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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523558/epigenome-editing-in-the-brain
#1
Pavel Bashtrykov, Albert Jeltsch
Epigenome editing aims for an introduction or removal of chromatin marks at a defined genomic region using artificial EpiEffectors resulting in a modulation of the activity of the targeted functional DNA elements. Rationally designed EpiEffectors consist of a targeting DNA-binding module (such as a zinc finger protein, TAL effector, or CRISPR/Cas complex) and usually, but not exclusively, a catalytic domain of a chromatin-modifying enzyme. Epigenome editing opens a completely new strategy for basic research of the central nervous system and causal treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases, because rewriting of epigenetic information can lead to the direct and durable control of the expression of disease-associated genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512684/therapeutic-applications-of-classic-hallucinogens
#2
Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
This chapter reviews what is known about the therapeutic uses of the serotonergic or classic hallucinogens, i.e., psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin that exert their effects primarily through agonist activity at serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptors. Following a review of the history of human use and scientific study of these drugs, the data from clinical research are summarized, including extensive work on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, studies of the use of LSD and psilocybin to relieve distress concerning death, particularly in patients with advanced or terminal cancer, and more limited data concerning the use of classic hallucinogens to treat mood and anxiety disorders...
May 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503193/correlates-comorbidities-and-suicidal-tendencies-of-problematic-game-use-in-a-national-wide-sample-of-korean-adults
#3
Subin Park, Hong Jin Jeon, Jung Woo Son, Haesoo Kim, Jin Pyo Hong
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of problematic game use in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. METHODS: Of the 6022 subjects who participated in the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study and completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, 1397 game users were evaluated for problematic game use using 9-item DSM-5 proposed criteria for Internet gaming disorder...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502978/the-opioid-receptor-triple-agonist-dpi-125-produces-analgesia-with-less-respiratory-depression-and-reduced-abuse-liability
#4
Shou-Pu Yi, Qing-Hong Kong, Yu-Lei Li, Chen-Ling Pan, Jie Yu, Ben-Qiang Cui, Ying-Fei Wang, Guan-Lin Wang, Pei-Lan Zhou, Li-Li Wang, Ze-Hui Gong, Rui-Bin Su, Yue-Hai Shen, Gang Yu, Kwen-Jen Chang
Opioid analgesics remain the first choice for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, but they are also notorious for their respiratory depression and addictive effects. This study focused on the pharmacology of a novel opioid receptor mixed agonist DPI-125 and attempted to elucidate the relationship between the δ-, μ- and κ-receptor potency ratio and respiratory depression and abuse liability. Five diarylmethylpiperazine compounds (DPI-125, DPI-3290, DPI-130, KUST202 and KUST13T02) were selected for this study...
May 15, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497380/from-gene-to-behavior-l-type-calcium-channel-mechanisms-underlying-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#5
REVIEW
Zeeba D Kabir, Arlene Martínez-Rivera, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
The L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) Cav1.2 and Cav1.3, encoded by the CACNA1C and CACNA1D genes, respectively, are important regulators of calcium influx into cells and are critical for normal brain development and plasticity. In humans, CACNA1C has emerged as one of the most widely reproduced and prominent candidate risk genes for a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
May 11, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496418/toward-the-identification-of-a-specific-psychopathology-of-substance-use-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Angelo G I Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Icro Maremmani
Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD) patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA) on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492960/dual-diagnosis-in-depression-treatment-recommendations
#7
Judit Tirado Muñoz, Adriana Farré, Joan Mestre-Pintó, Nestor Szerman, Marta Torrens
Comorbidity between substance use disorders (SUD) and major depression (MD) is the most common dual pathology in the field of addiction to substances and has prevalence rates ranging between 12% and 80%, which complicates the response to treatment and worsens the prognosis of patients. Differentiating between diagnoses of induced depressive episodes and primary depressive episodes concurrent to substance use is especially relevant for therapeutic management. This article presents the state of the art of the currently available pharmacologic treatments of comorbid depression in patients with SUD, taking into account the safety and risk of abuse of antidepressant drugs...
April 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488881/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-methadone-maintenance-a-feasibility-trial
#8
Sarah Bowen, Vanessa C Somohano, Rachel E Rutkie, Jacob A Manuel, Kristoffer L Rehder
OBJECTIVES: As rates of opiate misuse rise in the United States, so do significant associated health and financial consequences to afflicted individuals, their families, and society at large. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is one evidence-based approach to treating opiate addiction, yet supplemental psychosocial treatment to support this approach is lacking. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) has shown to be efficacious in various substance use populations, but has yet to be assessed with MMT clients...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487076/evidence-for-differential-opioid-use-disorder-in-schizophrenia-in-an-addiction-treatment-population
#9
Joshua Chiappelli, Shuo Chen, Ann Hackman, L Elliot Hong
Although people diagnosed with schizophrenia are known to have elevated risks of abuse and dependence for nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis, it is less clear if schizophrenia is associated with higher rates of opioid use disorders compared to either the general population or individuals with other major psychiatric disorders. Here we examine a large publicly available database from substance abuse treatment centers to compare how frequently patients with schizophrenia report problems with heroin or other opioid drugs compared to other major drugs of abuse...
May 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486877/effects-of-the-mental-health-parity-and-addictions-equality-act-on-depression-treatment-choice-in-primary-care-facilities
#10
Daniel M Goldberg, Hsien-Chang Lin
Objective The Mental Health Parity and Addictions Equality Act (MHPAEA) of 2010 in the United States sought to expand mental health insurance benefits on par with medical benefits. As primary care facilities are often the first step in identifying mental health concerns, it is essential to examine the association of this policy with primary care physicians' choice on depression treatment. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2007-2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, including a weighted total of 162,699,930 depression patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485899/determinants-of-bdnf-blood-levels-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Philippe Nubukpo, Nicolas Ramoz, Murielle Girard, Dominique Malauzat, Philip Gorwood
BACKGROUND: Blood Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol-use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. METHODS: We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of six months, for the AUDIT score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs...
May 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#12
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481178/psilocybin-assisted-therapy-a-review-of-a-novel-treatment-for-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Kelan Thomas, Benjamin Malcolm, Dan Lastra
Recent research suggests that functional connectivity changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Hyperconnectivity in the default mode network has been associated with psychopathology, but psychedelic serotonin agonists like psilocybin may profoundly disrupt these dysfunctional neural network circuits and provide a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. We have reviewed the current literature to investigate the efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476947/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-persistently-alters-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-endocannabinoid-mediated-excitatory-synaptic-plasticity-in-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons
#14
Kathryn Hausknecht, Ying-Ling Shen, Rui-Xiang Wang, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to increased addiction risk which could be mediated by enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that PE enhances excitatory synaptic strength by facilitating an anti-Hebbian form of long-term potentiation (LTP). In this study, we investigated the effect of PE on endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in VTA DA neurons. Rats were exposed to moderate (3 g/kg/day) or high (6 g/kg/day) level of ethanol during gestation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476275/beliefs-about-the-consequences-of-using-benzodiazepines-among-persons-with-opioid-use-disorder
#15
Michael D Stein, Bradley J Anderson, Shannon R Kenney, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to addiction treatment programs report high rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose and other serious consequences. However, little is known about the beliefs opioid users have about the consequences of BZD use. METHODS: We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification (N=476; 95.0% enrollment) and identified 245 who reported BZD use in the past 30days and/or had a positive toxicology...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474052/disability-income-support-design-and-mental-illnesses-a-review-of-australia-and-ontario
#16
Ashley McAllister, Maree L Hackett, Stephen R Leeder
AIM: Mental illnesses have many distinctive features that make determining eligibility for disability income support challenging - for example, their fluctuating nature, invisibility and lack of diagnostic clarity. How do policy makers deal with these features when designing disability income support? More specifically, how do mental illnesses come to be considered eligible disabilities, what tools are used to assess mental illnesses for eligibility, what challenges exist in this process, and what approaches are used to address these challenges? We aimed to determine what evidence is available to policy makers in Australia and Ontario, Canada, to answer these questions...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472701/optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#17
Mohamed A Khalil, Alia A Saleh, Sherif M Gohar, Dalia Hamed Khalil, Mohamed Said
BACKGROUND: Research in bipolar disorder suggests the presence of structural brain abnormalities. It is not clear whether these findings are trait markers or operate with the onset and progress with disease severity and duration. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that detects degenerative changes in the retina reflecting brain degeneration. This study aimed at detecting these changes and relating them to disease severity and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A case-control study conducted in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine hospital, Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471281/is-a-history-of-sexual-abuse-related-to-poor-sleep-among-former-opioid-addicted-women-with-and-without-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#18
Einat Peles, Shay Hacohen, Anat Sason, Smadar Lamberg, Shaul Schrieber, Miriam Adelson
To study whether poor sleep that is known to characterize methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients may be related to their past sexual abuse and/or their treatment modality, we compared perceived sleep indices (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)) and depression (21-HAM-D) between women with and without sexual abuse history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) in MMT and in a non-MMT ("opioid medication-free") in-patient rehabilitation center (MABAT). Twenty-six sexually abused women in MMT had the worst sleep quality scores (PSQI) (10...
May 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469558/intracellular-fibroblast-growth-factor-14-emerging-risk-factor-for-brain-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Jessica Di Re, Paul A Wadsworth, Fernanda Laezza
The finely tuned regulation of neuronal firing relies on the integrity of ion channel macromolecular complexes. Minimal disturbances of these tightly regulated networks can lead to persistent maladaptive plasticity of brain circuitry. The intracellular fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) belongs to the nexus of proteins interacting with voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels at the axonal initial segment. Through isoform-specific interactions with the intracellular C-terminal tail of neuronal Nav channels (Nav1.1, Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465521/neural-connectivity-in-internet-gaming-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder-a-resting-state-eeg-coherence-study
#20
Su Mi Park, Ji Yoon Lee, Yeon Jin Kim, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Yeon Jung, Bo Kyung Sohn, Dai Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
The present study compared neural connectivity and the level of phasic synchronization between neural populations in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and healthy controls (HCs) using resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) coherence analyses. For this study, 92 adult males were categorized into three groups: IGD (n = 30), AUD (n = 30), and HC (n = 32). The IGD group exhibited increased intrahemispheric gamma (30-40 Hz) coherence compared to the AUD and HC groups regardless of psychological features (e...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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