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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427156/the-effects-of-dleu1-gene-expression-in-burkitt-lymphoma-bl-potential-mechanism-of-chemoimmunotherapy-resistance-in-bl
#2
Sanghoon Lee, Wen Luo, Tishi Shah, Changhong Yin, Timmy O'Connell, Tae-Hoon Chung, Sherrie L Perkins, Rodney R Miles, Janet Ayello, Erin Morris, Lauren Harrison, Carmella van de Ven, Mitchell S Cairo
Following a multivariant analysis we demonstrated that children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and a 13q14.3 deletion have a significant decrease in event free survival (EFS) despite identical short intensive multi-agent chemotherapy. However, how this deletion in the 13q14.3 region is associated with a significant decrease in EFS in children and adolescents with BL is largely unknown. The gene Deleted in Lymphocytic Leukemia 1 (DLEU1) is located in the region of 13q14.3. Here, we report that DLEU1 expression is implicated in the regulation of BL programmed cell death, cell proliferation, and expression of apoptotic genes in transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)s-induced DLEU1 knockdown and DLEU1 overexpressing BL cell lines...
February 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425306/therapeutic-targeting-and-patient-selection-for-cancers-with-homologous-recombination-defects
#3
Francien Talens, Mathilde Jalving, Jourik A Gietema, Marcel A T M van Vugt
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are toxic DNA lesions that can be repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Mutations in HR genes elicit a predisposition to cancer; yet, they also result in increased sensitivity to certain DNA damaging agents and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. To optimally implement PARP inhibitor treatment, it is important that patients with HR-deficient tumors are adequately selected. Areas covered: Herein, the authors describe the HR pathway mechanistically and review the treatment of HR-deficient cancers, with a specific focus on PARP inhibition for BRCA1/2-mutated breast and ovarian cancer...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421278/an-efficient-method-to-enrich-for-knock-out-and-knock-in-cellular-clones-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#4
Francesca Niccheri, Riccardo Pecori, Silvestro G Conticello
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools for genome editing. Here we report a method to increase the frequency of Cas9-targeted cellular clones. Our method is based on a chimeric construct with a Blasticidin S Resistance gene (bsr) placed out-of-frame by a surrogate target sequence. End joining of the CRISPR/Cas9-induced double-strand break on the surrogate target can place the bsr in frame, thus providing temporary resistance to Blasticidin S: this is used to enrich for cells where Cas9 is active...
April 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418922/novel-impact-of-the-dnmt3a-r882h-mutation-on-gsh-metabolism-in-a-k562-cell-model-established-by-talens
#5
Li Yang, Ya'Nan Liu, Na Zhang, Xiao'Yi Ding, Wei Zhang, Ke'Feng Shen, Liang Huang, Jian'Feng Zhou, Sen Cui, Zun'Min Zhu, Zheng Hu, Min Xiao
DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) mutations occurred in 18%~23% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and were considered to be an adverse prognostic factor for adult de novo AML cases. However, the relevant molecular mechanism of the mutation in AML pathogenesis remains obscure. In this study, we established K562 and SKM1 cell model carrying the DNMT3A R882H mutation via transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, and discovered that mutated DNMT3A could promote the proliferative capability of malignant cell clones...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414200/combining-53bp1-with-brca1-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-the-sensitivity-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-inhibitors
#6
Zhong-Min Yang, Xue-Mei Liao, Yi Chen, Yan-Yan Shen, Xin-Ying Yang, Yi Su, Yi-Ming Sun, Ying-Lei Gao, Jian Ding, Ao Zhang, Jin-Xue He, Ze-Hong Miao
Over half of patients with BRCA1-deficient cancers do not respond to treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In this study, we report that a combination of 53BP1 and BRCA1 may serve as a biomarker of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Based on the mRNA levels of four homologous recombination repair (HR) genes and PARP inhibitor sensitivity, we selected BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells to conduct RNA interference. Reducing expression of 53BP1, but not the other three HR genes, was found to lower simmiparib sensitivity...
April 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412228/temperature-effect-on-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing
#7
Guanghai Xiang, Xingying Zhang, Chenrui An, Chen Cheng, Haoyi Wang
Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) are the most commonly used genome editing tools. Previous studies demonstrated that hypothermia treatment increased the mutation rates induced by ZFNs and TALENs in mammalian cells. Here, we characterize the effect of different culture temperatures on CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing and find that the genome editing efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 is significantly hampered by hypothermia treatment, unlike ZFN and TALEN...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411843/the-molecular-revolution-in-cutaneous-biology-emerging-landscape-in-genomic-dermatology-new-mechanistic-ideas-gene-editing-and-therapeutic-breakthroughs
#8
REVIEW
Matthias Titeux, Araksya Izmiryan, Alain Hovnanian
Stunning technological advances in genomics have led to spectacular breakthroughs in the understanding of the underlying defects, biological pathways and therapeutic targets of skin diseases leading to new therapeutic interventions. Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the identification of disease-causing genes and has a profound impact in deciphering gene and protein signatures in rare and frequent skin diseases. Gene addition strategies have shown efficacy in junctional EB and in recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB)...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398482/cerkl-gene-knockout-disturbs-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-and-causes-rod-cone-dystrophy-in-zebrafish
#9
Shanshan Yu, Chang Li, Lincoln Biswas, Xuebin Hu, Fei Liu, James Reilly, Xiliang Liu, Ying Liu, Yuwen Huang, Zhaojing Lu, Shanshan Han, Lei Wang, Jing Yu Liu, Tao Jiang, Xinhua Shu, Fulton Wong, Zhaohui Tang, Mugen Liu
In humans, CERKL mutations cause widespread retinal degeneration: early dysfunction and loss of rod and cone photoreceptors in the outer retina and, progressively, death of cells in the inner retina. Despite intensive efforts, the function of CERKL remains obscure and studies in animal models have failed to clarify the disease mechanism of CERKL mutations. To address this gap in knowledge, we have generated a stable CERKL knockout zebrafish model by TALEN technology and a 7bp deletion in CERKL cDNA that caused the premature termination of CERKL...
April 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394635/prevention-of-fungal-spoilage-in-food-products-using-natural-compounds-a-review
#10
Susana Ribes, Ana Fuentes, Pau Talens, Jose Manuel Barat
The kingdom Fungi is the most important group of microorganism contaminating food commodities, and chemical additives are commonly used in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage. However, the increasing consumer concern about synthetic additives has led to their substitution by natural compounds in foods. The current review provides an overview of using natural agents isolated from different sources (plants, animals and microorganisms) as promising antifungal compounds, including information about their mechanism of action and their use in foods to preserve and prolong shelf life...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388605/refining-strategies-to-translate-genome-editing-to-the-clinic
#11
REVIEW
Tatjana I Cornu, Claudio Mussolino, Toni Cathomen
Recent progress in developing programmable nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas nucleases, have paved the way for gene editing to enter clinical practice. This translation is a result of combining high nuclease activity with high specificity and successfully applying this technology in various preclinical disease models, including infectious disease, primary immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies, hemophilia and muscular dystrophy...
April 3, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387970/mutation-of-the-xist-gene-up-regulates-expression-of-x-linked-genes-but-decreases-the-developmental-rates-of-cloned-male-porcine-embryos
#12
Yang Yang, Dan Wu, Dewu Liu, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Xiaoyan He, Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zhenfang Wu, Zicong Li
XIST is an X-linked, non-coding gene responsible for the cis induction of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Knockout of the XIST allele on an active X chromosome abolishes erroneous XCI and enhances the in vivo development of cloned mouse embryos by more than tenfold. This study aimed to investigate if a similar manipulation would improve cloning efficiency in pigs. A male, porcine kidney cell line containing an EGFP insert in exon 1 of the XIST gene, resulting in a knockout allele (XIST-KO), was generated by homologous recombination using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386301/new-traits-in-crops-produced-by-genome-editing-techniques-based-on-deletions
#13
REVIEW
C C M van de Wiel, J G Schaart, L A P Lotz, M J M Smulders
One of the most promising New Plant Breeding Techniques is genome editing (also called gene editing) with the help of a programmable site-directed nuclease (SDN). In this review, we focus on SDN-1, which is the generation of small deletions or insertions (indels) at a precisely defined location in the genome with zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), TALENs, or CRISPR-Cas9. The programmable nuclease is used to induce a double-strand break in the DNA, while the repair is left to the plant cell itself, and mistakes are introduced, while the cell is repairing the double-strand break using the relatively error-prone NHEJ pathway...
2017: Plant Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378834/ablation-of-eys-in-zebrafish-causes-mislocalisation-of-outer-segment-proteins-f-actin-disruption-and-cone-rod-dystrophy
#14
Zhaojing Lu, Xuebin Hu, Fei Liu, Dinesh C Soares, Xiliang Liu, Shanshan Yu, Meng Gao, Shanshan Han, Yayun Qin, Chang Li, Tao Jiang, Daji Luo, An-Yuan Guo, Zhaohui Tang, Mugen Liu
Mutations in EYS are associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) and autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (arCRD) however, the function of EYS and the molecular mechanisms of how these mutations cause retinal degeneration are still unclear. Because EYS is absent in mouse and rat, and the structure of the retina differs substantially between humans and Drosophila, we utilised zebrafish as a model organism to study the function of EYS in the retina. We constructed an EYS-knockout zebrafish-line by TALEN technology which showed visual impairment at an early age, while the histological and immunofluorescence assays indicated the presence of progressive retinal degeneration with a cone predominately affected pattern...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370358/disparate-genes-come-together-spatial-and-genetic-screens-point-to-disruptions-in-vesicle-trafficking-and-mrna-metabolism-in-synucleinopathies
#15
Rachel Underwood, Talene A Yacoubian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362803/pcr-artifact-in-testing-for-homologous-recombination-in-genomic-editing-in-zebrafish
#16
Minho Won, Igor B Dawid
We report a PCR-induced artifact in testing for homologous recombination in zebrafish. We attempted to replace the lnx2a gene with a donor cassette, mediated by a TALEN induced double stranded cut. The donor construct was flanked with homology arms of about 1 kb at the 5' and 3' ends. Injected embryos (G0) were raised and outcrossed to wild type fish. A fraction of the progeny appeared to have undergone the desired homologous recombination, as tested by PCR using primer pairs extending from genomic DNA outside the homology region to a site within the donor cassette...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362093/selective-and-robust-stabilization-of-triplex-dna-structures-using-cationic-comb-type-copolymers
#17
Asako Yamayoshi, Daisuke Miyoshi, Yu-Ki Zouzumi, Yohei Matsuyama, Jumpei Ariyoshi, Naohiko Shimada, Akira Murakami, Takehiko Wada, Atsushi Maruyama
DNA sequences capable of forming triplexes induce DNA double-strand breaks that have attracted attention in genome editing technologies (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9 system, TALEN, and ZFN). Therefore, novel functional tools that stabilize triplex DNA structures must be further investigated to spark renewed interest. In this study, we investigated the unique character of cationic comb-type copolymers for the selective stabilization of triplex DNA. The melting temperature (Tm) of triplex DNA increased from 24.5 to 73.0 °C (ΔTm = 48...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360929/talen-mediated-genome-editing-approaches-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha-yield-high-efficiencies-for-targeted-mutagenesis
#18
Sarah Kopischke, Esther Schüßler, Felix Althoff, Sabine Zachgo
BACKGROUND: The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha occupies a crucial position in land plant evolution and provides the opportunity to investigate adaptations to a terrestrial plant life style. Marchantia reverse genetic analyses have thus far been conducted by employing a homologous recombination approach, which yields an efficiency of around 3%. Availability of the characterized and suitable endogenous MpEF1α promoter prompted us to establish the TALEN gene targeting technique for Marchantia...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356600/double-talen-edited-t-cells-kick-b-all-into-touch
#19
EDITORIAL
P T Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353269/genome-editing-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Jared Carlson-Stevermer, Krishanu Saha
Genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) enables the generation of reporter lines and knockout cell lines. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9 technology have recently increased the efficiency of proper gene editing by creating double strand breaks (DSB) at defined sequences in the human genome. These systems typically use plasmids to transiently transcribe nucleases within the cell. Here, we describe the process for preparing hPSCs for transient expression of nucleases via electroporation and subsequent analysis to create genetically modified stem cell lines...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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