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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648148/debt-counselling-for-depression-in-primary-care-an-adaptive-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-decoder-study
#1
Mark B Gabbay, Adele Ring, Richard Byng, Pippa Anderson, Rod S Taylor, Caryn Matthews, Tirril Harris, Vashti Berry, Paula Byrne, Elliot Carter, Pam Clarke, Laura Cocking, Suzanne Edwards, Richard Emsley, Mauro Fornasiero, Lucy Frith, Shaun Harris, Peter Huxley, Siw Jones, Peter Kinderman, Michael King, Liv Kosnes, Daniel Marshall, Dave Mercer, Carl May, Debbie Nolan, Ceri Phillips, Tim Rawcliffe, Alexandra V Sardani, Elizabeth Shaw, Sam Thompson, Jane Vickery, Brian Wainman, Mark Warner
BACKGROUND: Depression and debt are common in the UK. Debt Counselling for Depression in Primary Care: an adaptive randomised controlled pilot trial (DeCoDer) aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the addition of a primary care debt counselling advice service to usual care for patients with depression and debt. However, the study was terminated early during the internal pilot trial phase because of recruitment delays. This report describes the rationale, methods and findings of the pilot study, and implications for future research...
June 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647007/childhood-psychiatric-disorders-as-risk-factor-for-subsequent-substance-abuse-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Annabeth P Groenman, Tieme W P Janssen, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (<18 years old) ADHD, ODD or CD, anxiety, or depression in relation to later alcohol-, nicotine-, or drug-related disorders or substance use disorders (SUDs) published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language from 1986 to May 2016...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646804/pilot-investigation-of-2-nondiet-approaches-to-improve-weight-and-health
#3
Kelly H Webber, Laurel Mellin, Lindsey Mayes, Igor Mitrovic, Matt Saulnier
Context • Weight loss and maintenance are associated with many health benefits, but long-term maintenance of weight loss remains elusive for many people. Overweight individuals are at higher risk than normal-weight individuals for stress-induced overeating. The use of stress-management tools in a weight loss program might decrease the physiological stress that fuels overeating and improve posttreatment maintenance of weight loss Objective • The study intended to compare the differences in outcomes between 2 approaches to achieving weight loss and changes in health-stress reduction and intuitive eating (IE)-during a 14-wk period...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#4
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641491/nicotine-and-cigarette-smoke-modulate-nrf2-bdnf-dopaminergic-signal-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-adult-rat-cerebral-cortex
#5
Nibedita Naha, D N Gandhi, A K Gautam, J Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Nicotine and cigarette smoking (CS) are associated with addiction behavior, drug-seeking, and abuse. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association especially, the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine (DA), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the cerebral cortex, are not fully known. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of BDNF and DA, and suppression of Nrf2 contribute to several pathological and behavioral alterations in adult cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#6
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636580/mediator-effects-of-positive-emotions-on-social-support-and-depression-among-adolescents-suffering-from-mobile-phone-addiction
#7
Menglong Li, Xia Jiang, Yujia Ren
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mental disorder that is widely seen among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction. While it is well known that both positive emtions in adolescents wiotions and social support can have a positive impact by helping individuals to maintain a positive attitude, the correlation between positive emotions, social support, and depression among these adolescents remains to be investigated. This study examined the mediator effects of positive emotions on the relationship between social support and depression among adolescents suffering from mobile phone addiction...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#8
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#9
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624585/contributions-of-the-lateral-habenula-to-circadian-timekeeping
#10
REVIEW
Beatriz Baño-Otálora, Hugh D Piggins
Over the past 20years, substantive research has firmly implicated the lateral habenula in myriad neural processes including addiction, depression, and sleep. More recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that the lateral habenula is a component of the brain's intrinsic daily or circadian timekeeping system. This system centers on the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus that is synchronized to the external world through environmental light information received directly from the eye...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622616/treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-effects-on-patients-with-higher-or-lower-levels-of-ptsd-symptoms
#11
Carol E M Wieferink, Hein A de Haan, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Martine Fledderus, Tim Kok
While guidelines advise integrated treatment of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), recent studies and reviews find no convincing evidence of different outcomes following treatment between non-trauma focused integrated programs and SUD treatment alone. In this study, we analyzed whether SUD patients with higher levels of PTSD symptoms receiving standard, non-integrated SUD treatment (N=145) differed in outcomes compared to patients with lower levels of PTSD symptoms (N=152)...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622206/bupropion-augmentation-in-a-case-of-compulsive-buying-disorder
#12
Gianna Sepede, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Fiori, Massimo Di Giannantonio
BACKGROUND: Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617949/anxiety-and-depression-among-school-students-in-jordan-prevalence-risk-factors-and-predictors
#13
Malakeh Z Malak, Anas H Khalifeh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression, examine their relationships with sociodemographic factors and Internet addiction, and identify their main predictors among Jordanian school students aged 12-18 years. DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive correlational study was conducted on a random sample of 800 students from 10 public schools in Amman. Symptom Checklist-anxiety, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children, and Young's Internet Addiction Tool were used for the purpose...
June 15, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617388/-substance-abuse-a-relationship-with-childhood-traumas
#14
A A Portnova, Yu P Sivolap
Childhood maltreatment contributes to poor mental and physical health and besides, in some cases, not only in early age but also throughout the life of the individual. Adverse effects of childhood trauma, along with depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, include predisposition to substance abuse. A reduction of child abuse may decrease the prevalence of mental disorders, including addictive disorders, and improve mental health.
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605494/glutamate-transport-a-new-bench-to-bedside-mechanism-for-treating-drug-abuse
#15
Sade Spencer, Peter W Kalivas
Drug addiction has often been described as a "hijacking" of the brain circuits involved in learning and memory. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its contribution to synaptic plasticity and learning processes is well established in animal models. Likewise, over the past twenty years the addiction field has ascribed a critical role for glutamatergic transmission in the development of addiction. Chronic drug use produces enduring neuroadaptations in corticostriatal projections that are believed to contribute to a maladaptive deficit in inhibitory control over behavior...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600927/diverging-effects-of-nicotine-on-motor-learning-performance-improvement-in-deprived-smokers-and-attenuation-in-non-smokers
#16
J Grundey, R Amu, G Batsikadze, W Paulus, M A Nitsche
Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication...
May 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600883/association-between-elementary-school-personality-and-high-school-smoking-and-drinking
#17
Sarah J Peterson, Gregory T Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Among U.S. high school students, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with numerous concurrent and future harms. We tested whether multiple elementary school personality dispositions to behave impulsively can predict these addictive behaviors invariably across gender and race. DESIGN AND SETTING: This longitudinal design involved testing whether individual differences on impulsigenic traits in elementary school predicted drinking and smoking four years later in high school in 23 public schools in Kentucky, USA...
June 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598958/internet-game-addiction-depression-and-escape-from-negative-emotions-in-adulthood-a-nationwide-community-sample-of-korea
#18
Dong Jun Kim, Kiwon Kim, Hae-Woo Lee, Jin-Pyo Hong, Maeng Je Cho, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Jung-Yoon Heo, Hong Jin Jeon
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between adult Internet game addiction (IGA) and mental disorders. A total of 1401 adults aged between 18 and 74 years participated in this study. The IGA group had significantly younger patients, and it showed a higher proportion of unmarried and unemployed adults, and higher rates of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt than the non-IGA group. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that IGA was significantly associated with major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depressive disorders adjusting for all variables...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597664/-addictive-substances-in-fatal-cases-of-fall-jump-from-height
#19
Martin Zdarílek, Peter Očko, Ján Šikuta, Ľuboš Nižnanský, Jozef Šidlo
The aim of the study is to analyse causes of fatal cases of falls from height focusing on the occurrence of addictive substances. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of cases dealing with falls/jumps autopsied at the Institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bratislava in the years 2005-2014 accounting for a catchment area with approximately 1.2 m population. Selection criteria were met in 360 cases, i.e. approximately 4 % of all cases autopsied. There were 68 % of men and 32 % of women involved. The age interval ranged from 10 up to 93 years (mean age 50 years)...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592990/predictors-of-successful-long-term-weight-loss-maintenance-a-two-year-follow-up
#20
Ryoko Sawamoto, Takehiro Nozaki, Tomoe Nishihara, Tomokazu Furukawa, Tomokazu Hata, Gen Komaki, Nobuyuki Sudo
BACKGROUND: Weight regain is a common problem following weight loss intervention, with most people who seek treatment for obesity able to lose weight, but few able to sustain the changes in behavior required to prevent subsequent weight regain. The identification of factors that predict which patients will successfully maintain weight loss or who are at risk of weight regain after weight loss intervention is necessary to improve the current weight maintenance strategies. The aim of the present study is identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance by women with overweight or obesity who completed group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
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