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Evidence based

Lisa Maier, Athanasios Typas
In the recent years, there is accumulating evidence for a strong impact of medication on the gut microbiota composition. This evidence comes from metagenomics-based associations and extends beyond classical antibacterials to a handful of human-targeted drugs. To answer whether such effects are direct and explore their consequences in human health, we need to develop experimental platforms that will allow for systematic profiling of drug-microbiota interactions. Here, we discuss approaches, considerations, experimental setups and strategies that can be used to tackle this need, but can be also readily transmitted to related questions in the microbiome field...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Erin L Rich, Frederic M Stoll, Peter H Rudebeck
Humans and animals demonstrate extraordinary flexibility in choice behavior, particularly when deciding based on subjective preferences. We evaluate options on different scales, deliberate, and often change our minds. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie these dynamic aspects of decision-making, although neural activity in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) likely plays a central role. Recent evidence from studies in macaques shows that attention modulates value responses in OFC, and that ensembles of OFC neurons dynamically signal different options during choices...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Lisa M Gudenkauf, Shawna L Ehlers
Cancer distress screening and subsequent referral for psychosocial intervention has been mandated for continued cancer center accreditation. Increasing emphasis is being placed on the referral component of this mandate, ensuring that patient distress is not only identified but also effectively treated. Many evidence-based interventions exist for cancer distress. Specific interventions can effectively target biopsychosocial impacts of stress and promote adaptive coping, focusing on problem-solving, social support utilization, assertive communication, sexual health and intimacy, adherence to medical and supportive care recommendations, health behavior change, and emotional processing and expression...
November 20, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Neil B Guterman, Jennifer L Bellamy, Aaron Banman
Despite mounting evidence on the importance of fathers in children's development, evidence-based perinatal home visitation programs have largely overlooked fathers in the design and delivery of services. This paper describes the design, development, and pilot testing of the "Dads Matter" enhancement to standard home visiting services. Dads Matter is a manualized intervention package designed to fully incorporate fathers into perinatal home visiting services. Twenty-four families were enrolled in a pilot study to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the intervention...
November 20, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tao Jia, Jungyoon Choi, Jéremy Ciccione, Maxime Henry, Ahmad Mehdi, Jean Martinez, Béatrice Eymin, Gilles Subra, Jean-Luc Coll
Angiogenesis strongly depends on the activation of integrins, especially integrin αvβ3, and of neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a co-receptor of VEGFR2. Dual-targeted molecules that simultaneously block both of them are expected have increased anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity. Toward this goal, we generated bifunctional 40 nm-sized silica nanoparticles (NPs) coated with controlled amounts of cRGD and ATWLPPR peptides and studied their affinity, selectivity and biological activity in HUVECs. Sub-nanomolar concentrations of NPs grafted either with ATWLPPR alone or in combination with cRGD exhibit potent and specific antagonist activity against VEGFR2/AKT signaling...
October 29, 2017: Biomaterials
E R Palser, A Fotopoulou, J M Kilner
Correctly estimating the confidence we should have in our decisions has traditionally been viewed as a perceptual judgement based solely on the strength or quality of sensory information. However, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the motor system contributes to judgements of perceptual confidence. Here, we manipulated the speed at which participants' moved using a behavioural priming task and showed that increasing movement speed above participants' baseline measures disrupts their ability to form accurate confidence judgements about their performance...
November 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Adelheid Soubry
What are the effects of our environment on human development and the next generation? Numerous studies have provided ample evidence that a healthy environment and lifestyle of the mother is important for her offspring. Biological mechanisms underlying these environmental influences have been proposed to involve alterations in the epigenome. Is there enough evidence to suggest a similar contribution from the part of the father? Animal models provide proof of a transgenerational epigenetic effect through the paternal germ line, but can this be translated to humans? To date, literature on fathers is scarce...
November 23, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Weixia Chen, Lei Wang, Yaofei Niu, Guang Ji, Lianjun Xing
AIMS: Spleen and kidney deficiency syndrome (SKD), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome, is the fundamental mechanisms of TCM. We aim to investigate the distribution of peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) in HBV patients with SKD or non-SKD. METHODS: Peripheral venous blood from patients with HBV infection and healthy volunteers was collected to extract PBMC, and flow cytometry assay was used to measure the distribution of DCs subsets, including myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Teruaki Enoto, Yuuki Wada, Yoshihiro Furuta, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Takayuki Yuasa, Kazufumi Okuda, Kazuo Makishima, Mitsuteru Sato, Yousuke Sato, Toshio Nakano, Daigo Umemoto, Harufumi Tsuchiya
Lightning and thunderclouds are natural particle accelerators. Avalanches of relativistic runaway electrons, which develop in electric fields within thunderclouds, emit bremsstrahlung γ-rays. These γ-rays have been detected by ground-based observatories, by airborne detectors and as terrestrial γ-ray flashes from space. The energy of the γ-rays is sufficiently high that they can trigger atmospheric photonuclear reactions that produce neutrons and eventually positrons via β(+) decay of the unstable radioactive isotopes, most notably (13)N, which is generated via (14)N + γ → (13)N + n, where γ denotes a photon and n a neutron...
November 22, 2017: Nature
Fabian Westhauser, Francesca Ciraldo, Preethi Balasubramanian, Anne-Sophie Senger, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam, Aldo R Boccaccini
Three-dimensional 45S5 bioactive glass (BG)-based scaffolds are being investigated for bone regeneration. Besides structural properties, controlled time-dependent alteration of scaffold morphology is crucial to achieve optimal scaffold characteristics for successful bone repair. There is no in vitro evidence concerning the dependence between structural characteristics and dissolution behavior of 45S5 BG-based scaffolds of different morphology. In this study, the dissolution behavior of scaffolds fabricated by the foam replica method using polyurethane foam (Group A) and maritime sponge Spongia Agaricina (Group B) as sacrificial templates was analyzed by micro-computed-tomography (µCT)...
November 23, 2017: Materials
Amedeo De Nicolò, Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giovanna Fatiguso, Fabio Favata, Sarah Allegra, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
BACKGROUND: Recently, due to its high effectiveness and tolerability, the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir became a standard practice. However, limited knowledge is currently available about its pharmacokinetic behavior and intracellular disposition. Recently, our group reported an inverse correlation between entecavir plasma concentrations and the HBV DNA decay at the first and third month of treatment, respectively. ​: In this paper we investigated the disposition of entecavir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in plasma, in order to evaluate the relationship between intracellular penetration and response, in a cohort of naïve patients with HBeAg-negative CHB...
November 23, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
Yanshi Wang, Jingsheng Lin, Xiaoyu Wang, Guanghui Wang, Xinhang Zhang, Bo Yao, Yuandong Zhao, Pengfei Yu, Bin Lin, Yongxiang Liu, Maosheng Cheng
Ynamide, as a versatile synthetic precursor has gained much attention from synthetic chemists and sparked the development of a number of methodologies in constructing various structures. The 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]carbazole was a core scaffold of a series of monoterpene indole alkaloids such as Kopsia, Strychnos and Aspidosperma. In this study, the 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]carbazole derivatives were synthesized via a Brønsted acid-catalyzed tandem cyclization from tryptamine-based ynamides. This strategy prevented Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement by an instantaneous intramolecular nucleophilic trap to indoleninium via in situ formed enol species induced by the formation of a more stable conjugate diene moiety...
November 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cassie Fives, Cynthia C B B Heffron
BACKGROUND: Wide local excisions (WLE) are frequently undertaken in the management of cutaneous melanoma; however there is considerable variability in their macroscopic sampling. The aim of our study was to establish evidence-based guidelines for the macroscopic handling of these specimens with a subsequent review of the impact on our service. METHODS: The study group of 128 cases with initial biopsy and subsequent WLE in our institution in 2010 were identified by a computer-generated search...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Arvind Pandey, Neeraj Dhingra, Pradeep Kumar, Damodar Sahu, D C S Reddy, Padum Narayan, Yujwal Raj, Bhavna Sangal, Nalini Chandra, Saritha Nair, Jitenkumar Singh, Laxmikant Chavan, Deepika Joshi Srivastava, Ugra Mohan Jha, Vinita Verma, Shashi Kant, Madhulekha Bhattacharya, Pushpanjali Swain, Partha Haldar, Lucky Singh, Taoufik Bakkali, John Stover, Savina Ammassari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based planning has been the cornerstone of India's response to HIV/AIDS. Here we describe the process, method and tools used for generating the 2015 HIV estimates and provide a summary of the main results. METHODS: Spectrum software supported by the UNAIDS was used to produce HIV estimates for India as a whole and its States/Union Territories. This tool takes into consideration the size and HIV prevalence of defined population groups and programme data to estimate HIV prevalence, incidence and mortality over time as well as treatment needs...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Astrid van der Horst, Eva Versteijne, Marc G H Besselink, Joost G Daams, Esther B Bulle, Maarten F Bijlsma, Johanna W Wilmink, Otto M van Delden, Jeanin E van Hooft, Nicolaas A P Franken, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Johannes Crezee, Geertjan van Tienhoven
OBJECTIVE: In pancreatic cancer, which is therapy resistant due to its hypoxic microenvironment, hyperthermia may enhance the effect of radio(chemo)therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the validity of the hypothesis that hyperthermia added to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy improves treatment outcome for pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase, supplemented by handsearching, for clinical studies involving hyperthermia in pancreatic cancer patients...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
A Elgalib, S Fidler, K Sabapathy
OBJECTIVES: To produce a summary of the published evidence of the barriers and facilitators for hospital-based routine HIV testing in high-income countries. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies, which described the offer of HIV testing to adults attending emergency departments (EDs) and acute medical units (AMUs) in the UK and US, published between 2006 and 2015. Other high-income countries were not included, as their guidelines do not recommend routine testing for HIV...
November 23, 2017: HIV Medicine
Janet Robertson, Susannah Baines, Eric Emerson, Chris Hatton
BACKGROUND: Constipation can lead to serious health issues and death. This systematic review summarizes international research pertaining to the management of constipation in people with intellectual disability. METHOD: Studies published from 1990 to 2017 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of Science, email requests and cross-citations. Studies were reviewed narratively in relation to identified themes. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were reviewed in relation to three themes: laxative receipt; interventions (dietary fibre, abdominal massage and macrogol); and staff issues (knowledge and training)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Karen Savage, Joseph Firth, Con Stough, Jerome Sarris
Anxiety disorders are chronic and functionally disabling conditions with high psychological stress, characterised by cognitive symptoms of excessive worry and focus difficulties and physiological symptoms such as muscle tension and insomnia. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and is a key target of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of anxiety. Although current pharmaceutical treatments are often efficacious, they may cause undesirable side effects including cognitive decrements and withdrawal symptoms...
November 23, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Outi Kiljunen, Päivi Kankkunen, Pirjo Partanen, Tarja Välimäki
BACKGROUND: Structural and cultural changes in the care of older people have influenced nursing practice, creating a need to identify current competency requirements for nurses working in care homes. Family members have an important role in ensuring the well-being of older people living in care homes, and family members' can provide valuable information about competence requirements. AIM: To explore the expectations of the care home residents' family members regarding the competence of nurses in care homes for older people...
November 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Julie M Campbell, Emily C Marcinowski, George F Michel
Assessing infant handedness has been controversial. Different assessment techniques and theoretical approaches produce different results. Evidence from a dynamic systems perspective showed that the development of postural control during infancy affects the expression of an infant's handedness. However, others found that developmental changes in postural control influenced the amount of symmetrical (bimanual) reaching during infancy, but not hand preference. Since most studies of infant handedness use age to assess development, perhaps measures of an infant's developing neuromotor control, irrespective of age, would better predict changes in an infant's hand preference...
November 23, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
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