) since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients' psychosocial outcomes. An ever increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in BD in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491288/selective-vulnerabilities-and-biomarkers-in-neurocognitive-aging
#11
REVIEW
Zachariah Reagh, Michael Yassa
As the world's population continues to age, an understanding of the aging brain becomes increasingly crucial. This review focuses on several recent ideas and findings in the study of neurocognitive aging, specifically focusing on episodic memory, and discusses how they can be considered and used to guide us moving forward. Topics include dysfunction in neural circuits, the roles of neurogenesis and inhibitory signaling, vulnerability in the entorhinal cortex, individual differences, and comorbidities. These avenues of study provide a brief overview of promising themes in the field and together provide a snapshot of what we believe will be important emerging topics in selective vulnerabilities in the aging brain...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#12
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476141/theory-of-mind-deficits-partly-mediate-impaired-social-decision-making-in-schizophrenia
#13
Liuqing Yang, Peifu Li, Haiying Mao, Huiling Wang, Chang Shu, Vibeke Bliksted, Yuan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory...
May 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476012/comparison-of-neurocognitive-function-in-major-depressive-disorder-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-in-later-life-a-cross-sectional-study-of-euthymic-or-remitted-non-demented-patients-using-the-japanese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#14
Sayaka Terachi, Takeshi Yamada, Shenghong Pu, Katsutoshi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Matsumura, Koichi Kaneko
Major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with cognitive dysfunction both in adulthood and in later life. In this study, we directly compared neurocognitive function between these three conditions in later life, employing stringent definitions of euthymia and symptomatic remission. Cognitive function in 60 elderly outpatients with MDD, BD, or SZ (20 patients per group) was assessed using the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia...
April 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474775/subcortical-hyperintensities-in-the-cholinergic-system-are-associated-with-improvements-in-executive-function-in-older-adults-with-coronary-artery-disease-undergoing-cardiac-rehabilitation
#15
Calvin Santiago, Nathan Herrmann, Walter Swardfager, Mahwesh Saleem, Paul I Oh, Sandra E Black, Janelle Bradley, Krista L Lanctôt
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently accompanied by white matter hyperintensities and executive dysfunction. Because acetylcholine is important in executive function, these symptoms may be exacerbated by subcortical hyperintensities (SH) located in cholinergic (CH) tracts. This study investigated the effects of SH on cognitive changes in CAD patients undergoing a 48-week cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: Fifty patients (age 66.5 ± 7.1 years, 84% male) underwent the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Canadian Stroke Network neurocognitive battery at baseline and 48 weeks...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470106/associations-of-neurod2-polymorphisms-and-change-of-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-after-eight-weeks-of-antipsychotic-treatment
#16
Ilja Spellmann, Michael Riedel, Julia Städtler, Peter Zill, Michael Obermeier, Anja Cerovecki, Sandra Dehning, Rebecca Schennach, Maria Epple, Markus Opgen-Rhein, Norbert Müller, Brigitta Bondy, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Richard Musil
INTRODUCTION: NEUROD2 is a neurospecific helix-loop-helix transcription factor which has an impact on the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic genes. We investigated an association of NEUROD2 with neurocognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients before and during treatment with different second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: Patients were genotyped for four different polymorphisms of the NEUROD2 gene ((rs9889354(A/G), rs1877032(C/T), rs12453682(C/T) and rs11078918(C/G))...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459255/the-nature-of-the-relationship-between-neurocognition-and-theory-of-mind-impairments-in-stroke-patients
#17
Agnieszka Pluta, Natalia Gawron, Marta Sobańska, Adrian Dominik Wójcik, Emilia Łojek
OBJECTIVE: Theory of mind (ToM) is a complex, high-level cognitive function that allows people to infer the cognitive and affective mental states of others. Previous studies have produced limited and frequently contradictory findings on the neuropsychological underpinnings of ToM performance in patients with stroke. The aim of the present study is to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms of cognitive and affective theory of mind dysfunctions in patients with stroke. METHOD: Fifty-eight patients with stroke and 22 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and education level underwent robust neuropsychological examination of their pragmatic abilities, executive functions, attention, memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial abilities as well as a cognitive and affective ToM assessment...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457951/hiv-tat-and-dopaminergic-transmission
#18
REVIEW
Peter Gaskill, Doug Miller, Joyonna-Gamble George, Hideaki Yano, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a progressive infection that targets the immune system, affecting more than 37 million people around the world. While combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lowered mortality rates and improved quality of life in infected individuals, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing and HIV associated cognitive decline remains prevalent. Recent research has suggested that HIV accessory proteins may be involved in this decline, and several studies have indicated that the HIV protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) can disrupt normal neuronal and glial function...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456395/quantification-of-lipid-filtration-and-the-effects-on-cerebral-injury-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#19
Richard W Issitt, Ian Harvey, Bronagh Walsh, David Voegeli
BACKGROUND: Lipid microemboli (LME) are formed in pericardial suction blood which, when returned to the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, can pass through filter materials and are returned to the arterial cannula. LME have been observed to enter all major organs and have been associated with small capillary arteriolar dilatations in the brains of patients who have died after CPB. However, a causal relationship showing correlation between LME and organ dysfunction has not been demonstrated, or whether removal of LME results in improved organ function...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#20
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
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