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Neurocognitive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934615/working-memory-and-prefrontal-temporal-hemodynamic-responses-during-post-task-period-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a%C3%A2-multi-channel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#1
Takamasa Noda, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Shiori Setoyama, Eisuke Matsushima
The relationship between cognitive impairments and social dysfunction in schizophrenia is widely accepted. Neuroimaging studies in patients with schizophrenia have demonstrated abnormal function in the prefrontal region during various neurocognitive tasks. However, studies exploring the neural basis of these cognitive impairments are still limited. Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging technique used to detect the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933064/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-brain-development-cognition-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
Liliana Letra, Isabel Santana
The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931443/conversational-assessment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-among-residents-living-in-long-term-care-facilities
#3
Hikaru Oba, Shinichi Sato, Hiroaki Kazui, Yoshiko Nitta, Tatsuya Nashitani, Akio Kamiyama
BACKGROUND: There are some existing barriers posed by neuropsychological tests that interfere with the assessment of cognitive functioning by staff who work in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing cognitive function through conversation. METHODS: A total of 100 care staff was randomly selected as participants. Each staff member evaluated cognitive function in one to three residents using the Conversational Assessment of Neurocognitive Dysfunction (CANDy), which is a screening test for dementia using conversation...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924264/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-functioning-in-adolescents-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-a-population-based-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-study
#4
S S Frye, J Fernandez-Mendoza, S L Calhoun, J Gaines, M D Sawyer, F He, D Liao, A N Vgontzas, E O Bixler
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with neurocognitive and behavioral problems in young children; however, this association is less studied in adolescents. Evidence suggests that obesity plays a key role in the development of SDB, although its relative association with neurobehavioral functioning remains unclear. We examined whether SDB and obesity are associated with neurocognitive and behavior problems in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 421 adolescents (17...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923025/intrafamilial-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-a-taiwanese-family-with-a-mapt-p-r5h-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Hui-Chi Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin, Pei-Lung Chen, Shih-Jung Cheng, Pei-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in executive function that frequently overlaps with parkinsonism and motor neuron disorders. Several genes have been identified to cause autosomal dominant forms of FTD, including the gene coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT). While most reported pathogenic mutations in MAPT occur in exons 9-13, few families have been reported with mutations outside of this region...
September 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921780/factors-associated-with-attrition-in-substance-using-patients-enrolled-in-an-intensive-outpatient-program
#6
James Mckowen, Nicholas Carrellas, Courtney Zulauf, Emin Nalan Ward, Ronna Fried, Timothy Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. METHODS: Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916153/improving-provision-of-care-for-long-term-survivors-of-lymphoma
#7
REVIEW
Sabino Ciavarella, Carla Minoia, Angela Maria Quinto, Stefano Oliva, Santa Carbonara, Claudia Cormio, Maria Christina Cox, Elena Bravo, Filippo Santoro, Mariarosaria Napolitano, Michele Spina, Giacomo Loseto, Attilio Guarini
The progressive improvement of lymphoma therapies has led to a significant prolongation of patient survival and life expectancy. However, lymphoma survivors are at high risk of experiencing a range of early and late adverse effects associated with the extent of treatment exposure. Among these, second malignancies and cardiopulmonary diseases can be fatal, and neurocognitive dysfunction, endocrinopathy, muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue can affect patients' quality of life for decades after treatment. Early recognition and reduction of risk factors and proper monitoring and treatment of these complications require well-defined follow-up criteria, close coordination among specialists of different disciplines, and a tailored model of survivorship care...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914327/repeated-2-sevoflurane-administration-in-7%C3%A2-and-60-day-old-rats-neurotoxicity-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#8
He Huang, Cun-Ming Liu, Jie Sun, Wen-Jie Jin, Yu-Qing Wu, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period...
September 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895059/central-nervous-system-penetrating-antiretrovirals-impair-energetic-reserve-in-striatal-nerve-terminals
#9
Kelly L Stauch, Katy Emanuel, Benjamin G Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox
The use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs with central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) may be useful in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as well as targeting a CNS reservoir in strategies to achieve a functional cure for HIV. However, increased cognitive deficits are linked to at least one of these drugs (efavirenz). As mitochondrial dysfunction has been found with a number of ARVs, and as such can affect neuronal function, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of ARV with high CPE for toxicological profiles on presynaptic nerve terminal energy metabolism...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889255/motor-related-brain-abnormalities-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-multimodal-mri-study
#10
Yawen Zhou, Ruili Li, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hui Miao, Yarui Wei, Rizwan Ali, Bensheng Qiu, Hongjun Li
PURPOSE: It is generally believed that HIV infection could cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) across a broad range of functional domains. Some of the most common findings are deficits in motor control. However, to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HIV-infected patients using a multimodal approach. METHODS: In this study, we utilized high-resolution structural imaging and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain structure and motor function in a homogeneous cohort of HIV-infected patients...
September 9, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883919/a-case-of-klinefelter-syndrome-with-hypersexual-desire
#11
Kingsley Okolie, Sumathy Perampalam, Anthony Barker, Christopher J Nolan
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal disorder affecting males, with the typical karyotype of 47,XXY due to a supernumerary X chromosome, which causes progressive testicular failure resulting in androgen deficiency and infertility. Despite it being the most common sex chromosomal disorder, its diagnosis is easily missed. In addition to its classical clinical features of tall stature, gynaecomastia, small testes, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism including infertility, KS is also often associated with neurocognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disorders...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883806/functional-neuroimaging-in-traumatic-brain-injury-from-nodes-to-networks
#12
REVIEW
John D Medaglia
Since the invention of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), thousands of studies in healthy and clinical samples have enlightened our understanding of the organization of cognition in the human brain and neuroplastic changes following brain disease and injury. Increasingly, studies involve analyses rooted in complex systems theory and analysis applied to clinical samples. Given the complexity in available approaches, concise descriptions of the theoretical motivation of network techniques and their relationship to traditional approaches and theory are necessary...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871379/discrepancy-between-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Bo Young Yoon, Joo-Hyun Lee, So Young Shin
This study explored the discrepancy between perceived cognitive dysfunction and computerized neuropsychological test performance in Korean patients with RA. Individuals with RA were recruited by their rheumatologists during follow-up visits at one hospital in Korea. After getting signed consents, a trained research nurse assessed participants with a range of physical, psychosocial, and biological metrics. Subjective cognitive dysfunction was assessed using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ; range 0-20)...
September 4, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864877/clinical-assessment-and-management-of-delirium-in-the-palliative-care-setting
#14
Shirley Harvey Bush, Sallyanne Tierney, Peter Gerard Lawlor
Delirium is a neurocognitive syndrome arising from acute global brain dysfunction, and is prevalent in up to 42% of patients admitted to palliative care inpatient units. The symptoms of delirium and its associated communicative impediment invariably generate high levels of patient and family distress. Furthermore, delirium is associated with significant patient morbidity and increased mortality in many patient populations, especially palliative care where refractory delirium is common in the dying phase. As the clinical diagnosis of delirium is frequently missed by the healthcare team, the case for regular screening is arguably very compelling...
September 1, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860809/perihippocampal-metastasis-following-hippocampus-avoiding-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#15
Seung-Gu Yeo
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) lowers the risk of brain metastasis (BM) and increases survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, but it also entails a risk of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). One strategy to mitigate this neurotoxicity is hippocampus-avoiding (HA) whole-brain radiation therapy, as the hippocampus is mainly responsible for radiation-related NCD and hippocampal or perihippocampal metastases are rare. A few prospective clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in NCD following HA whole-brain radiation therapy...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851286/influence-of-the-postoperative-inflammatory-response-on-cognitive-decline-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-on-pump-cardiac-surgery-a-controlled-prospective-observational-study
#16
Endre Nemeth, Katalin Vig, Kristof Racz, Kinga B Koritsanszky, Klara I Ronkay, Fumiko P Hamvas, Csaba Borbély, Ajandek Eory, Bela Merkely, Janos Gal
BACKGROUND: The role of non-infective inflammatory response (IR) in the aetiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is still controversial. The aim of this controlled, prospective observational study was to assess the possible relationship between the grade of IR, defined by procalcitonin (PCT) changes, and development of POCD related to cardiac surgery. METHODS: Forty-two patients, who were ≥ 60 years of age and scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, were separated into the low inflammatory (LIR) and high inflammatory (HIR) response groups based on their PCT levels measured on the first postoperative day...
August 29, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840951/young-alcohol-binge-drinkers-have-elevated-blood-endotoxin-peripheral-inflammation-and-low-cortisol-levels-neuropsychological-correlations-in-women
#17
Laura Orio, María Antón, Inmaculada Concepción Rodríguez-Rojo, Ángeles Correas, Borja García-Bueno, Monserrat Corral, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis Miguel García-Moreno, Fernando Maestú, Fernando Cadaveira
Alcohol binge drinking is a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption that is increasingly practiced by adolescents and young adults. Evidence indicates that alcohol binges induce peripheral inflammation and an exacerbated neuroimmune response that may participate in alcohol-induced cognitive/behavioral dysfunctions. Here, we recruited 20-year-old male and female university students who were identified as binge drinkers for at least 2 years. Compared with controls, young alcohol binge drinkers had elevated levels of blood endotoxin and upregulated markers of the toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, together with pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation...
August 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828534/finger-tapping-and-verbal-fluency-post-tap-test-improvement-in-inph-its-value-in-differential-diagnosis-and-shunt-treatment-outcomes-prognosis
#18
Evangelia Liouta, Stylianos Gatzonis, Theodosis Kalamatianos, Aristotelis Kalyvas, Christos Koutsarnakis, Faidon Liakos, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Spyridon Komaitis, Dimitris Giakoumettis, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) diagnosis is challenging as it can be mimicked by other neurological conditions, such as neurodegenerative dementia and motor syndromes. Additionally, outcomes after lumbar puncture (LP) tap test and shunt treatment may vary due to the lack of a common protocol in INPH assessment. The present study aimed to assess whether a post-LP test amelioration of frontal cognitive dysfunctions, characterizing this syndrome, can differentiate INPH from similar neurological conditions and whether this improvement can predict INPH post-shunt outcomes...
August 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825566/-cognitive-dysfunction-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-relation-to-disease-activity-and-damage
#19
Guido Dorman, Marina Micelli, Vanesa Cosentino, Laura Ottone, María Rosa Nuñez, Carlos Mangone, Raúl C Rey, Eduardo Kerzberg, Osvaldo Genovese
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease, which during its evolution may present neurocognitive dysfunction with fronto-subcortical compromise. However, there is no enough published evidence regarding the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and SLE activity and SLE induced damage. The objective of the study was to analyze this association. We designed an observational cross-sectional study including 84 patients with SLE. We used the SLEDAI index to evaluate activity and the SLICC index to evaluate cumulative damage...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822836/fty720-fingolimod-an-oral-s1pr-modulator-mitigates-radiation-induced-cognitive-deficits
#20
Alexander M Stessin, Matei A Banu, Mariano Guardia Clausi, Nicholas Berry, John A Boockvar, Samuel Ryu
PURPOSE: This study evaluates FTY720/Fingolimod, modulator of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor, as a potential mitigator of radiation-induced neurocognitive dysfunction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To study radiation-induced neurocognitive deficits, 6 week-old C57/Bl/6J mice received 0 or 7Gy cranial irradiation and were treated with FTY720 or vehicle for seven weeks. Fear conditioning and Morris water maze were then employed to test learning and memory. Immunohistochemical staining for neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and mature neurons was used to assess changes in hippocampal neurogenesis...
August 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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