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Neurocognitive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#1
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643997/brain-monitoring-in-adult-and-pediatric-ecmo-patients-the-importance-of-early-and-late-assessments
#2
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio S Taccone, Mirko Belliato, Thijs Delnoij, Paolo Zanatta, Mirjana Cvetkovic, Mark Davidson, Jan Belohlavek, Nashwa Matta, Carl Davis, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Thomas Mueller, Ralf Muellenbach, Dirk Donker, Piero David, Matteo DI Nardo, Dirk Vlasselaers, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Aparna Hoskote
Monitoring brain integrity and neuro-cognitive function is a new and important target for the management of a patient treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in particular because of the increasing awareness of cerebral abnormalities that may potentially occur in this setting. Continuous regular monitoring, as well as repeated assessment for cerebral complications has become an essential element of the ECMO patient management. Besides well-known complications, like bleeding, ischemic stroke, seizures, and brain hypoperfusion, other less defined yet relevant injury and clinical manifestations are increasingly reported and impacting on ECMO patient prognosis at short term...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631969/cognitive-functions-among-predominantly-minority-urban-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Alexander Mangone, Kathy F Yates, Victoria Sweat, Adriana Joseph, Antonio Convit
The rise in the rate of adolescent obesity has led to a concurrent rise in the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among young people. In addition to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, MetS has also been linked to cognitive dysfunction. The goal of this study was to assess whether cognitive differences exist between minority urban adolescents carrying excess weight who meet criteria for MetS as compared to their peers without MetS. Two hundred and ninety-six urban adolescents, predominantly Hispanic and carrying excess weight as defined by a BMI above 25 kg/m(2), were screened for MetS and divided into MetS and no MetS groups...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630376/functional-connectivity-disturbances-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Dario J Englot, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies of ARAS connectivity have been previously reported in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We used resting-state functional MRI recordings in 27 patients with TLE (67% right sided) and 27 matched controls to examine functional connectivity (partial correlation) between eight brainstem ARAS structures and 105 cortical/subcortical regions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626409/hiv-associated-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-improvement-with-aminopyridine-therapy-a-case-report
#5
Carolin Hoyer, Angelika Alonso, Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Michael Platten, Marc Fatar
Apart from infectious causes and cerebellar dysfunction associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia or HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, cerebellar dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals has been ascribed to granule cell neuronopathy as well as primary cerebellar atrophy without identifiable etiology. We report the case of a patient with progressive cerebellar dysfunction as the primary manifestation of HIV infection. No symptom improvement was seen under combination antiretroviral therapy, which had been established upon diagnosis, but the patient improved rapidly under 4-aminopyridine treatment, which was recommended 1 year later...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622557/the-executive-profile-of-children-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Ellen M Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Catarina A Guimarães, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
RATIONALE: Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represent two distinct models of focal epilepsy of childhood. In both, there is evidence of executive dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to identify particular deficits in the executive function that would distinguish children with BECTS from children with TLE. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 19 consecutive children and adolescents with TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (57...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621205/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-psychometric-neurophysiologic-and-radiologic-evaluation
#7
M S Elalfy, R H Aly, H Azzam, K Aboelftouh, R H Shatla, M Tarif, M Abdatty, R M Elsayed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of iron chelating drugs and serum ferritin on the neurocognitive functions of patients with β thalassemia major (β-TM), using psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic tests. METHODS: Eighty children with β-TM were enrolled into the study and were compared to 40 healthy controls. All participants were evaluated by measuring serum ferritin, neurocognitive assessment by Benton Visual Retention Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wisconsin Card Sort Test, P300 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
June 16, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611667/dammarane-sapogenins-ameliorates-neurocognitive-functional-impairment-induced-by-simulated-long-duration-spaceflight
#8
Xiaorui Wu, Dong Li, Junlian Liu, Lihong Diao, Shukuan Ling, Yuheng Li, Jianyi Gao, Quanchun Fan, Weijia Sun, Qi Li, Dingsheng Zhao, Guohui Zhong, Dengchao Cao, Min Liu, Jiaping Wang, Shuang Zhao, Yu Liu, Guie Bai, Hongzhi Shi, Zi Xu, Jing Wang, Chunmei Xue, Xiaoyan Jin, Xinxin Yuan, Hongxing Li, Caizhi Liu, Huiyuan Sun, Jianwei Li, Yongzhi Li, Yingxian Li
Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE), which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611588/time-dependent-hiv-tat-induced-perturbation-of-human-neurons-in-vitro-towards-a-model-for-the-molecular-pathology-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#9
Kim T Gurwitz, Richard J Burman, Brandon D Murugan, Shaun Garnett, Tariq Ganief, Nelson C Soares, Joseph V Raimondo, Jonathan M Blackburn
A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-positive individuals are affected by the cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunction that characterizes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the molecular etiology of HAND remains largely uncharacterized, HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) is thought to be an important etiological cause. Here we have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based discovery proteomics to identify the quantitative, cell-wide changes that occur when non-transformed, differentiated human neurons are treated with HIV-Tat over time...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599750/the-role-of-experiential-and-expressive-negative-symptoms-on-job-obtainment-and-work-outcome-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#10
Katiah Llerena, L Felice Reddy, Robert S Kern
Unemployment rates for schizophrenia are high across all age groups compared to the general population. Past studies have focused on neurocognition as a key determinant of unemployment and poor work outcome in schizophrenia. However, several recent studies suggest that clinical symptoms may be equally or more important than cognitive dysfunction for understanding employment difficulties. An enhanced understanding of the domains of negative symptoms that hinder job obtainment and work outcomes in people with schizophrenia is vital for developing treatments that translate into better employment outcomes...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594894/micrornas-upregulated-during-hiv-infection-target-peroxisome-biogenesis-factors-implications-for-virus-biology-disease-mechanisms-and-neuropathology
#11
Zaikun Xu, Eugene L Asahchop, William G Branton, Benjamin B Gelman, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590364/neurophysiological-effects-of-bitopertin-in-schizophrenia
#12
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Karen A Nolan, Michael L Epstein, Nayla Lehrfeld, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Daniel C Javitt
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and are associated with impaired generation of event-related potential measures including auditory mismatch negativity. Parallel studies of the NMDAR agonist d-serine have suggested that sensitivity of these measures to glutamate-based interventions is related to symptomatic and cognitive response. Bitopertin is a selective inhibitor of glycine transport...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590052/clinical-report-a-patient-with-a-late-diagnosis-of-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-and-a-response-to-treatment
#13
Ahmad Alhariri, Katherine Hamilton, Vikash Oza, Kelly Cordoro, Nara L Sobreira, Mary Malloy, Anne Slavotinek
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, autosomal recessive, inborn error of bile acid metabolism characterized by diarrhea in infancy, juvenile cataracts in childhood, tendon xanthomas developing in the second to third decades of life, and progressive neurologic dysfunction in adulthood. The condition is caused by mutations in the CYP27A1 gene that result in decreased production of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and elevated levels of cholestanol and bile alcohols. We present a 36-year-old male of Han ethnicity who developed xanthomas of his Achilles tendons and suffered neurocognitive declines and gait deterioration in his second decade...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581466/high-dose-chemotherapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-a-multi-centre-retrospective-analysis-from-the-united-kingdom
#14
S Kassam, E Chernucha, A O'Neill, C Hemmaway, T Cummins, S Montoto, A Lennard, G Adams, K Linton, P McKay, D Davies, C Rowntree, S Easdale, T A Eyre, R Marcus, K Cwynarski, C P Fox
The prognosis of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has improved in recent years. This has partly been achieved by remission induction protocols incorporating high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and rituximab. Given the high rates of relapse, consolidation therapy is usually considered in first response. Whole brain radiotherapy may prolong PFS but appears to confer no long-term survival advantage and is associated with significant neurocognitive dysfunction. Attempts to improve efficacy and reduce neurotoxicity of consolidation therapy have included thiotepa-based high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (HDC-ASCT)...
June 5, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576546/d2-d3-dopamine-receptor-binding-with-f-18-fallypride-correlates-of-executive-function-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Nora S Vyas, Monte S Buchsbaum, Douglas S Lehrer, Brian M Merrill, Alex DeCastro, Nicholas A Doninger, Bradley T Christian, Jogeshwar Mukherjee
Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for different tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels with frontal and temporal neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575231/everyday-multitasking-abilities-in-older-hiv-adults-neurobehavioral-correlates-and-the-mediating-role-of-metacognition
#16
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, S P Woods, A Umlauf, J C Scott, D J Moore
Objective: The prevalence of older adults living with HIV is rising, as is their risk for everyday functioning problems associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Multitasking, the ability to maintain and carry out subgoals in support of a larger goal, is a multidimensional skill ubiquitous during most real-life tasks and associated with prefrontal networks that are vulnerable in HIV. Understanding factors associated with multitasking will improve characterization of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570730/efficacy-of-stereotactic-conformal-radiotherapy-vs-conventional-radiotherapy-on-benign-and-low-grade-brain-tumors-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Rakesh Jalali, Tejpal Gupta, Jayant S Goda, Savita Goswami, Nalini Shah, Debnarayan Dutta, Uday Krishna, Jayita Deodhar, Padmavati Menon, Sadhna Kannan, Rajiv Sarin
Importance: Evidence for application of stereotactic and other conformal radiotherapy techniques in treating brain tumors is largely based on data derived from dosimetric, retrospective, or small prospective studies. Therefore, we conducted a randomized clinical trial of stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) compared with conventional radiotherapy (ConvRT) evaluating clinically meaningful end points. Objective: To compare neurocognitive and endocrine functional outcomes and survival at 5 years in young patients with residual and/or progressive benign or low-grade brain tumors treated with SCRT and ConvRT techniques...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567586/tumor-related-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-diffuse-glioma-a-systematic-review-of-neurocognitive-functioning-prior-to-anti-tumor-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Emma van Kessel, Anniek E Baumfalk, Martine J E van Zandvoort, Pierre A Robe, Tom J Snijders
Deficits in neurocognitive functioning (NCF) frequently occur in glioma patients. Both treatment and the tumor itself contribute to these deficits. Data about the role of the tumor are scarce, because NCF has mostly been studied postoperatively. We aimed to summarize data on pre-treatment NCF in glioma patients and to determine the overall and domain-specific prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction. We searched PubMed and Embase according to PRISMA-P protocol for studies that evaluated pre-treatment NCF in glioma patients (1995-November 2016) and extracted information about NCF...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567537/hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Christian Eggers, Gabriele Arendt, Katrin Hahn, Ingo W Husstedt, Matthias Maschke, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Mark Obermann, Thorsten Rosenkranz, Eva Schielke, Elmar Straube
The modern antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection has considerably lowered the incidence of opportunistic infections. With the exception of the most severe dementia manifestations, the incidence and prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have not decreased, and HAND continues to be relevant in daily clinical practice. Now, HAND occurs in earlier stages of HIV infection, and the clinical course differs from that before the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544904/decreased-prefrontal-functional-brain-response-during-memory-testing-in-women-with-cushing-s-syndrome-in-remission
#20
Oskar Ragnarsson, Andreas Stomby, Per Dahlqvist, Johan A Evang, Mats Ryberg, Tommy Olsson, Jens Bollerslev, Lars Nyberg, Gudmundur Johannsson
Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks...
May 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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