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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645203/neurosurgical-randomized-controlled-trials-distance-travelled
#1
Tej D Azad, Anand Veeravagu, Vaishali Mittal, Rogelio Esparza, Eli Johnson, John P A Ioannidis, Gerald A Grant
BACKGROUND: The evidence base for many neurosurgical procedures has been limited. We performed a comprehensive and systematic analysis of study design, quality of reporting, and trial results of neurosurgical randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the design and quality characteristics of neurosurgical RCTs. METHODS: From January 1961 to June 2016, RCTs with >5 patients assessing any 1 neurosurgical procedure against another procedure, nonsurgical treatment, or no treatment were retrieved from MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library...
June 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645183/in-defense-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-the-safest-and-most-successful-microbial-insecticide-available-to-humanity-a-response-to-efsa
#2
Ben Raymond, Brian A Federici
The Bacillus cereus group contains vertebrate pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus and the invertebrate pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbial biopesticides based on B. thuringiensis (Bt) are widely recognized as being among the safest and least environmentally damaging insecticidal products available. Nevertheless, a recent food poisoning incident prompted a European Food Safety Authority review which argued that B. thuringiensis poses a health risk equivalent to B. cereus, a causative agent of diarrhoea...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645070/passive-smoking-and-mortality-from-aortic-dissection-or-aneurysm
#3
Tomomi Kihara, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso, Akiko Tamakoshi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence on the association between passive smoking and risk of aortic dissection or aneurysm is limited. This study aimed to investigate whether passive smoking increases risk of mortality from aortic dissection or aneurysm. METHODS: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study is a prospective community-based cohort study begun in 1988-90 and followed up to the end of 2009. We examined 48,677 individuals (mean age, 56 years; women, 46%) without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer, who provided valid responses to a lifestyle questionnaire including questions on active and passive smoking...
June 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645042/the-changing-health-priorities-of-earthquake-response-and-implications-for-preparedness-a-scoping-review
#4
REVIEW
C Cartwright, M Hall, A C K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644863/a-rule-based-named-entity-recognition-method-for-knowledge-extraction-of-evidence-based-dietary-recommendations
#5
Tome Eftimov, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Peter Korošec
Evidence-based dietary information represented as unstructured text is a crucial information that needs to be accessed in order to help dietitians follow the new knowledge arrives daily with newly published scientific reports. Different named-entity recognition (NER) methods have been introduced previously to extract useful information from the biomedical literature. They are focused on, for example extracting gene mentions, proteins mentions, relationships between genes and proteins, chemical concepts and relationships between drugs and diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644862/high-intensity-corneal-collagen-crosslinking-with-riboflavin-and-uva-in-rat-cornea
#6
Yirui Zhu, Peter S Reinach, Hanlei Zhu, Qiufan Tan, Qinxiang Zheng, Jia Qu, Wei Chen
Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) halts human corneal ectasias progression by increasing stromal mechanical stiffness. Although some reports describe that this procedure is effective in dealing with some infectious and immunologic corneal thinning diseases, there is a need for more animal models whose corneal thickness more closely resemble those occurring in these patients. To meet this need, we describe here high-intensity protocols that are safe and effective for obtaining CXL in rat corneas. Initially, a range of potentially effective UVA doses were evaluated based on their effectiveness in increasing tissue enzymatic resistance to dissolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644859/grief-interventions-for-people-bereaved-by-suicide-a-systematic-review
#7
Katja Linde, Julia Treml, Jana Steinig, Michaela Nagl, Anette Kersting
BACKGROUND: Adaption to the loss of a loved one due to suicide can be complicated by feelings of guilt, shame, responsibility, rejection, and stigmatization. Therefore people bereaved by suicide have an increased risk for developing complicated grief which is related to negative physical and mental disorders and an increased risk for suicidal behavior. Grief interventions are needed for this vulnerable population. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the current state of evidence concerning the effectiveness of interventions that focus on grief for people bereaved by suicide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644848/exploring-the-differences-between-pet-and-non-pet-owners-implications-for-human-animal-interaction-research-and-policy
#8
Jessica Saunders, Layla Parast, Susan H Babey, Jeremy V Miles
There is conflicting evidence about whether living with pets results in better mental and physical health outcomes, with the majority of the empirical research evidence being inconclusive due to methodological limitations. We briefly review the research evidence, including the hypothesized mechanisms through which pet ownership may influence health outcomes. This study examines how pet and non-pet owners differ across a variety of socio-demographic and health measures, which has implications for the proper interpretation of a large number of correlational studies that attempt to draw causal attributions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644735/fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-evidence-based-antenatal-and-postnatal-management-strategies
#9
Dian Winkelhorst, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a relatively rare but potentially lethal disease, leading to severe bleeding complications in 1 in 11.000 newborns. It is the leading cause of thrombocytopenia in healthy term-born neonates. Areas covered: This review summarizes the antenatal as well as postnatal treatment, thus creating a complete overview of all possible management strategies for FNAIT. Expert commentary: The optimal antenatal therapy in order to prevent bleeding complications in pregnancies complicated by FNAIT is non-invasive treatment with weekly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644677/young-athletes-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-single-leg-landing-asymmetries-at-the-time-of-return-to-sport-demonstrate-decreased-knee-function-2-years-later
#10
Matthew P Ithurburn, Mark V Paterno, Kevin R Ford, Timothy E Hewett, Laura C Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Previous work shows that young athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) demonstrate single-leg (SL) landing movement asymmetries at the time of return to sport (RTS); however, the effect of movement asymmetries on longitudinal knee-related function after ACLR has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of SL drop-landing movement symmetry at the time of RTS on knee-related function 2 years later in young athletes after ACLR...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644591/a-heart-for-travel-travel-health-considerations-for-patients-with-heart-disease-and-cardiac-devices
#11
G Flaherty, S De Freitas
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in adult international travellers. Patients living with heart disease should receive specific, individualised pre-travel health advice. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based advice to physicians who are consulted by travellers with cardiovascular disease. Fitness-to-travel evaluation will often be conducted by the general practitioner but other medical specialists may also be consulted for advice. Patients with chronic medical conditions should purchase travel health insurance...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644576/size-dependency-of-tree-growth-response-to-drought-among-norway-spruce-and-european-beech-individuals-in-monospecific-and-mixed-species-stands
#12
Haiyu Ding, Hans Pretzsch, Gerhard Schütze, Thomas Rötzer
Climatic anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to the forest stands. This study analysed the size dependency of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.]) in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response of drought stress, indices including basal area increment, resistance, recovery, and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644548/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-stimulation-for-activities-of-daily-living-and-functional-ability-in-people-after-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Ryo Momosaki, Naoki Yamada, Erika Ota, Masahiro Abo
BACKGROUND: Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain...
June 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644464/a-synthetic-ion-transporter-that-disrupts-autophagy-and-induces-apoptosis-by-perturbing-cellular-chloride-concentrations
#14
Nathalie Busschaert, Seong-Hyun Park, Kyung-Hwa Baek, Yoon Pyo Choi, Jinhong Park, Ethan N W Howe, Jennifer R Hiscock, Louise E Karagiannidis, Igor Marques, Vítor Félix, Wan Namkung, Jonathan L Sessler, Philip A Gale, Injae Shin
Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644443/unexpected-genomic-features-in-widespread-intracellular-bacteria-evidence-for-motility-of-marine-chlamydiae
#15
Astrid Collingro, Stephan Köstlbacher, Marc Mussmann, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Steven J Hallam, Matthias Horn
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important human pathogens and symbionts of protists. Molecular evidence indicates a tremendous diversity of chlamydiae particularly in marine environments, yet our current knowledge is based mainly on terrestrial representatives. Here we provide first insights into the biology of marine chlamydiae representing three divergent clades. Our analysis of single-cell amplified genomes revealed hallmarks of the chlamydial lifestyle, supporting the ancient origin of their characteristic developmental cycle and major virulence mechanisms...
June 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644420/within-what-distance-does-greenness-best-predict-physical-health-a-systematic-review-of-articles-with-gis-buffer-analyses-across-the-lifespan
#16
REVIEW
Matthew Browning, Kangjae Lee
Is the amount of "greenness" within a 250-m, 500-m, 1000-m or a 2000-m buffer surrounding a person's home a good predictor of their physical health? The evidence is inconclusive. We reviewed Web of Science articles that used geographic information system buffer analyses to identify trends between physical health, greenness, and distance within which greenness is measured. Our inclusion criteria were: (1) use of buffers to estimate residential greenness; (2) statistical analyses that calculated significance of the greenness-physical health relationship; and (3) peer-reviewed articles published in English between 2007 and 2017...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644360/quality-improvement-in-pediatric-endoscopy-a-clinical-report-from-the-naspghan-endoscopy-committee
#17
Robert E Kramer, Catharine M Walsh, Diana G Lerner, Douglas S Fishman
The current era of healthcare reform emphasizes the provision of effective, safe, equitable, high-quality, and cost-effective care. Within the realm of gastrointestinal endoscopy in adults, renewed efforts are in place to accurately define and measure quality indicators across the spectrum of endoscopic care. In pediatrics, however, this movement has been less-defined and lacks much of the evidence-base that supports these initiatives in adult care. A need, therefore, exists to help define quality metrics tailored to pediatric practice and provide a toolbox for the development of robust quality improvement (QI) programs within pediatric endoscopy units...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644343/second-line-agents-in-pediatric-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Andréanne N Zizzo, Pamela L Valentino, Prakesh S Shah, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ten percent to 20% of children with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) require second-line therapy to achieve remission. Although current guidelines exist on first-line management, evidence for second-line therapy in treatment-refractory patients is lacking. Our aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of second-line treatments used in this population. METHODS: Electronic and manual searches were used to identify potential studies for inclusion...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644315/management-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-based-on-pathophysiological-evidence
#19
Bram D van Rhijn, Albert J Bredenoord
Over the past decades eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been increasingly diagnosed, and significant progress has been made in our understanding of its pathophysiology. As EoE cannot be cured yet, treatment goals are suppression of disease activity and symptoms as well as the prevention of progression to a more severe disease phenotype. Disease-modifying treatment options can be divided into dietary therapy and immunosuppressive medications, of which topical steroids have been most investigated, yet are still prescribed off-label...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644263/mind-the-facts
#20
Maureen Shawn Kennedy
Nurses must become active in protecting science and evidence-based decision making.
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
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