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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166639/apobec3a-expression-in-penile-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Martina Heller, Elena-Sophie Prigge, Adam Kaczorowski, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Markus Hohenfellner, Stefan Duensing
BACKGROUND: APOBECs (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptides) are cytidine deaminases that have been implicated in the host defense against viruses by blocking viral replication. They have also been shown to play a role in genome hypermutation in several human cancers. An APOBEC3 hypermutation signature has been discovered in cervical cancer, which is intimately associated with infection by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). At the same time, HPV genomes themselves are subject to DNA editing by APOBECs...
November 23, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165790/physician-interpretation-of-genomic-test-results-and-treatment-selection
#2
Lauren L Brusco, Chetna Wathoo, Kenna R Mills Shaw, Vijaykumar R Holla, Ann M Bailey, Amber M Johnson, Yekaterina B Khotskaya, Beate C Litzenburger, Nora S Sanchez, Jia Zeng, Elmer V Bernstam, Cathy Eng, Bryan K Kee, Rodabe N Amaria, Mark J Routbort, Gordon B Mills, John Mendelsohn, Funda Meric-Bernstam
BACKGROUND: Genomic testing is increasingly performed in oncology, but concerns remain regarding the clinician's ability to interpret results. In the current study, the authors sought to determine the agreement between physicians and genomic annotators from the Precision Oncology Decision Support (PODS) team at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston regarding actionability and the clinical use of test results. METHODS: On a prospective protocol, patients underwent clinical genomic testing for hotspot mutations in 46 or 50 genes...
November 22, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165708/separase-prevents-genomic-instability-by-controlling-replication-fork-speed
#3
Francesco Cucco, Elisa Palumbo, Serena Camerini, Barbara D'Alessio, Valentina Quarantotti, Maria Luisa Casella, Ilaria Maria Rizzo, Dubravka Cukrov, Domenico Delia, Antonella Russo, Marco Crescenzi, Antonio Musio
Proper chromosome segregation is crucial for preserving genomic integrity, and errors in this process cause chromosome mis-segregation, which may contribute to cancer development. Sister chromatid separation is triggered by Separase, an evolutionary conserved protease that cleaves the cohesin complex, allowing the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion. Here we provide evidence that Separase participates in genomic stability maintenance by controlling replication fork speed. We found that Separase interacted with the replication licensing factors MCM2-7, and genome-wide data showed that Separase co-localized with MCM complex and cohesin...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165358/understanding-the-molecular-genetics-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Pellegrini, Maria Giovanna Maturo, Lucia Di Nardo, Valeria Ciciarelli, Carlota Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Maria Concetta Fargnoli
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO, the TP53 tumor suppressor, and members of the RAS proto-oncogene family. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway represents the molecular driver in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis, with the majority of BCCs carrying somatic point mutations, mainly ultraviolet (UV)-induced, and/or copy-loss of heterozygosis in the PTCH1 gene...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165356/fast-detection-of-a-brca2-large-genomic-duplication-by-next-generation-sequencing-as-a-single-procedure-a-case-report
#5
Marcella Nunziato, Flavio Starnone, Barbara Lombardo, Matilde Pensabene, Caterina Condello, Francesco Verdesca, Chiara Carlomagno, Sabino De Placido, Lucio Pastore, Francesco Salvatore, Valeria D'Argenio
The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method as a strategy to detect all possible BRCA mutations, including large genomic rearrangements. Genomic DNA was obtained from a peripheral blood sample provided by a patient from Southern Italy with early onset breast cancer and a family history of diverse cancers. BRCA molecular analysis was performed by NGS, and sequence data were analyzed using two software packages. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array was used as confirmatory method...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164963/amorphous-silica-nanoparticles-induce-malignant-transformation-and-tumorigenesis-of-human-lung-epithelial-cells-via-p53-signaling
#6
Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Man Yang, Yang Li, Shuxiang Cui, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Rapid development and deployment of engineered nanomaterials, such as amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in various commercial and biomedical applications have raised concerns about their potential adverse health effects, especially their chronic effects which have not been well addressed. In this study, human lung epithelial cells, BEAS-2B were continuously exposed to amorphous SiNPs, 5 μg/mL for 40 passages. We demonstrated here that prolonged exposure of BEAS-2B cells to amorphous SiNPs induced malignant transformation as indicated by enhanced cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and increased cell migration...
November 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164269/-postoperative-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-still-no-genomic-risk-profiling-for-clinical-routine
#7
Tobias Finazzi, Frank Zimmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164058/delineation-of-the-hpv11e6-and-hpv18e6-pathways-in-initiating-cellular-transformation
#8
Lamech M Mwapagha, Nicki Tiffin, M Iqbal Parker
Although high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major risk factors for cervical cancer they have been associated with several other cancers, such as head and neck and oral cancers. Since integration of low-risk HPV11 DNA has been demonstrated in esophageal tumor genomes, this study compared the effects of low-risk HPV11E6 and high-risk HPV18E6 on cellular gene expression. The HPV11E6 and HPV18E6 genes were cloned into an adenoviral vector and expressed in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) in order to investigate early events and to eliminate possible artifacts introduced by selective survival of fast growing cells in stable transfection experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164056/prostate-cancer-imaging-and-biomarkers-guiding-safe-selection-of-active-surveillance
#9
REVIEW
Zachary A Glaser, Jennifer B Gordetsky, Kristin K Porter, Sooryanarayana Varambally, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Background: Active surveillance (AS) is a widely adopted strategy to monitor men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Current AS inclusion criteria may misclassify as many as one in four patients. The advent of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and novel PCa biomarkers may offer improved risk stratification. We performed a review of recently published literature to characterize emerging evidence in support of these novel modalities. Methods: An English literature search was conducted on PubMed for available original investigations on localized PCa, AS, imaging, and biomarkers published within the past 3 years...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163851/checkpoint-inhibitors-in-endometrial-cancer-preclinical-rationale-and-clinical-activity
#10
REVIEW
Gloria Mittica, Eleonora Ghisoni, Gaia Giannone, Massimo Aglietta, Sofia Genta, Giorgio Valabrega
Context: Treatment of advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer (EC) is still an unmet need for oncologists and gynecologic oncologists. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) recently provided a new genomic classification, dividing EC in four subgroups. Two types of EC, the polymerase epsilon (POLE)-ultra-mutated and the microsatellite instability-hyper-mutated (MSI-H), are characterized by a high mutation rate providing the rationale for a potential activity of checkpoint inhibitors...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163805/thymine-dna-glycosylase-tdg-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-intestinal-tumors-with-reduced-apc-expression
#11
Jinfei Xu, Salvatore Cortellino, Rossella Tricarico, Wen-Chi Chang, Gabrielle Scher, Karthik Devarajan, Michael Slifker, Robert Moore, Maria Rosaria Bassi, Elena Caretti, Margie Clapper, Harry Cooper, Alfonso Bellacosa
Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a base excision repair enzyme that acts as a thymine and uracil DNA N-glycosylase on G:T and G:U mismatches, thus protecting CpG sites in the genome from mutagenesis by deamination. In addition, TDG has an epigenomic function by removing the novel cytosine derivatives 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated by Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes during active DNA demethylation. We and others previously reported that TDG is essential for mammalian development...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163793/rapid-ultra-low-coverage-copy-number-profiling-of-cell-free-dna-as-a-precision-oncology-screening-strategy
#12
Daniel H Hovelson, Chia-Jen Liu, Yugang Wang, Qing Kang, James Henderson, Amy Gursky, Scott Brockman, Nithya Ramnath, John C Krauss, Moshe Talpaz, Malathi Kandarpa, Rashmi Chugh, Missy Tuck, Kirk Herman, Catherine S Grasso, Michael J Quist, Felix Y Feng, Christine Haakenson, John Langmore, Emmanuel Kamberov, Tim Tesmer, Hatim Husain, Robert J Lonigro, Dan Robinson, David C Smith, Ajjai S Alva, Maha H Hussain, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Muneesh Tewari, Ryan E Mills, Todd M Morgan, Scott A Tomlins
Current cell-free DNA (cfDNA) next generation sequencing (NGS) precision oncology workflows are typically limited to targeted and/or disease-specific applications. In advanced cancer, disease burden and cfDNA tumor content are often elevated, yielding unique precision oncology opportunities. We sought to demonstrate the utility of a pan-cancer, rapid, inexpensive, whole genome NGS of cfDNA approach (PRINCe) as a precision oncology screening strategy via ultra-low coverage (~0.01x) tumor content determination through genome-wide copy number alteration (CNA) profiling...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163694/exploration-of-the-mechanism-of-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-using-microarray-analysis
#13
Shuo Chen, Yan Wang, Lin Zhang, Yinan Su, Mingqing Zhang, Juan Wang, Xipeng Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC) using microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the GSE2509 and GSE56350 datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified using the limma software package. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used to perform Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163687/stromal-regulation-of-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-by-mevalonate-pathway-enzymes-hmgcs1-and-hmgcr
#14
Shingo Ashida, Chiaki Kawada, Keiji Inoue
It has been suggested that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumor progression, acquisition of androgen independence, and distant metastasis in prostate cancer (PC). However, little is known about the transcriptional basis of cellular interactions in the human PC microenvironment. To clarify the mechanism of PC progression and metastasis, we investigated the interaction of PC, epithelial, and stromal cells using genome-wide gene expression profiling. We hypothesized that PC cells could induce stromal cells to differentiate into so-called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which might contribute to cancer invasion and metastasis...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163445/in-silico-analysis-of-putrefaction-pathways-in-bacteria-and-its-implication-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Harrisham Kaur, Chandrani Das, Sharmila S Mande
Fermentation of undigested proteins in human gastrointestinal tract (gut) by the resident microbiota, a process called bacterial putrefaction, can sometimes disrupt the gut homeostasis. In this process, essential amino acids (e.g., histidine, tryptophan, etc.) that are required by the host may be utilized by the gut microbes. In addition, some of the products of putrefaction, like ammonia, putrescine, cresol, indole, phenol, etc., have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have investigated bacterial putrefaction pathways that are known to be associated with such metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163371/cofactors-as-metabolic-sensors-driving-cell-adaptation-in-physiology-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
Chromatin architectures and epigenetic fingerprint regulation are fundamental for genetically determined biological processes. Chemical modifications of the chromatin template sensitize the genome to intracellular metabolism changes to set up diverse functional adaptive states. Accumulated evidence suggests that the action of epigenetic modifiers is sensitive to changes in dietary components and cellular metabolism intermediates, linking nutrition and energy metabolism to gene expression plasticity. Histone posttranslational modifications create a code that acts as a metabolic sensor, translating changes in metabolism into stable gene expression patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163048/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtype-alpha-9-mediates-triple-negative-breast-cancers-based-on-a-spontaneous-pulmonary-metastasis-mouse-model
#17
Li-Chi Huang, Ching-Ling Lin, Jia-Zheng Qiu, Chun-Yu Lin, Kai-Wen Hsu, Ka-Wai Tam, Jung-Yu Lee, Jinn-Moon Yang, Chia-Hwa Lee
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype is associated with poor prognosis and a high risk of recurrence-related death in women. Despite the aggressiveness of TNBCs, targeted TNBC therapy is not yet available in the clinic. To overcome this challenge, we generated highly metastatic TNBC cells (LM) derived from metastasized lung cells via a serial spontaneous pulmonary metastasis animal model to identify targetable molecules for attenuating the progression of TNBC metastasis. Gene analysis of primary tumor (P), first-round (1LM) and second-round (2LM) metastasized lung cells revealed that mesenchymal-related genes were significantly expressed in LM cells, especially in 2LM cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162923/overexpression-of-suppressive-micrornas-mir-30a-and-mir-200c-are-associated-with-improved-survival-of-breast-cancer-patients
#18
Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Li Yan, Qianya Qi, Xuan Peng, Emmanuel M Gabriel, Jessica Young, Song Liu, Kazuaki Takabe
Some microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to suppress breast cancer. However, whether the expressions of these tumor suppressive miRNAs translate to patient survival were not investigated in large cohort. Nine miRNAs (miR-30a, miR-30c, miR-31, miR-126, miR-140, miR-146b, miR-200c, miR-206, and miR-335) known to be tumor suppressive miRNAs in breast cancer were investigated in Genomic Data Common data portal miRNA-Seq dataset and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n = 1052). Of the 9 miRNAs, miR-30a, miR-30c, miR-126, miR-140, miR-206, and miR-335 were found to have significantly lower expression in breast cancer tissues compared to paired normal breast tissue...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162908/human-canonical-cd157-bst1-is-an-alternatively-spliced-isoform-masking-a-previously-unidentified-primate-specific-exon-included-in-a-novel-transcript
#19
Enza Ferrero, Nicola Lo Buono, Simona Morone, Rossella Parrotta, Cecilia Mancini, Alfredo Brusco, Alice Giacomino, Stefania Augeri, Antonio Rosal-Vela, Sonia García-Rodríguez, Mercedes Zubiaur, Jaime Sancho, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Ada Funaro
CD157/Bst1 is a dual-function receptor and β-NAD(+)-metabolizing ectoenzyme of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family. Expressed in human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes, CD157 interacts with extracellular matrix components and regulates leukocyte diapedesis via integrin-mediated signalling in inflammation. CD157 also regulates cell migration and is a marker of adverse prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer and pleural mesothelioma. One form of CD157 is known to date: the canonical sequence of 318 aa from a 9-exon transcript encoded by BST1 on human chromosome 4...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162839/hypoxia-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-ubiquitin-specific-protease-47-mediated-stabilization-of-snail-a-potential-role-of-sox9
#20
Bae-Jung Choi, Sin-Aye Park, Sung-Young Lee, Young Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
During the metastatic phase, cancer cells require the dissolution of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and a dramatic re-organization of the cytoskeleton through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), thereby acquiring migratory and invasive capabilities. In most tumors, EMT is accompanied by hypoxia. However, the intracellular signaling molecule that mediates hypoxia-induced EMT remained overlooked. By utilizing the microarray database system of the Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 47 (USP47), a deubiquitinating enzyme, as a potential mediator of hypoxia-induced EMT...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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