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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530894/preventing-herpes-zoster-through-vaccination-new-developments
#1
REVIEW
Phuc Le, Camille Sabella, Michael B Rothberg
Herpes zoster (HZ) affects 1 million Americans every year. The disease burden is higher in immunocompromised patients. The live-attenuated HZ vaccine is effective in preventing HZ and postherpetic neuralgia and has been recommended for immunocompetent adults age 60 and older. However, because protection wanes by 10 years, a booster may be necessary. In 2015, an adjuvanted subunit HZ vaccine was shown to reduce incidence by 97%, even in the elderly, but long-term data on vaccine protection are not available...
May 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528766/when-zoster-hits-close-to-home-impact-of-personal-zoster-awareness-on-zoster-vaccine-uptake-in-the-u-s
#2
Rafael Harpaz, Jessica Leung
U.S. zoster vaccine uptake has been sluggish. Most adults are aware of zoster but unaware of its distressing manifestations. We found that vaccine uptake is markedly increased immediately following occurrence of zoster in a spouse. Thus, personal zoster awareness can prompt vaccination. Our findings have implications in terms of both vaccine promotion and interpretations of vaccine performance.
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528469/multiple-sclerosis-treatment-with-fingolimod-profile-of-non-cardiologic-adverse-events
#3
REVIEW
Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Fingolimod was the first oral medication approved for management of multiple sclerosis and is currently used by tens of thousands patients worldwide. Fingolimod acts via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor, maintaining peripheral lymphocytes entrapped in the lymph nodes. In consequence, there is a reduction in the infiltration of aggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. The drug is safe and effective, and its first hours of use are associated with related to S1P receptors in the heart...
May 20, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525973/varicella-zoster-virus-seroprevalence-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-varicella-vaccine-era-germany
#4
Miriam Wiese-Posselt, Anette Siedler, Annette Mankertz, Andreas Sauerbrei, Hartmut Hengel, Ole Wichmann, Christina Poethko-Müller
BACKGROUND: In 2004, universal childhood varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany. We aimed to determine the age-specific prevalence of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG-antibodies among children in the pre-varicella vaccine era in Germany, to identify factors associated with VZV seropositivity, and to assess the suitability of a commercially available ELISA for VZV seroepidemiological studies by comparing it with an in-house fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test (FAMA) as the gold standard...
May 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523588/advances-in-the-development-of-janus-kinase-inhibitors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-future-prospects
#5
Mathurin Flamant, Josselin Rigaill, Stephane Paul, Xavier Roblin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by a dysregulation of the immune system, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. A better understanding of the mucosal immune response in IBD has led to the development of new drugs directed at inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte-trafficking molecules. Beyond tumor necrosis factor antagonists and anti-integrin molecules, which act by blocking the interaction between gut-specific lymphocytes and their receptor on vascular endothelium, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway represents a new target in IBD...
May 18, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516725/the-need-for-better-preventative-strategies-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-at-risk-of-herpes-zoster-virus
#6
William Bye, Miles Sparrow, Susie Connor, Jane Andrews, Katie Ellard, Watson Ng, Georgia Hume, Sally Antoniades, Alissa Walsh
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressed IBD patients have an increased risk of HZV infection. The existing live-attenuated HZV vaccine is contraindicated in some of these patients and can only be used with caution in others. AIMS: To describe characteristics of IBD patients suffering HZV to enable implementation of risk mitigation strategies for those at highest risk. METHODS: Gastroenterologists completed a proforma for IBD patients who experienced HZV infection: IBD phenotype, details of HZV infection, immunosuppression and any change to treatment upon diagnosis of HZV...
May 17, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514943/sex-differences-underlying-orofacial-varicella-zoster-associated-pain-in-rats
#7
Crystal Stinson, Mohong Deng, Michael B Yee, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Phillip R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster...
May 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514271/managing-herpes-zoster-in-older-adults-prescribing-considerations
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508307/duration-of-antiviral-prophylaxis-and-risk-of-herpes-zoster-among-patients-receiving-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplants-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Dongmu Zhang, Thomas Weiss, Yu Feng, Lynn Finelli
INTRODUCTION: There are no real-world data on antiviral prophylaxis (AP) duration and risk of herpes zoster (HZ) given AP duration in patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants (auto-HSCT). The objectives of this study are to describe the duration of AP and to compare incidence of HZ by AP duration in auto-HSCT patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational database (Marketscan(®)) study. This study included patients ≥18 years old who had auto-HSCT during 2009-2013, had chemotherapy within 60 days prior to auto-HSCT (latest chemotherapy date within the 60 days was the study enrollment date), and had continuous health plan enrollment for at least 365 days before and after the study enrollment date...
May 15, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502771/metabolic-phenotypes-of-response-to-vaccination-in-humans
#10
Shuzhao Li, Nicole L Sullivan, Nadine Rouphael, Tianwei Yu, Sophia Banton, Mohan S Maddur, Megan McCausland, Christopher Chiu, Jennifer Canniff, Sheri Dubey, Ken Liu, ViLinh Tran, Thomas Hagan, Sai Duraisingham, Andreas Wieland, Aneesh K Mehta, Jennifer A Whitaker, Shankar Subramaniam, Dean P Jones, Alessandro Sette, Kalpit Vora, Adriana Weinberg, Mark J Mulligan, Helder I Nakaya, Myron Levin, Rafi Ahmed, Bali Pulendran
Herpes zoster (shingles) causes significant morbidity in immune compromised hosts and older adults. Whereas a vaccine is available for prevention of shingles, its efficacy declines with age. To help to understand the mechanisms driving vaccinal responses, we constructed a multiscale, multifactorial response network (MMRN) of immunity in healthy young and older adults immunized with the live attenuated shingles vaccine Zostavax. Vaccination induces robust antigen-specific antibody, plasmablasts, and CD4(+) T cells yet limited CD8(+) T cell and antiviral responses...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501392/acute-retinal-necrosis-presenting-characteristics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-positive-patients
#11
Nicholas J Butler, Ahmadreza Moradi, Sherveen S Salek, Bryn M Burkholder, Theresa G Leung, James P Dunn, Jennifer E Thorne
PURPOSE: To identify determinants of adverse outcomes in acute retinal necrosis (ARN), presenting characteristics and incidence rates of vision loss and ocular complications in a cohort of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive eyes were analyzed. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: Forty-one eyes of 36 patients with clinically-diagnosed ARN, PCR-positive for herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus and evaluated between January 2002 and June 2013, were included...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501259/risk-of-stroke-transient-ischemic-attack-or-myocardial-infarction-with-herpes-zoster-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Yanting Zhang, Ganfeng Luo, Yuanwei Huang, Qiuyan Yu, Li Wang, Ke Li
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that herpes zoster (HZ) may increase the risk of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) or myocardial infarction (MI), but the results are inconsistent. We aim to explore the relationship between HZ and risk of stroke/TIA or MI and between herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and stroke. METHODS: We estimated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the meta-analysis. Cochran's Q test and Higgins I(2) statistic were used to check for heterogeneity...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500125/acute-urinary-retention-and-constipation-precipitated-by-herpes-zoster-infection
#13
Eoin MacCraith, Niall F Davis, Kilian Walsh
A 76-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of acute urinary retention (AUR) and severe constipation. His recent medical history included 4 days of treatment in the community for gluteal herpes zoster with famciclovir. A transurethral catheter was passed and the patient completed a full course of famciclovir with resolution of constipation. The patient's catheter was successfully removed 3 weeks after his presentation. We report on the clinical presentation and management of an unusual case of AUR and constipation caused by a zoster viral infection of the S2-S4 dermatome...
May 12, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498303/varicella-zoster-virus-associated-necrotizing-retinitis-after-chickenpox-in-a-10-year-old-female-a-case-report
#14
Yong Un Shin, Jihong Kim, Eun Hee Hong, Jieun Kim, Joo Hyun Sohn, Heeyoon Cho
A necrotizing retinitis in children is a rare but vision threatening ocular complication of chickenpox. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed chickenpox one month before presenting with panuveitis and necrotizing retinitis. After prompt antiviral treatment, her inflammatory signs were resolved. Early detection and treatment of varicellar zoster-associated necrotizing retinitis after chickenpox can achieve good visual outcome.
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495603/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-therapeutic-applications-of-clinacanthus-nutans-burm-f-lindau-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Long Chiau Ming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, a widely used medicinal plant, is extensively grown in tropical Asia and Southeast Asian countries. C. nutans, with its broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, has been traditionally used to treat cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, insect bites, and skin problems, consumed as a vegetable, mixed with fresh juices, in concoctions, and as a whole plant. The present review analyzes the advances in the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of C...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494237/microbial-vertical-transmission-during-human-pregnancy
#16
REVIEW
Nitin Arora, Yoel Sadovsky, Terence S Dermody, Carolyn B Coyne
Congenital infections with pathogens such as Zika virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpesviruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of microbial infections on the developing fetus, relatively little is known about how pathogens associated with congenital disease breach the placental barrier to transit vertically during human pregnancy. In this Review, we focus on transplacental transmission of pathogens during human gestation...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491889/infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-results-from-the-organ-transplant-infection-project-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Mindy G Schuster, Angela A Cleveland, Erik R Dubberke, Carol A Kauffman, Robin K Avery, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, Kaitlin Benedict, Kathleen Murphy, Peter G Pappas
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491814/varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-multifocal-vasculopathy-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-diagnostic-and-treatment-dilemma
#18
Stephen Osiro, Nadim Salomon
Cerebral vasculopathy due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is well-documented. We report a fatal case of VZV multifocal vasculopathy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with subacute changes in mental status and had multiple areas of hemorrhagic infarcts on brain imaging. However, the correct diagnosis was delayed by several confounding factors including the absence of zoster rash, normal cerebral angiography, persistently low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and negative initial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for VZV DNA in the CSF...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491316/pituitary-abscess-in-an-hiv-1-infected-patient
#19
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Anamaria Daniela Sarca, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
OBJECTIVES: Pituitary abscess is a rare occurrence among pituitary conditions, but one which carries life-threatening potential. An immunocompromised status is a risk factor for the development of a pituitary abscess; however, literature describes only one case among HIV-infected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present here a case of pituitary abscess in an HIV-1-positive patient, who demonstrated a shock status, disturbance of consciousness and generalized skin rash with laboratory findings of hypovolemia, acute inflammatory reaction and blood electrolyte abnormality...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491117/herpes-virus-seroepidemiology-in-the-adult-swedish-population
#20
Jan Olsson, Eloise Kok, Rolf Adolfsson, Hugo Lövheim, Fredrik Elgh
BACKGROUND: Herpes viruses establish a life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1), Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) in an adult Swedish population (35-95 years of age). METHODS: Presence of antibodies against the respective viruses in serum from individuals in the Betula study was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
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