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Literature review

Zacharias G Laoutidis, Georgia E Lekka, Kanellos T Kioulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the existing literature on clinical trials with glutamatergic agents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect size. DATA SOURCES: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies, using the following search terms: (glutamate OR glutaminergic OR glutamatergic OR NMDA OR AMPA OR kainate) AND (obsessive-compulsive disorder OR obsessive OR compulsive OR OCD)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Srinath Satyanarayana, Madhukar Pai, Beena E Thomas, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Soumya Swaminathan, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: India has 23% of the global burden of active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 27% of the world's "missing" patients, which includes those who may not have received effective TB care and could potentially spread TB to others. The "cascade of care" is a useful model for visualizing deficiencies in case detection and retention in care, in order to prioritize interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which treats about half of India's TB patients...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Sandeep Kandregula, Amey R Savardekar, B N Nandeesh, A Arivazhagan, Malla Bhaskar Rao
Giant hypothalamic hamartomas (GHH) are extremely rare lesions in infants and usually intrinsically epileptogenic. We present the case of a 10-month-old girl child presenting with drug-resistant seizures and a giant hypothalamic lesion that was confirmed as hamartoma on histopathology. Surgical decompression and disconnection from the hypothalamus was performed with the intent of controlling her seizures. Unfortunately, the patient developed right middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction, possibly due to vasospasm or thrombosis of the vessels...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Linda Govere, Ephraim M Govere
BACKGROUND: With the rapid growth of minority populations in the United States, the need to train healthcare providers to give culturally competent care has never been greater. Extensive research on cultural competence of healthcare providers has been conducted, but no systematic review specifically focused on the effect of cultural competence training on patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups. AIMS: To search and critically appraise published research articles that evaluated the effectiveness of cultural competence training of healthcare providers on improving patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups...
October 25, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Patrick Corrigan, Georg Schomerus, Valery Shuman, Dana Kraus, Debbie Perlick, Autumn Harnish, Magdalena Kulesza, Kathleen Kane-Willis, Sang Qin, David Smelson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. METHODS: A review of key studies from the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field...
October 25, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Teresa T Vo, Sheeba Varghese Gupta
For treatment-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, efavirenz (EFV) together with tenofovir and emtricitabine were once widely prescribed given its efficacy and ease of administration in a combination pill. However, the high rate of central nervous system toxicities from EFV prompted the United States Department of Health and Human Services to move the EFV-based regimen from the recommended to the alternative category. For patients who do meet the criteria for newer recommended antiretroviral treatments, EFV is a viable option and is often the mainstay of treatment outside the United States, as newer antiretroviral treatments are more expensive...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Radha V Patel, Kristy M Shaeer, Pooja Patel, Aleksey Garmaza, Kornwalee Wiangkham, Rachel B Franks, Olivia Pane, Nicholas W Carris
In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern including West Nile Virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Amanda C Capino, Jamie L Miller, Peter N Johnson
The need for sedation and analgesia and treatment of iatrogenic drug withdrawal is common in critically ill children. First-line therapy typically includes opioid agonists. However, clonidine, a central alpha2 agonist, has been suggested as a treatment option for sedation and analgesia and iatrogenic drug withdrawal. Therefore, we conducted a literature search to identify articles evaluating the use of enteral and transdermal clonidine in critically ill infants and children for sedation and analgesia and treatment of iatrogenic drug withdrawal...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Michael J Mitchell, Catherine Metzler-Guillemain, Toure Aminata, Charles Coutton, Christophe Arnoult, Pierre F Ray
Azoospermia, defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate, is estimated to affect up to 1% of men in the general population. Assisted reproductive technologies have revolutionized the treatment of infertility, and some azoospermic men, those with a post-meiotic defect, can conceive following the use of viable spermatoza recovered from testicular or epididymal biopsies. Although male infertility is a multifactorial disease, it is believed that genetic factors are predominant in the etiology of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Shaobin Lin, Yi Zhou, Qun Fang, Jianzhu Wu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Yuanjun Ji, Yanmin Luo
The current study presents the cases of two unrelated patients with similar clinical features, including craniofacial anomalies, developmental delay/intellectual disability and cardiac malformations, that are consistent with chromosome 10q26 deletion syndrome. High‑resolution single‑nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed that 10q26 terminal deletions were present in these two patients. The locations and sizes of the 10q26 deletions in these two patients were compared with the locations and sizes of 10q26 deletions in 30 patients recorded in the DECIPHER database and 18 patients characterized in previous studies through chromosomal microarray analysis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kareem Bedeir, Raghu Seethala, Edward Kelly
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a potentially life-saving procedure for trauma patients with severe respiratory failure. Despite this, only a limited number of publications report series of trauma patients who underwent ECLS. The performance and safety of this technology in trauma patients is not fully understood. We described the efficacy and complications of ECLS in trauma patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: A systematic review of published reports was performed utilizing the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Chiara Robba, Andrea Ortu, Federico Bilotta, Alessandra Lombardo, Mypinder S Sekhon, Fabio Gallo, Basil F Matta
BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) is an established salvage therapy for severe respiratory failure, and may provide an alternative form of treatment for trauma-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when conventional treatments have failed. The need for systemic anticoagulation is a relative contraindication in patients with bleeding risks, especially in multi traumatic injury. METHODS: We describe a case series of four trauma patients with ARDS who were managed with ECMO admitted to the Neuro Critical Care Unit (NCCU) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge (UK), from January 2000 to January 2016...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Heather K Neilson, Megan S Farris, Chelsea R Stone, Marcus M Vaska, Darren R Brenner, Christine M Friedenreich
OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity increases postmenopausal and possibly premenopausal breast cancer risk, although different biologic mechanisms are proposed. Our primary objective was to estimate breast cancer risk associated with high versus low levels of moderate-vigorous recreational activity, separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature published to July 2015. Included reports were cohort or case-control studies relating moderate-vigorous recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent ≥3...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Liam F Fitzgerald, Anita D Christie, Jane A Kent
Despite intensive efforts to understand the extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity changes in older humans, the answer to this important question remains unclear. To determine what the preponderance of evidence from in vivo studies suggests, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of age on muscle oxidative capacity as measured noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary aim was to examine potential moderators contributing to differences in results across studies, including muscle group, physical activity status, and sex...
July 18, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Kenneth Finkelstein, Nancy Beckvar, Tom Dillon
The study goal was to develop a sediment PCB dose-response model based on benthic invertebrate effects to PCBs. The authors used an equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach to generate predicted PCB sediment effect concentrations (largely Aroclor 1254) associated with a gradient of toxic effects in benthic organisms from effects observed in the aquatic toxicity studies. This study differs from all other EqP collective sediment investigations in that the authors examined a common dose-response gradient of effects for PCBs rather than a single, protective value...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
A Honig, D Sierink, B Verwey
Care provided by consultation-liaison (CL) psychiatry and general hospital (GH) psychiatry varies widely. This means that certain services are almost unrecognisable and therefore less readily available to patients. <br/> AIM: To describe the core tasks of current CL- and GH-psychiatry care and to suggest how these tasks can best be performed and developed in the future.<br/> METHOD: We conducted a selective review of relevant CL- and GH-related literature and combined the information we obtained with the results of a consultation with CL-psychiatrists about how CL- and GL psychiatry should function in the future...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
P Wetzelaer, J Lokkerbol, A Arntz, A van Asselt, S Evers
So far, there has not been a complete overview of the cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for patients with a personality disorder.<br/> AIM: To provide an overview of scientific literature on the cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for patients with a personality disorder.<br/> METHOD: We reviewed the literature systematically, searching the NHS EED, PubMed and PsycINFO databases. We concentrated solely on full economic evaluations of treatments in which all patients had a personality disorder...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
M Blankers
One of the main reasons for treating patients using internet interventions is that this modality is considered highly efficient. However, little is known about the actual cost-effectiveness of internet interventions for alcohol use disorders (aud).<br/> AIM: To provide insight in the cost-effectiveness of internet interventions for the treatment of aud.<br/> METHOD: Review of the relevant literature in this area.<br/> RESULTS: A considerable amount of research has been performed on the effectiveness of internet interventions for aud, with mostly positive findings...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
A T G Paulus, R M W A Drost, D Ruwaard, S M A A Evers
Mental health disorders may bring costs and benefits to areas and sectors lying outside the health care system. However, little is known about these inter-sectoral costs and benefits (ICBs) in spite of the increasing interest in societal cost-benefit analyses (SCBA) that attempt to quantify all costs and benefits involved.<br/> AIM: To present a first inventory of ICBs relating to mental health care and to describe the relation between ICBs and SCBA.<br/> METHOD: We reviewed the literature and conducted a secondary analysis of the results of a previous study...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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