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Cost-effectiveness analysis

J Stevanović, L A de Jong, B S Kappelhoff, E P Dvortsin, M Voorhaar, M J Postma
BACKGROUND: Dabigatran was proven to have similar effect on the prevention of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and a lower risk of bleeding compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (CE) of dabigatran for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE compared to VKAs in the Dutch setting. METHODS: Previously published Markov model was modified and updated to assess the CE of dabigatran and VKAs for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE from a societal perspective in the base-case analysis...
2016: PloS One
Imelda Ryona, Jack Henion
Despite many benefits including simple point-of-care sample collection, reduced costs, and simplified shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) techniques have faced adoption resistance such as the hematocrit (Hct) effects and the established preference for bioanalysis of plasma rather than whole blood. One way to potentially circumvent these challenges is to adopt the concept of a dried plasma spot (DPS) technique. One approach to accomplishing this is through an on-card red blood cell (RBC) filtration to generate plasma from whole blood without the need for centrifugation...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
P O'Mahoney, M Khazova, M Higlett, T Lister, S Ibbotson, E Eadie
BACKGROUND: Daylight PDT (dPDT) is an effective and nearly painless treatment for field-change actinic keratosis. Measuring the protoprophyrin-IX (PpIX)-weighted exposure dose can give an indication of when conditions are most viable for effective dPDT. It would be advantageous for practitioners if more detailed information of exposure dose and appropriate treatment conditions were available. Where sophisticated measurement equipment is unavailable, simpler and more cost-effective methods of dose measurement are desirable...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
X-R Luan, W-H Li, F-L Lou
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and evaluate the effects of humanized nursing combined with wet healing therapy to treat the stage II and III bedsores in hospitalized patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March 2013 to July 2014 we enrolled fifty patients with stage II and III bedsores. They were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 25 cases in each group. For the control group, we adopted a traditional method of treatment for pressure ulcer treatment, while the experimental group was treated with humanized nursing in combination with wet healing therapy...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Teryl K Nuckols, Emmett Keeler, Sally C Morton, Laura Anderson, Brian Doyle, Marika Booth, Roberta Shanman, Jonathan Grein, Paul Shekelle
Importance: Although quality improvement (QI) interventions can reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), their economic value is uncertain. Objective: To systematically review economic evaluations of QI interventions designed to prevent CLABSI and/or CRBSI in acute care hospitals. Evidence Review: A search of Ovid MEDLINE, Econlit, Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, Worldcat, prior systematic reviews (January 2004 to July 2016), and IDWeek conference abstracts (2013-2016), was conducted from 2013 to 2016...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Heather J Ruskin
High-throughput microarray technologies have long been a source of data for a wide range of biomedical investigations. Over the decades, variants have been developed and sophistication of measurements has improved, with generated data providing both valuable insight and considerable analytical challenge. The cost-effectiveness of microarrays, as well as their fundamental applicability, made them a first choice for much early genomic research and efforts to improve accessibility, quality and interpretation have continued unabated...
October 21, 2016: Microarrays
Dan Liu, Qisong Wang, Xin Liu, Ruixin Niu, Yan Zhang, Jinwei Sun
Accurately measuring the oil content and salt content of crude oil is very important for both estimating oil reserves and predicting the lifetime of an oil well. There are some problems with the current methods such as high cost, low precision, and difficulties in operation. To solve these problems, we present a multifunctional sensor, which applies, respectively, conductivity method and ultrasound method to measure the contents of oil, water, and salt. Based on cross sensitivity theory, these two transducers are ideally integrated for simplifying the structure...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Christopher N Savory, Alex M Ganose, Will Travis, Ria S Atri, Robert G Palgrave, David O Scanlon
As the worldwide demand for energy increases, low-cost solar cells are being looked to as a solution for the future. To attain this, non-toxic earth-abundant materials are crucial, however cell efficiencies for current materials are limited in many cases. In this article, we examine the two silver copper sulfides AgCuS and Ag3CuS2 as possible solar absorbers using hybrid density functional theory, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, XPS and Hall effect measurements. We show that both compounds demonstrate promising electronic structures and band gaps for high theoretical efficiency solar cells, based on Shockley-Queisser limits...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
C Gustavo De Moraes, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Leonard A Levin
Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IOP-lowering therapies, it is expected that effects on IOP will translate into benefits in long-term patient-reported outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Angie L Cradock, Jessica L Barrett, Erica L Kenney, Catherine M Giles, Zachary J Ward, Michael W Long, Stephen C Resch, Andrea A Pipito, Emily R Wei, Steven L Gortmaker
Participation in recommended levels of physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and reduced chronic disease risk. To inform investment in prevention initiatives, we simulate the national implementation, impact on physical activity and childhood obesity and associated cost-effectiveness (versus the status quo) of six recommended strategies that can be applied throughout childhood to increase physical activity in US school, afterschool and childcare settings. In 2016, the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) systematic review process identified six interventions for study...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Cheng Liu, Yakun Sun, Dongying Wang, Zhehao Sun, Ming Chen, Zhi Zhou, Wei Chen
Biological activated carbon (BAC) filter has been widely used as an effective water treatment but regenerations of BAC are costly. Ultrasound has been successfully applied for regeneration of activated carbon but has been less frequently applied to the regenerate the BAC. In this study, bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the regeneration performance and mechanism of BAC with low-frequency ultrasound. Adsorption indices, microbiological parameters, pore structure and removal efficiencies were further investigated...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Alexander Konnopka, Hans-Helmut König, Claudia Kaufmann, Nina Egger, Beate Wild, Joachim Szecsenyi, Wolfgang Herzog, Dieter Schellberg, Rainer Schaefert
BACKGROUND: Collaborative group intervention (CGI) in patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been shown to improve mental quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To analyse incremental cost-utility of CGI compared to enhanced medical care in patients with FSS. METHODS: An economic evaluation alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial was performed. 35 general practitioners (GPs) recruited 300 FSS patients. Patients in the CGI arm were offered 10 group sessions within 3months and 2 booster sessions 6 and 12months after baseline...
November 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Alexander I Agoulnik, Irina U Agoulnik, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan
Relaxin is a small heterodimeric peptide hormone of the insulin/relaxin superfamily produced mainly in female and male reproductive organs. It has potent antifibrotic, vasodilatory, and angiogenic effects and regulates the normal function of various physiological systems. Preclinical studies and recent clinical trials have shown the promise of recombinant relaxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases. However, there are universal drawbacks of peptide-based pharmacology which apply to relaxin: a short half-life in vivo requires its continuous delivery, there are high costs of production, storage and treatment, as well as the possibility of immune response...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Monica A Schmidt, Ken Pendarvis
Oilseed crops are global commodities for their oil and protein seed content. We have engineered the oilseed Camelina sativa to exhibit increased protein content with a slight decrease in oil content. The introduction of a phytoene synthase gene with an RNAi cassette directed to suppress the storage protein 2S albumin resulted in seeds with an 11-24 % elevation in overall protein. The phytoene synthase cassette alone produced enhanced β-carotene content of an average 275 ± 6.10 μg/g dry seed and an overall altered seed composition of 11 % less protein and comparable nontransgenic amounts of both oil and carbohydrates...
October 22, 2016: Transgenic Research
Oscar Heredia Díaz, José Luis Aldaba Meza, Baltazar M Baltazar, Germán Bojórquez Bojórquez, Luciano Castro Espinoza, José Luis Corrales Madrid, Juan Manuel de la Fuente Martínez, Héctor Abel Durán Pompa, José Alonso Escobedo, Armando Espinoza Banda, José Antonio Garzón Tiznado, Juvencio González García, José Luis Guzmán Rodríguez, Jesús Ignacio Madueño Martínez, José Luis Martínez Carrillo, Chen Meng, Francisco Javier Quiñones Pando, Enrique Rosales Robles, Ignacio Ruiz Hernández, José Elías Treviño Ramírez, Hugo Raúl Uribe Montes, Francisco Zavala García
Environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops is a process to evaluate whether the biotechnology trait(s) in a GM crop may result in increased pest potential or harm to the environment. In this analysis, two GM insect-resistant (IR) herbicide-tolerant maize hybrids (MON-89Ø34-3 × MON-88Ø17-3 and MON-89Ø34-3 × MON-ØØ6Ø3-6) and one herbicide-tolerant GM hybrid (MON-ØØ6Ø3-6) were compared with conventional maize hybrids of similar genetic backgrounds. Two sets of studies, Experimental Phase and Pilot Phase, were conducted across five ecological regions (ecoregions) in Mexico during 2009-2013, and data were subject to meta-analysis...
October 22, 2016: Transgenic Research
Sun-Kyeong Park, Seung-Hoo Park, Min-Young Lee, Ji-Hyun Park, Jae-Hong Jeong, Eui-Kyung Lee
PURPOSE: In south Korea, the price of biologics has been decreasing owing to patent expiration and the availability of biosimilars. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a treatment strategy initiated with etanercept (ETN) compared with leflunomide (LFN) after a 30% reduction in the medication cost of ETN in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR). METHODS: A cohort-based Markov model was designed to evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of treatment sequence initiated with ETN (A) compared with 2 sequences initiated with LFN: LFN-ETN sequence (B) and LFN sequence (C)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Inmaculada Hernandez, Kenneth J Smith, Yuting Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The comparative cost-effectiveness of all oral anticoagulants approved up to date has not been evaluated from the US perspective. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of edoxaban 60mg, apixaban 5mg, dabigatran 150mg, dabigatran 110mg, rivaroxaban 20mg and warfarin in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk of bleeding (defined as HAS-BLED score≥3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We constructed a Markov state-transition model to evaluate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) with each of the six treatments from the perspective of US third-party payers...
October 15, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Ronan J Kelly, Thomas J Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Angela Dawson, Deborah Bateson, Jane Estoesta, Elizabeth Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Improving access to safe abortion is an essential strategy in the provision of universal access to reproductive health care. Australians are largely supportive of the provision of abortion and its decriminalization. However, the lack of data and the complex legal and service delivery situation impacts upon access for women seeking an early termination of pregnancy. There are no systematic reviews from a health services perspective to help direct health planners and policy makers to improve access comprehensive medical and early surgical abortion in high income countries...
October 22, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Trishal Boodhna, David P Crabb
BACKGROUND: Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) is an age-related eye disease causing irreversible loss of visual field (VF). Health service delivery for COAG is challenging given the large number of diagnosed patients requiring lifelong periodic monitoring by hospital eye services. Yet frequent examination better determines disease worsening and speed of VF loss under treatment. We examine the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency of VF examinations during follow-up using a health economic model...
October 22, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
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