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Evidence based

K C Zhang, L Chen
Different proficiency in minimally invasive surgery has great impact on efficacy of minimally invasive surgery. Therefore, great importance should be attached to the standardization of minimally invasive surgery. Accurate preoperative staging plays a prerequisite role which emphasizes multiple diagnostic strategies. Precise intraoperative procedure plays an essential role which should be performed according to the evidence-based expert consensus and guideline. Standardized postoperative management plays a crucial role which includes ex vivo lymph node dissection, registry of complication and follow-up and establishment of medical database...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
(no author information available yet)
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
S Francque, N Lanthier, L Verbeke, H Reynaert, C Van Steenkiste, L Vonghia, W J Kwanten, J Weyler, E Trépo, D Cassiman, F Smets, M Komuta, A Driessen, E Dirinck, E Danse, B Op de Beeck, E van Craenenbroeck, Y Van Nieuwenhove, G Hubens, A Geerts, C Moreno
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and associated with considerable liver-related and non-liverrelated morbidity and mortality. There is, however, a lot of uncertainty on how to handle NAFLD in clinical practice. The current guidance document, compiled under the aegis of the Belgian Association for the Study of the Liver by a panel of experts in NAFLD, from a broad range of different specialties, covers many questions encountered in daily clinical practice regarding diagnosis, screening, therapy and follow-up in adult and paediatric patients...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito, Glenn R Cunningham, Frances J Hayes, Howard N Hodis, Alvin M Matsumoto, Peter J Snyder, Ronald S Swerdloff, Frederick C Wu, Maria A Yialamas
Objective: To update the "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Androgen Deficiency Syndromes" guideline published in 2010. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of 10 medical content experts and a clinical practice guideline methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sara J Czaja, Chin Chin Lee, Dolores Perdomo, David Loewenstein, Marina Bravo, Jerad H Moxley PhD, Richard Schulz
Background and Objectives: Family caregivers (CGs) are critical to the provision of long-term services and support for older adults. Numerous intervention programs to alleviate CG distress have been developed and evaluated yet few have been implemented in community settings. This paper describes and presents outcomes from Community REACH, a community implementation of the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II program. Research Design and Methods: Community REACH involved a partnership between REACH II investigators and United HomeCare Services (UHCS), a nonprofit home health organization that provides home health, personal care, companion, and respite services...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the Executive Summary of the second update to the original Practical Guide, published in 2013. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation. Both physicians and patients are becoming more accustomed to the use of these drugs in clinical practice. However, many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these agents in specific clinical situations remain...
March 19, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the second update of the original Practical Guide, published in 2013 [Heidbuchel et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel et al. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2015;17:1467-1507]. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation...
March 17, 2018: European Heart Journal
Kathryn Z Guyton, Ivan Rusyn, Weihsueh A Chiu, Denis E Corpet, Martin van den Berg, Matthew K Ross, David C Christiani, Frederick A Beland, Martyn T Smith
Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as 'is genotoxic,' 'is immunosuppressive' or 'modulates receptor-mediated effects,' and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings...
February 21, 2018: Carcinogenesis
William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yubraj Acharya
This article evaluates a community-based effort aimed at reducing neonatal mortality. I use nationally representative data from Nepal, where 22 children per 1000 die within the first month of their birth, and evaluate the impact of Community-Based Neonatal Care Package. The identification is based on a before-and-after comparison of outcomes in program districts relative to those in non-program districts. I find that the program was successful in encouraging cleaner deliveries for births that took place at home and in increasing prenatal visits to the health center by pregnant women significantly...
March 19, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Ling Han, Ruixiang Zheng, Michele R Richards, Ming Tan, Elena N Kitova, Xi Jiang, John S Klassen
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis. Many HuNoVs recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as cellular receptors or attachment factors for infection. It was recently proposed that HuNoV recognition of HBGAs involves a cooperative, multistep binding mechanism that exploits both known and, previously, unknown glycan binding sites. In this study, binding measurements, implemented using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), were performed on homodimers of the protruding domain (P dimers) of the capsid protein of three HuNoV strains [Saga (GII...
March 19, 2018: Glycobiology
Patrick Schöffski, Annelies Requilé, Tom van Cann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Brener Santos Silva, Hiago Victor Coelho, Ricardo Bezerra Cavalcante, Valéria Conceição de Oliveira, Eliete Albano de Azevedo Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To carry out the National Immunization Program Information System (SIPNI) accessability assessment (EA), considering the description of the intervention, the elaboration of the theoretical-logical model and the identification of the evaluative questions. METHOD: A single case study with a qualitative approach, based on the system of seven elements proposed by Thurston and Ramaliu (2005). The SIPNI and the context of analysis, the vaccination rooms, were defined as the case...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Philip A Powell, Olivia Wills, Gemma Reynolds, Kaisa Puustinen-Hopper, Jennifer Roberts
In this paper we explored the effects of exposure to images of the suffering and vulnerability of others on altruistic, trust-based, and reciprocated incentivized economic decisions, accounting for differences in participants' dispositional empathy and reported in-group trust for their recipient(s). This was done using a pictorial priming task, framed as a memory test, and a triadic economic game design. Using the largest experimental sample to date to explore this issue, our integrated analysis of two online experiments (total N = 519), found statistically consistent evidence that exposure to images of suffering and vulnerability (vs...
2018: PloS One
Román Rodríguez-Aguilar
The maternal mortality situation is analyzed in México as an indicator that reflects the social development level of the country and was one of the millennial development objectives. The effect of a maternal death in the related social group has multiplier effects, since it involves family dislocation, economic impact and disruption of the orphans' normal social development. Two perspectives that causes of maternal mortality were analyzed, on one hand, their relationship with social determinants and on the other, factors directly related to the health system...
2018: PloS One
Kanchan Thapa, Sulochana Manandhar, Manisha Bista, Jivan Shakya, Govind Sah, Maheshwar Dhakal, Netra Sharma, Bronwyn Llewellyn, Claudia Wultsch, Lisette P Waits, Marcella J Kelly, Jean-Marc Hero, Jane Hughes, Dibesh Karmacharya
With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project, we studied landscape change, genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow of tigers across the Terai Arc Landscape by conducting Nepal's first comprehensive and systematic scat-based, non-invasive genetic survey...
2018: PloS One
Gehendra Mahara, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts...
March 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Fengyuan Wang, Zhicai Zuo, Kejie Chen, Caixia Gao, Zhuangzhi Yang, Song Zhao, Jianzhen Li, Hetao Song, Xi Peng, Jing Fang, Hengmin Cui, Ping Ouyang, Yi Zhou, Gang Shu, Bo Jing
To explore AFB₁-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB₁) and an AFB₁ group (0.6 mg/kg AFB₁). The crypt depth of the small intestine in the AFB₁ group was significantly increased in comparison to the control chickens, while the villus height and area were evidently decreased, as well as the villus:crypt ratio and epithelial thickness...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Carolina Batis, Simón Barquera
Diet and inflammation are both associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we aimed to assess the relation between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the presence of T2DM in Mexican adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey administered in Mexico City (DMS-MC). The study involved 1174 subjects (48.5% men) between 20-69 years of age. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was employed to evaluate dietary intake and to compute DII. The DII is based on scientific evidence about the association between dietary compounds and six established inflammatory biomarkers...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
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